Last updated

Binturong in Overloon.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Viverridae
Subfamily: Paradoxurinae
Genus: Arctictis
Temminck, 1824
A. binturong [2]
Binomial name
Arctictis binturong [2]
(Raffles, 1822)
Binturong area.png
Binturong range

The binturong (Arctictis binturong) ( /bɪnˈtrɒŋ/ bin-TOO-rong), also known as bearcat, is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. It is uncommon in much of its range, and has been assessed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because of a declining population trend that is estimated at more than 30% since the mid 1980s. [1]


The binturong was first described by Thomas Stamford Raffles in 1822. [3] The genus Arctictis is a monotypic taxon; its morphology is similar as of the genera Paradoxurus and Paguma . [4] The name Arctictis means 'bear-weasel', from Greek arkt- 'bear' + iktis 'weasel'. [5] In Riau, Indonesia it was known as tenturun. [6]


Skull and dentition of the binturong, as illustrated in Paul Gervais' Histoire naturelle des mammiferes Binturongskull.png
Skull and dentition of the binturong, as illustrated in Paul Gervais' Histoire naturelle des mammifères
Binturong skeleton on display in the Museum of Osteology Binturong skeleton.jpg
Binturong skeleton on display in the Museum of Osteology

The binturong is long and heavy, with short, stout legs. It has a thick coat of coarse black hair. The bushy and prehensile tail is thick at the root, gradually tapering, and curls inwards at the tip. The muzzle is short and pointed, somewhat turned up at the nose, and is covered with bristly hairs, brown at the points, which lengthen as they diverge, and form a peculiar radiated circle round the face. The eyes are large, black and prominent. The ears are short, rounded, edged with white, and terminated by tufts of black hair. There are six short rounded incisors in each jaw, two canines, which are long and sharp, and six molars on each side. The hair on the legs is short and of a yellowish tinge. The feet are five-toed, with large strong claws; the soles are bare, and applied to the ground throughout the whole of their length; the hind ones are longer than the fore. [3]

In general build the binturong is essentially like Paradoxurus and Paguma but more massive in the length of the tail, legs and feet, in the structure of the scent glands and larger size of rhinarium, which is more convex with a median groove being much narrower above the philtrum. The contour hairs of the coat are much longer and coarser, and the long hairs clothing the whole of the back of the ears project beyond the tip as a definite tuft. The anterior bursa flap of the ears is more widely and less deeply emarginate. The tail is more muscular, especially at the base, and in colour generally like the body, but commonly paler at the base beneath. The body hairs are frequently partly whitish or buff, giving a speckled appearance to the pelage, sometimes so pale that the whole body is mostly straw-coloured or grey, the young being often at all events paler than the adults, but the head is always closely speckled with grey or buff. The long mystacial vibrissae are conspicuously white, and there is a white rim on the summit of the otherwise black ear. The glandular area is whitish. [4] The tail is nearly as long as the head and body, which ranges from 71 to 84 cm (28 to 33 in); the tail is 66 to 69 cm (26 to 27 in) long. [7] Some captive binturongs measured from 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) to 91 cm (3 ft) in head and body with a tail of 71 cm (2 ft 4 in). [8] Mean weight of captive adult females is 21.9 kg (48 lb) with a range from 11 to 32 kg (24 to 71 lb). Captive animals often weigh more than wild counterparts. [9]

Both sexes have scent glands; females on either side of the vulva, and males between the scrotum and penis. [10] [11] The musk glands emit an odor reminiscent of popcorn or corn chips, likely due to the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in the urine, which is also produced in the Maillard reaction at high temperatures. [12] Unlike most other carnivorans, the male binturong does not have a baculum. [13]

