Binondo

Last updated

Binondo
District of Manila
Other transcription(s)
   Chinese 岷倫洛
Pic geo photos - ph=mm=manila=binondo=chinatown - aerial shot from riverview mansion -philippines--2015-0624--ls-.JPG
Binondo skyline
Nickname(s): 
Ph fil manila binondo.png
Location within Manila
Country Philippines
Region National Capital Region
City Manila
Congressional District 3rd District of Manila
Barangays 10
Area
  Total0.66 km2 (0.26 sq mi)
Population
 (2010 [1] )
  Total12,985
  Density20,000/km2 (50,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+08:00 (Philippine Standard Time)
Zip codes
1006
Area codes 2
Binondo
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese

Binondo (Chinese :岷倫洛; pinyin :Mínlúnluò; Pe̍h-ōe-jī :Bîn-lûn-lo̍h) is a district in Manila and is referred to as the city's Chinatown. [2] Its influence extends beyond to the places of Quiapo, Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Tondo. It is the oldest Chinatown in the world, established in 1594 [3] [4] [5] [6] by the Spaniards as a settlement near Intramuros but across the Pasig River for Catholic Chinese, it was positioned so that colonial rulers could keep a close eye on their migrant subjects. [7] It was already a hub of Chinese commerce even before the Spanish colonial period. Binondo is the center of commerce and trade of Manila, where all types of business run by Filipino-Chinese thrive.

Contents

Noted residents include St. Lorenzo Ruiz, the Filipino protomartyr, and Venerable Mother Ignacia del Espiritu Santo, founder of the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary.

Etymology

Numerous theories on the origin of the name "Binondo", and that of "Tondo", its neighboring district, have been put forward. Philippine National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that the names might have been derived from the archaic spelling of the Tagalog term "binondoc" (modern orthography: binundók), or mountainous, referring to Binondo's originally hilly terrain. [8] French linguist Jean-Paul Potet, however, has suggested that the river mangrove (Aegiceras corniculatum), which at the time was called "tundok" ("tinduk-tindukan" today), is the most likely origin of the term, with the 'Bi-" prefix in "Binondo" indicating Binondo's location relative to Tondo. [9]

History

The Escolta, the 'Broadway of Manila' (circa 1899) The Escolta - The Broadway of Manila (1899).jpg
The Escolta, the 'Broadway of Manila' (circa 1899)
Bridge of Binondoc in Manila, early 19th century. Original caption: Pont de Binondoc a Manille. From Aventures d'un Gentilhomme Breton aux iles Philippines (1855) by Paul de la Gironiere. Bridge of Binondoc in Manila, early 1800s.jpg
Bridge of Binondoc in Manila, early 19th century. Original caption: Pont de Binondoc à Manille. From Aventures d'un Gentilhomme Breton aux iles Philippines (1855) by Paul de la Gironière.
Calle Rosario (Modern-day Q. Paredes St.), 1915. Calle Rosario, Manila, Philippines, 1915.png
Calle Rosario (Modern-day Q. Paredes St.), 1915.

Founded in 1594, Binondo was created by Spanish Governor Luis Pérez Dasmariñas as a permanent settlement for Chinese immigrants (the Spanish called the Chinese sangleys ) who converted to Catholicism. It was across the river from the walled city of Intramuros, where the Spaniards resided. Originally it was intended to replace the Parian near Intramuros, where the Chinese were first confined. The Spanish gave a land grant for Binondo to a group of Chinese merchants and artisans in perpetuity, tax-free and with limited self-governing privileges.

The Spanish Dominican fathers made Binondo their parish and succeeded in converting many of the residents to Catholicism. Binondo soon became the place where Chinese immigrants converted to Catholicism, intermarried with indigenous Filipino women and had children, who became the Chinese mestizo community. Over the years, the Chinese mestizo population of Binondo grew rapidly. This was caused mainly because the lack of Chinese immigrant females and the Spanish officials' policy of expelling or killing (in conflicts) Chinese immigrants who refused to convert.

In 1603 a Chinese revolt took place led by Juan Suntay, a wealthy Catholic Chinese. It was put down by joint Spanish and Filipino forces led by Luis Pérez Dasmariñas. In the aftermath most of the 20,000 Chinese that composed the colony were killed. The revolt took place right after a visit to Manila by three official Chinese representatives who disclosed they were searching for "a mountain of gold". This strange claim prompted the Spanish to conclude that there was an imminent invasion from China in the making. At the time the local Chinese outnumbered the Spaniards by twenty to one, and Spanish authorities feared that they would join the invading forces. [10] The Chinese afterward played down those events in an attempt to preserve their commercial interests. In 1605 a Fukien official issued a letter claiming that the Chinese who had participated in the revolt were unworthy of China's protection, describing them as "deserters of the tombs of their ancestors". [11]

During the brief British occupation of Manila, between 1762 and 1764, Binondo was damaged during the capture of the city. The new governor of Manila, Dawsonne Drake, formed a war council which he termed the "Chottry Court". Drake imprisoned several Manilans on charges known "only known to himself", according Captain Thomas Backhouse, who denounced Drake's court as a sham. [12] Binondo became the main center for business and finance in Manila for the ethnic Chinese, Chinese mestizos and Spanish Filipinos. During the Spanish colonial period, many esteros (canals) were constructed in the Binondo area, from where they entered the Pasig River. Among the many who married at the historic Binondo Church was Andres Bonifacio in 1895, who became a hero of the Philippine Revolution.

