Biobío Region

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Biobío Region

Región del Biobío
Antuco Volcano.jpg
Antuco Volcano
Flag of Biobio Region, Chile.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Biobio Region, Chile.svg
Coat of arms
Biobio in Chile 2018.svg
Map of Biobío Region
Coordinates: 36°50′S73°03′W / 36.833°S 73.050°W / -36.833; -73.050 Coordinates: 36°50′S73°03′W / 36.833°S 73.050°W / -36.833; -73.050
Country Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Capital Concepción
Provinces Biobío, Concepción, Arauco
Government
   Intendant Jorge Ulloa Aguillón (UDI)
Area
[1]
  Total23,890.2 km2 (9,224.1 sq mi)
Area rank10
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2017 census) [2]
  Total1,557,414
  Rank3
  Density65/km2 (170/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code CL-BI
HDI (2017)0.804 [3]
very high
Website Official website (in Spanish)

The Biobío Region [4] [5] [6] (Spanish : Región del Biobío [ˌbi.oˈβi.o] ), [7] is one of Chile's sixteen regions (first-order administrative divisions). With a population of 1.5 million, thus being the third most populated region in Chile, it is divided into three provinces: Arauco, Biobío and Concepción. The latter contains its capital and largest city, Concepción, a major city and metro area in the country. Los Ángeles, capital of the Biobío Province, is another important city in the region.

Contents

Geography

The Region of the Biobío is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Argentina, on the north by the Chilean Region of Ñuble, and on the south by the Chilean Region of Araucanía.

The Region has been hit by many Chilean earthquakes, including the most powerful earthquake ever recorded (in 1960) and the great earthquake of 2010. Many communities in the region were greatly affected by the earthquake of 2010 and the subsequent tsunami. That earthquake damaged Talcahuano and Dichato; the tsunami destroyed much of what remained of the port town. [8]

History

Historic regions

This is an inland valley between the cities of Concepción and Los Angeles, and it felt the greatest impact of the earthquake of 27 February 2010. The Department of Rere was a vital settlement area of Chileans and the three-hundred-year struggle (until the 1870s) to defeat the strong indigenous tribe of the Mapuches.

Chilean settlers of Spanish California from the present Region of the Bio Bío (especially from Concepción, Talcahuano, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, and the Department of Rere) may have played a part in the establishment of Los Angeles and the rest of southern California in the period between 1775 and 1820.[ citation needed ]

Thousands of Chilean miners, ranchers, and shopkeepers from the Biobío Region are thought to have settled the coasts, mountains, and valleys of what became American California, both before and after the Mexican–American War, and to have helped create the cities of San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Barbara, and San Diego, California.[ citation needed ]

Demographics and cities

According to data from the 2017 census, the Region of the Biobío, with 2,018,803 inhabitants, is the second most populous region of Chile, after the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. In connection with the 1992 census, reflecting a total population of 1,734,305 inhabitants, there was a population growth of 7.3% in 10 years (1992–2002), the second lowest nationally, after the Region Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica. Taking into account their 37062.6 km ² in area, was in 2002, a density of 50.23 inhabitants per km², the third highest nationally.

The 2002 census showed an urban population of 1,528,306 inhabitants, corresponding to 82.1% of regional population and a rural population of 333,256 inhabitants, equivalent to 17.9% of the population of the region. Of the 1,861,562 inhabitants of the region of Biobío in 2002, 915,200 (49.16%) were men and 946,362 (50.84%) were women.

The metropolitan area of Concepción is one of the most populated conurbations in the country with a population of 979,937 inhabitants, corresponding to the sum of the population of the ten districts of Greater Concepción: Concepción (216,061 inhabitants) Talcahuano (250,348), Hualpén (88,046), San Pedro de la Paz (80,447) Chiguayante (81,302) Colonel (95,528) Lota (49,089) Penco (46,016) Tomé (52,440) and Hualqui (20,660).

Another of the most populated cities in the region are Chillán, with 165,528 inhabitants, is the tenth most populous urban area in the country, and is a conurbation with a portion of its population living in urban areas of the town of Chillán (146,701 inhabitants), and another that lives in the urban area of the town of Chillán Viejo (21,827 inhabitants), and Los Angeles, with its 166,556 inhabitants, is the eighteenth most populous urban area in the country.