Distribution and habitat

The binturong occurs from India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia to Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Yunnan in China, and from Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java in Indonesia to Palawan in the Philippines. [1] It is confined to tall forest. [14] In Assam, it is common in foothills and hills with good tree cover, but less so in the forested plains. It has been recorded in Manas National Park, in Dulung and Kakoi Reserved Forests of the Lakhimpur district, in the hill forests of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar Hills, Cachar and Hailakandi Districts. [15] In Myanmar, binturongs were photographed on the ground in Tanintharyi Nature Reserve at an elevation of 60 m (200 ft), in the Hukaung Valley at elevations from 220–280 m (720–920 ft), in the Rakhine Yoma Elephant Reserve at 580 m (1,900 ft) and at three other sites up to 1,190 m (3,900 ft) elevation. [16] In Thailand's Khao Yai National Park, several individuals were observed feeding in a fig tree and on a vine. [17] In Laos, they have been observed in extensive evergreen forest. [18] In Malaysia, binturongs were recorded in secondary forest surrounding a palm estate that was logged in the 1970s. [19] In Palawan, it inhabits primary and secondary lowland forest, including grassland–forest mosaic from sea level to 400 m (1,300 ft). [20]


Viverra binturong was the scientific name proposed by Thomas Stamford Raffles in 1822 for a specimen from Malacca. [3] The generic name Arctictis was proposed by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in 1824. [21] In the 19th and 20th centuries, the following zoological specimens were described: [22]

Nine subspecies have been recognized forming two clades. The northern clade in mainland Asia is separated from the Sundaic clade by the Isthmus of Kra. [30]

Ecology and behavior

Binturong photographed by a camera trap at a feeding platform on a fruiting Ficus Binturong (Arctictis binturong) camera trapped at a feeding platform on a fruiting Ficus at Pakke tiger reserve.JPG
Binturong photographed by a camera trap at a feeding platform on a fruiting Ficus

The Binturong is active during the day and at night. [17] [18] Three sightings in Pakke Tiger Reserve were by day. [31] Thirteen camera trap photograph events in Myanmar involved one around dusk, seven in full night and five in broad daylight. All photographs were of single animals, and all were taken on the ground. As binturongs are not very nimble, they may have to descend to the ground relatively frequently when moving between trees. [16]

Five radio-collared binturongs in the Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary exhibited an arrhythmic activity dominated by crepuscular and nocturnal tendencies with peaks in the early morning and late evening. Reduced inactivity periods occurred from midday to late afternoon. They moved between 25 m (82 ft) and 2,698 m (8,852 ft) daily in the dry season and increased their daily movement to 4,143 m (13,593 ft) in the wet season. Ranges sizes of males varied between 0.9 km2 (0.35 sq mi) and 6.1 km2 (2.4 sq mi). Two males showed slightly larger ranges in the wet season. Their ranges overlapped between 30–70%. [32] The average home range of a radio-collared female in the Khao Yai National Park was estimated at 4 km2 (1.5 sq mi), and the one of a male at 4.5 to 20.5 km2 (1.7 to 7.9 sq mi). [33]

The binturong is essentially arboreal. Pocock observed the behaviour of several captive individuals in the London Zoological Gardens. When resting they lie curled up, with the head tucked under the tail. They seldom leaped, but climbed skillfully, albeit slowly, progressing with equal ease and confidence along the upper side of branches or, upside down, beneath them. The prehensile tail was always ready as a help. They descended the vertical bars of the cage head first, gripping them between their paws and using the prehensile tail as a check. When irritated they growled fiercely. When on the prowl they periodically uttered a series of low grunts or a hissing sound made by expelling air through partially opened lips. [4]

The binturong uses the tail to communicate. [10] It moves about gently, often coming to a stop, and often using the tail to keep balance, clinging to a branch. It shows a pronounced comfort behaviour associated with grooming the fur, shaking and licking the hair, and scratching. Shaking is the most characteristic element of comfort behaviour. [34]

The species is normally quite shy, but aggressive when harassed. It is reported to initially urinate or defecate on a threat and then, if teeth-baring and snarling does not deter the threat, it uses its powerful jaws and teeth in self-defense. When threatened, the binturong will usually flee into a nearby tree, but as a defense mechanism the binturong may sometimes balance on its tail and flash its claws to appear threatening to potential predators. Predation on adult binturong is reportedly quite rare by sympatric species like leopard, clouded leopard and reticulated python. [35]