Before World War II, Binondo was the centre of a banking and financial community which included insurance companies, commercial banks and other financial institutions from Britain and the United States. These banks were located mostly along Escólta , which used to be called the "Wall Street of the Philippines".

After the war and new development, most businesses began to relocate to the newer area of Makati. During the financial crisis of the early 1980s, it had the moniker "Binondo Central Bank", as the local Chinese businessmen engaged in massive black market trading of US dollars, which often determined the national peso-dollar exchange rate. Given its rich historical and financial significance, Binondo is said to have one of the highest land values nationwide.

Barangays

The largest barangay in Binondo is Barangay 292.
Zone 27: 287, 288, 289, 290, 291
Zone 28: 292, 293, 294, 295, 296

Barangays of Binondo
NamePopulation (2010 census) [1]
Barangay 2872,078
Barangay 2881,265
Barangay 289485
Barangay 290546
Barangay 291809
Barangay 2923,140
Barangay 293486
Barangay 2941,877
Barangay 2951,062
Barangay 2961,237

Places of interest and events

Celebration of Chinese New Year in Binondo, Manila (2020) Chinese New Year celebration in Manila.jpg
Celebration of Chinese New Year in Binondo, Manila (2020)

In literature

Binondo was mentioned several times in the novels of Dr. José Rizal, for example, in Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo .

See also

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History of Manila

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Manila (province) Former province of the Philippines

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Tourism in Metro Manila

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Numerous events and festivals are held annually in Metro Manila. They include:

Plaza San Lorenzo Ruiz

Plaza San Lorenzo Ruiz or Plaza Lorenzo Ruiz is a major public square in Binondo, Manila, bounded by Quintin Paredes Street to the east and Juan Luna Street to the west, parallel to the Estero de Binondo. It is the plaza that fronts the Minor Basilica of San Lorenzo Ruiz, one of the main churches of the City of Manila, and is considered the center of Binondo as a whole.

Escolta Street

Escolta Street is a historic east–west street located in the old downtown district of Binondo in Manila, Philippines. It runs parallel to the Pasig River, from Plaza Santa Cruz to Plaza Moraga and Quintin Paredes Street. The street is home to several fine examples of early skyscraper design in the Philippines. In Spanish, it is known as calle de la Escolta. Its definition as a historic financial district includes Escolta and other surrounding streets of Binondo and Santa Cruz. It currently carries one-way eastbound traffic towards Santa Cruz.

El Hogar Filipino Building

El Hogar Filipino Building, also known simply as El Hogar, is an early skyscraper in Manila, Philippines. Built in 1914 and located at the corner of Juan Luna Street and Muelle dela Industría in the Binondo district, El Hogar Building was designed by Ramon Irureta-Goyena and Francisco Perez-Muñoz in the Beaux-Arts style. Its architecture reflects elements of Neoclassical and Renaissance styles.

The Liwasang Bonifacio, also known by its former name, Plaza Lawton, is a city square and transport hub in front of the Manila Central Post Office in the Ermita district of Manila, Philippines. It lies at the south end of Jones Bridge, MacArthur Bridge, and Quezon Bridge that link the northern districts of Binondo, Santa Cruz, and Quiapo to the central district of Ermita. The plaza straddles the dividing line between Ermita and Intramuros and is the starting point of Padre Burgos Avenue which connects to Taft Avenue and Roxas Boulevard in Rizal Park.

Circumferential Road 1

Circumferential Road 1 (C-1), informally known as the C-1 Road, is a network of roads and bridges that all together form the first and innermost beltway of Metro Manila in the Philippines. Spanning some 5.98 kilometers (3.72 mi), it connects the districts of Ermita, Intramuros, San Miguel, Quiapo, Sampaloc, Santa Cruz, Binondo, San Nicolas, and Tondo in Manila.

References

  1. 1 2 National Capital Region Final Results - 2010 Census of Population and Housing Archived 2012-11-15 at the Wayback Machine
  2. New discoveries in the world's oldest Chinatown GMA news
  3. Geni Raitisoja (July 8, 2006). "Chinatown Manila: Oldest in the world". Archived from the original on March 27, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
  4. Wherry, Frederick F. (September 1, 2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 355. ISBN   9781452226439 . Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  5. Umali, Justin (February 4, 2019). "How Binondo Became the World's Oldest Chinatown". Esquire . Summit Media . Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  6. Bernard P. Wong; Chee-Beng Tan (March 21, 2013). Chinatowns around the World: Gilded Ghetto, Ethnopolis, and Cultural Diaspora. Brill Publishers. p. 272. ISBN   9789004255906 . Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  7. Simon Ostheimer (September 12, 2012). "World's best Chinatowns" . Retrieved January 12, 2015.
  8. Joaqiun, Nick (1990). Manila, My Manila: A History for the Young. City of Manila: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN   978-9715693134.
  9. Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. p. 444. ISBN   9781291457261.
  10. Chi Tien, Liu (1955). Hua-ch'iao tui-yu Fei-lu-pin (The Overseas Chinese in the Philippines). Manila. pp. 37–41.
  11. MacNair, H.F. (1923). The Relation of China to her Nationals Abroad. p. 30.
  12. Backhouse, Thomas (1765). The Secretary at War to Mr. Secretary Conway. London: British Library. pp. v. 40.

Coordinates: 14°36′00″N120°58′01″E / 14.600°N 120.967°E / 14.600; 120.967