With regard to the Province of Biobío, in addition to Los Angeles, other major cities are: Mulchén with 21,819 inhabitants, Birth to 20,884 inhabitants, the conurbation La Laja-San Rosendo, with a total population of 19,537 inhabitants, with 11,947 inhabitants in Cabrero.

With regard to the Province of Arauco, the most populated cities are: Curanilahue with 30,126 inhabitants, Lebu, the provincial capital, with 20,838 inhabitants, with 19,839 inhabitants Canete, Arauco with 16,291 inhabitants, and Los Alamos with 13,035 inhabitants.

With regard to membership or Indigenous Native Peoples, 52,918 people declared in the census of 2002 as Mapuche. This is 2.84% of the regional population and used the relationship Paternal = Female: Amerindian to determine the racial classification of persons identified as Mapuche. [ citation needed ]

Communes

The communes of the Biobío Region are:

Region Province CommuneArea
(km²) [9] [10]
2002 [9] [10]
Population
Website [11]
Biobío
(VIII)
Arauco
Tirúa 6249,664 link
Los Álamos 59918,632 link
Lebu 56125,035 link
Curanilahue 99431,943 link
Contulmo 9625,838 link
Cañete 76031,270 link
Arauco 95634,873 link
Biobío
Yumbel 72720,498 link
Tucapel 91512,777 link
Santa Bárbara 3,38019,970 link
San Rosendo 923,918 link
Quilleco 1,12210,428 link
Quilaco 1,1244,021 link
Negrete 1578,579 link
Nacimiento 93525,971 link
Mulchén 1,92529,003 link
Los Ángeles 1,748166,556 link
Laja 34022,404 link
Cabrero 64025,282 link
Antuco 1,8843,908 link
Alto Biobío 2,1257,027 link
Concepción
Tomé 49552,440 link
Talcahuano 146250,348 link
Santa Juana 73112,713 link
San Pedro de la Paz 11380,447 link
Penco 10846,016 link
Lota 13649,089 link
Hualqui 53118,768 link
Hualpén 5486,722 link
Florida 60910,177 link
Coronel 27995,528 link
Concepción 222216,061 link
Chiguayante 7281,302 link

Ethnography

Along with Araucania, Ñuble, Maule and O'Higgins regions, Biobío's population is believed to be a remarkably homogeneous culture, but is of various ethnic and racial backgrounds. About 53% of inhabitants are of European origin, primarily of Spanish, German, French and other European communities. The mestizos make up 44% of the population and are the result of mixing between Europeans and Amerindians, while Amerindian population is 3%, mainly Mapuche. There is a romantic symbol of Chilenidad: huaso or cowboy/ shepherd "culture", typical of Chile.

Large numbers of Andalusian, Asturian, Basque, Galician, Leonese, Murcian, Navarrese, and Valencian nationalities other than the "Castilian" Spanish established the nation and culture and gave the Spanish language to Chile.

Small waves of non-Spanish settlement of the region include Germans from Germany, Austria and Switzerland; French and Italians, whom contributed to the regional wine industry; British people, like English and Scottish, have densely settled Concepción on the coast; Dutch, Greek and Portuguese founded the oceanic fishing industry; Arab peoples like the Lebanese and Palestinians established several small businesses; and small scattering of U.S. Americans, Scandinavians and Eastern Europeans (mostly from the former Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, especially Croats) established themselves in Chile as they fled political turmoil.

Religion

According to a 2002 census 58.63% of the inhabitants of the Biobío Region profess Catholicism, equivalent to 805,517 people, the third largest concentration of Catholics in a region in Chile, while the lowest percentage of Catholics corresponding to a region nationwide. 28.36% declare themselves as Protestant or Evangelical, equivalent to 389,632 people, the second largest concentration of Protestants in a region, while the highest percentage of Evangelicals corresponding to a region nationwide.

The province of Arauco is the only province to national level in which the number of Evangelicals, corresponding to 47.47% of the population, is greater than that of Catholics, corresponding to 36.33% of the population. It is a result of Protestant (Lutheran and Calvinist), Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventist and Mormon missionary work in Arauco during the 20th century.