The binturong is omnivorous, feeding on small mammals, birds, fish, earthworms, insects and fruits. [7] It also preys on rodents. [14] Fish and earthworms are likely unimportant items in its diet, as it is neither aquatic nor fossorial, coming across such prey only when opportunities present themselves. Since it does not have the attributes of a predatory mammal, most of the binturong's diet is probably of vegetable matter. [4] Figs are a major component of its diet. [17] [31] [36] Captive binturongs are particularly fond of plantains, but also eat fowls' heads and eggs. [3]

The binturong is an important agent for seed dispersal, especially for those of the strangler fig, because of its ability to scarify the seed's tough outer covering. [37]

In captivity, the binturong's diet includes commercially prepared meat mix, bananas, apples, oranges, canned peaches and mineral supplement. [9]


The average age of sexual maturation is 30.4 months for females and 27.7 months for males. The estrous cycle of the binturong lasts 18 to 187 days, with an average of 82.5 days. Gestation lasts 84 to 99 days. Litter size in captivity varies from one to six young, with an average of two young per birth. Neonates weigh between 283.8 and 340.5 g (0.626 and 0.751 lb), and are often referred to as shruggles.[ citation needed ] Fertility lasts until 15 years of age. [9]

The maximum known lifespan in captivity is thought to be over 25 years of age. [38]


Young binturong kept as a pet by Orang Asli at Taman Negara, Malaysia DSC05941.JPG
Young binturong kept as a pet by Orang Asli at Taman Negara, Malaysia

Major threats to the binturong are habitat loss and degradation of forests through logging and conversion of forests to non-forest land-uses throughout the binturong's range. Habitat loss has been severe in the lowlands of the Sundaic part of its range, and there is no evidence that the binturong uses the plantations that are largely replacing natural forest. In China, rampant deforestation and opportunistic logging practices have fragmented suitable habitat or eliminated sites altogether. In the Philippines, it is captured for the wildlife trade, and in the south of its range it is also taken for human consumption. In Laos, it is one of the most frequently displayed caged live carnivores and skins are traded frequently in at least Vientiane. In parts of Laos, it is considered a delicacy and also traded as a food item to Vietnam. [1]

The Orang Asli of Malaysia keep binturong as pets.


India included the binturong in CITES Appendix III and in Schedule I of the Wild Life Protection Act 1973, so that it has the highest level of protection. In China, it is listed as critically endangered. It is completely protected in Bangladesh, and partially in Thailand, Malaysia, and Vietnam. Licensed hunting of binturong is allowed in Indonesia, and it is not protected in Brunei. [1]

World Binturong Day, an event dedicated to binturong awareness and conservation, takes place yearly every second Saturday of May. [39]

In captivity

Captive binturong at the Cincinnati Zoo CZ Binturong.jpg
Captive binturong at the Cincinnati Zoo

Binturongs are common in zoos, and captive individuals represent a source of genetic diversity essential for long-term conservation. Their geographic origin is either usually unknown, or they are offspring of several generations of captive-bred animals. [30]

Related Research Articles

Clouded leopard species of mammal found from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China

The clouded leopard is a medium-sized wild cat occurring from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into southern China. Since 2008, it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its total population is suspected to be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, with a decreasing population trend, and no single population numbering more than 1,000 adults.

Viverridae family of mammals

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids occur all over Africa, southern Europe, and South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

Asian golden cat Small wild cat

The Asian golden cat is a medium-sized wild cat native to the northeastern Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and southern China. It has been listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List since 2008, and is threatened by hunting pressure and habitat loss, since Southeast Asian forests are undergoing the world's fastest regional deforestation.

Asian palm civet Species of viverrid

The Asian palm civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, it is IUCN Red Listed as Least Concern as it accommodates to a broad range of habitats. It is widely distributed with large populations that in 2008 were thought unlikely to be declining. In Indonesia, it is threatened by poaching and illegal wildlife trade; buyers use it for the increasing production of kopi luwak, a form of coffee that involves ingestion and excretion of the beans by the animal.

Sun bear Bear from tropical forests of Southeast Asia

The sun bear is a species in the family Ursidae occurring in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. It is the smallest bear, standing nearly 70 centimetres at the shoulder and weighing 25–65 kilograms. It is stockily built, with large paws, strongly curved claws, small rounded ears and a short snout. The fur is generally jet-black, but can vary from grey to red. Sun bears get their name from the characteristic orange to cream coloured chest patch. Its unique morphology—inward-turned front feet, flattened chest, powerful forelimbs with large claws—suggests adaptations for climbing.

Indochinese tiger Tiger population in Southeast Asia

The Indochinese tiger is a Panthera tigris tigris population that is native to Southeast Asia. This population occurs in Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos. It has been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008, as the population seriously declined and approaches the threshold for critically endangered. As per 2011, the population was thought to comprise 342 individuals, including 85 in Myanmar and 20 in Vietnam, with the largest population unit surviving in Thailand estimated at 189 to 252 individuals during 2009 to 2014.

Otter civet species of mammal

The otter civet is a semiaquatic viverrid native to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. It is listed as Endangered because of a serious ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the past three generations, inferred from direct habitat destruction, and indirect inferred declines due to pollutants.

Chinese water dragon species of reptile

The Chinese water dragon is a species of agamid lizard native to China and mainland Southeast Asia. It is also known as the Asian water dragon, Thai water dragon, and green water dragon.

Hoses palm civet species of mammal

Hose's palm civet, also known as Hose's civet, is a viverrid species endemic to the island of Borneo. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable because of an ongoing population decline, estimated to be more than 30% over the last three generations and suspected to be more than 30% in the next three generations due to declines in population inferred from habitat destruction and degradation.

Small Indian civet Species of mammal

The small Indian civet is a civet native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List because of its widespread distribution, widespread habitat use and healthy populations living in agricultural and secondary landscapes of many range states.

Crab-eating mongoose species of mammal

The crab-eating mongoose is a mongoose species ranging from the northeastern Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia to southern China and Taiwan. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Large-spotted civet species of mammal

The large-spotted civet is a viverrid native to Southeast Asia that is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.

Large Indian civet species of mammal

The large Indian civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The global population is considered decreasing mainly because of trapping-driven declines in heavily hunted and fragmented areas, notably in China, and the heavy trade as wild meat.

Northern pig-tailed macaque species of mammal

The northern pig-tailed macaque is a species of macaque in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Traditionally, M. leonina was considered a subspecies of the southern pig-tailed macaque, but is now classified as individual species.

Paradoxurinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Paradoxurinae are a subfamily of the viverrids that was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. Pocock subordinated the oriental genera Paradoxurus, Paguma and Arctictis to this subfamily.

Hkakaborazi National Park

Hkakaborazi National Park is a national park in northern Myanmar with an area of 3,812.46 km2 (1,472.00 sq mi). It was established in 1998. It surrounds Hkakabo Razi, the highest mountain in the country. It ranges in elevation from 900 to 5,710 metres comprising evergreen forest and mixed deciduous forests in Nogmung Township, Kachin State. It is managed by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division. It is contiguous with Bumhpa Bum Wildlife Sanctuary and Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary. These protected areas together with Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary comprise the largest continuous expanse of natural forest called the Northern Forest Complex stretching over an area of 30,105 km2 (11,624 sq mi). Its objective is to conserve the biodiversity of the Ayeyarwady and Chindwin river basins.

Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary

Hukaung Valley Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in northern Myanmar, covering 17,373.57 km2 (6,707.97 sq mi). It was established in 2004 and extended to its present size in 2010. It was initially gazetted in 2004 with an area of 6,371 km2 (2,460 sq mi) in Tanaing Township and extended to Kamaing, Nayun and Kamti Townships. In elevation, it ranges from 125 to 3,435 m in the Hukawng Valley located in Kachin State and Sagaing Region. It harbours evergreen and mixed deciduous forests.

Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary

Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary is a 2,150.73 km2 (830.40 sq mi) large protected area in northern Myanmar. It was established in 1974 in the Sagaing Region.

Indochinese leopard Leopard subspecies

The Indochinese leopard is a leopard subspecies native to mainland Southeast Asia and southern China. In Indochina, leopards are rare outside protected areas and threatened by habitat loss due to deforestation as well as poaching for the illegal wildlife trade. The population trend is suspected to be decreasing. As of 2016, the population is thought to comprise 973–2,503 mature individuals, with only 409–1,051 breeding adults. The historical range has decreased by more than 90%.

Bumhpa Bum Wildlife Sanctuary

Bumhpa Bum Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Myanmar, covering an area of 1,854.43 km2 (716.00 sq mi). It was established in 2004. It ranges in elevation from 140 to 3,435 m and harbours evergreen forest in Kachin State.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Willcox, D.H.A.; Chutipong, W.; Gray, T.N.E.; Cheyne, S.; Semiadi, G.; Rahman, H.; Coudrat, C.N.Z.; Jennings, A.; Ghimirey, Y.; Ross, J.; Fredriksson, G. & Tilker, A. (2016). "Arctictis binturong". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T41690A45217088. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  2. 1 2 Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Species Arctictis binturong". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 549. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Raffles, T. S. (1822). "XVII. Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection, made on account of the Honourable East India Company, in the Island of Sumatra and its Vicinity, under the Direction of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough', with additional Notices illustrative of the Natural History of those Countries". The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. XIII: 239–274.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Genus Arctictis Temminck". The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 431–439.
  5. Scherren, H. (1902). The Encyclopædic Dictionary. Cassell and Company, London.
  6. Wilkinson, R. J. (1901). A Malay-English dictionary Kelly & Walsh Limited, Hongkong, Shanghai and Yokohama.
  7. 1 2 Blanford, W. T. (1888–91). "57. Arctictis binturong". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 117–119.
  8. Arivazhagan, C. & Thiyagesan, K. (2001). "Studies on the Binturongs (Arctictis binturong) in captivity at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur". Zoos' Print Journal. 16 (1): 395–402. doi: 10.11609/JoTT.ZPJ.16.1.395-402 .
  9. 1 2 3 Wemmer, C.; J. Murtaugh (1981). "Copulatory Behavior and Reproduction in the Binturong, Arctictis binturong" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 62 (2): 342–352. doi:10.2307/1380710. JSTOR   1380710.
  10. 1 2 Story, H. E. (1945). "The External Genitalia and Perfume Gland in Arctictis binturong". Journal of Mammalogy. 26 (1): 64–66. doi:10.2307/1375032. JSTOR   1375032.
  11. Kleiman, D. G. (1974). "Scent marking in the binturong, Arctictis binturong" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 55 (1): 224–227. doi:10.2307/1379278. JSTOR   1379278.
  12. Greene, L. K.; Wallen, T. W.; Moresco, A.; Goodwin, T. E. & Drea, C. M. (2016). "Reproductive endocrine patterns and volatile urinary compounds of Arctictis binturong: discovering why bearcats smell like popcorn". The Science of Nature. 103 (5–6): 37. Bibcode:2016SciNa.103...37G. doi:10.1007/s00114-016-1361-4. PMID   27056047. S2CID   16439829.
  13. Schultz, Nicholas G.; Lough-Stevens, Michael; Abreu, Eric; Orr, Teri; Dean, Matthew D. (2016-06-01). "The Baculum was Gained and Lost Multiple Times during Mammalian Evolution". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 56 (4): 644–56. doi:10.1093/icb/icw034. ISSN   1540-7063. PMC   6080509 . PMID   27252214.
  14. 1 2 Lekalul, B.; McNeely, J. A. (1977). Mammals of Thailand. Bangkok: Association for the Conservation of Wildlife.
  15. Choudhury, A. (1997). "The distribution and status of small carnivores (mustelids, viverrids, and herpestids) in Assam, India" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation. 16: 25–26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-29.
  16. 1 2 Than Zaw, Saw Htun, Saw Htoo Tta Po, Myint Maung, Lynam, A. J., Kyaw Thinn Latt and Duckworth, J. W. (2008). "Status and distribution of small carnivores in Myanmar" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (38): 2–28. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-28.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. 1 2 3 Nettlebeck, A. R. (1997). "Sightings of Binturongs Arctictis binturong in the Khao Yai National Park, Thailand" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (16): 21–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-29.
  18. 1 2 Duckworth, J. W. (1997). "Small carnivores in Laos: a status review with notes on ecology, behaviour and conservation" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (16): 1–21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-29.
  19. Azlan, J. M. (2003). "The diversity and conservation of mustelids, viverrids, and herpestids in a disturbed forest in Peninsular Malaysia" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation (29): 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-29.
  20. Rabor, D. S. (1986). Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Manila: Natural Resources Management Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines.
  21. Temminck, C. J. (1824). "XVII Genre Arctictis". Monographies de mammalogie. Paris: Dufour & d'Ocagne. p. xxi.
  22. Ellerman, J. R.; Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). "Genus Arctictis. Temminck, 1824". Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946 (Second ed.). London: British Museum of Natural History. p. 290.
  23. Cuvier, F. (1822). "Benturong". In Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E.; Cuvier, F. (eds.). Histoire naturelle des mammifères : avec des figures originales, coloriées, dessinées d'aprèsdes animaux vivans. 5. Paris: A. Belin.
  24. Temminck, C. J. (1835). "Arcticte Binturong – Arctictis binturong". Monographies de Mammalogie. II. Paris, Leiden: Dufour, Van der Hoek. pp. 308–311.
  25. Allen, J. A. (1910). "Mammals from Palawan Island, Philippine Islands" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 28: 13–17.
  26. Schwarz, E. (1911). "Seven new Asiatic mammals with Note on the Viverra fasciata of Gmelin". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8. 7 (37): 634–640. doi:10.1080/00222931108692986.
  27. Thomas, O. (1916). "A new Binturong from Siam". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8. 17 (99): 270–271. doi:10.1080/00222931508693780.
  28. Lyon, M. W., Jr. (1916). "Mammals collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott on the chain of islands lying off the western coast of Sumatra, with descriptions of twenty-eight new species and subspecies". Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 52 (2188): 437–462. doi:10.5479/si.00963801.52-2188.437.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. Sody, H. J. V. (1937). On the mammals of Banka. Leiden: Brill.
  30. 1 2 3 Cosson, L.; Grassman, L. L.; Zubaid, A.; Vellayan, S.; Tillier, A.; Veron, G. (2007). "Genetic diversity of captive binturongs (Arctictis binturong, Viverridae, Carnivora): implications for conservation" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 271 (4): 386–395. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00209.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-12.
  31. 1 2 Datta, A. (1999). Small carnivores in two protected areas of Arunachal Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 96: 399–404.
  32. Grassman, L. I. Jr.; M. E. Tewes; N. J. Silvy (2005). "Ranging, habitat use and activity patterns of binturong Arctictis binturong and yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula in north-central Thailand" (PDF). Wildlife Biology. 11 (1): 49–57. doi:10.2981/0909-6396(2005)11[49:RHUAAP]2.0.CO;2.
  33. Austin, S. C. (2002). Ecology of sympatric carnivores in the Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. PhD thesis, Texas University.
  34. Rozhnov, V. V. (1994). Notes on the behaviour and ecology of the Binturong (Arctictis binturong) in Vietnam. Small Carnivore Conservation 10 Archived 2015-04-29 at the Wayback Machine : 4–5.
  35. Ismail, M. A. Hj. (??). Binturong Archived February 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  36. Lambert, F. (1990). "Some notes on fig-eating by arboreal mammals in Malaysia". Primates. 31 (3): 453–458. doi:10.1007/BF02381118. S2CID   2911086.
  37. Colon, C. P. & Campos-Arceiz, A. (2013). "The impact of gut passage by Binturongs (Arctictis binturong) on seed germination" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology . 61 (1): 417–421.
  38. Macdonald, D.W. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  39. "événements". ABConservation. Retrieved 2020-05-10.