Biobío tends to show a more culturally conservative attitude in contrast to the urban areas of Santiago/Valparaiso, which have a more liberal cosmopolitan position. It is more common for residents to attend church regularly, be it Catholic or Protestant.

Economy

For decades, the characteristic feature of the Biobío Region has been its manufacturing industry, which contributes 35.6% of its GDP and operates mainly around the ports of Talcahuano, San Vicente, Lirquén, and Coronel, the greatest concentration of ports in Chile. The range of activities is broad, extending from iron and steel making to foodstuffs manufacture, petrochemicals, metalworking, oil refining, and shipyards.

The region's dynamism is also rooted in its large rivers. The important hydroelectric power complex on the Laja River is composed of the El Toro, Abanico, and Antuco power plants, and the Pangue and Ralco plants on the upper Biobío River. These facilities supply 26.6% of the energy used from Taltal in the north to Chiloé Archipelago 2,500 km (1,553 mi) to the south.

The region contains almost 44% of Chile's forest plantations, of which around 82% are radiata pine. It is the largest exporter of forestry products and supplies raw materials for pulp and paper plants, sawmills, and related activities.

The fishing industry is another dynamic sector. The region possesses 32% of the country's total fishing fleet, while approximately 50% of the national catch is unloaded at its ports. Moreover, this region alone is responsible for 4% of the world's catch of seafood. Main items include shellfish and conger eel, sardines, anchovy, mackerel, hake, mollusks, crustaceans, and algae.

High-quality fertile soils support a wide variety of crops, principally produce, grains, vegetables, artificial and improved pastures.

Animal husbandry focuses on production of beef, milk, and dairy products. Mining activity includes non-metallic minerals, principally quartz for the glass and steel industries.

Related Research Articles

Concepción, Chile City and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Concepción is a city and commune in central Chile, and the geographical and demographic core of the Greater Concepción metropolitan area, one of the three major conurbations in the country. It has a significant impact on domestic trade being part of the most heavily industrialized region in the country. It is the seat of the Concepción Province and capital of the Bío Bío Region. It sits about 500 km south of the nation's capital, Santiago.

Chillán City and Commune in Ñuble, Chile

Chillán It is the capital city of the Ñuble Region in the Diguillín Province of Chile located about 400 km (249 mi) south of the country's capital, Santiago, near the geographical center of the country. It is the capital of the new Ñuble Region since 6 September 2015. Within the city are a railway station, an inter-city bus terminal, an agricultural extension of the University of Concepción, and a regimental military base. The city includes a modern-style enclosed shopping mall in addition to the multi-block open-air street market where fruits, vegetables, crafts and clothing are sold. The nearby mountains are a popular destination for skiing and hot spring bathing.

Los Ángeles, Chile City and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Bío Bío, in the commune of the same name, in Bío Bío, in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 186,671 inhabitants. The municipality ("comuna") of Los Ángeles has the highest absolute rural population of any Chilean municipality.

Talcahuano Place in Biobío, Chile

Talcahuano is a port city and commune in the Biobío Region of Chile. It is part of the Greater Concepción conurbation. Talcahuano is located in the south of the Central Zone of Chile.

Cañete, Chile City and Commune in Biobío, Chile

Cañete is a city and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region. It is located 135 km to the south of Concepción. Cañete is known as a "Historic City" as it is one of the oldest cities in country. The Battle of Tucapel and Pedro de Valdivia's death happened near the city's current location. Cañete was also an important location in the Arauco War.

Biobío River River in Chile

The Biobío River is the second largest river in Chile. It originates from Icalma and Galletué lakes in the Andes and flows 380 km to the Gulf of Arauco on the Pacific Ocean.

Coronel, Chile City and Commune in Biobío, Chile

Coronel is a Chilean city and commune, located in the Concepción Province of the eighth region of Bio Bío.

Biobío Province Province in Bío Bío, Chile

Biobío Province is one of four provinces of the Chilean region of Biobío (VIII). Its capital is Los Ángeles. It is bounded on the north, west and south by the provinces of Concepción, Arauco and Malleco, respectively, and on the east by Argentina. It has an area of 14,987.9 km2 (5,787 sq mi) of well-wooded and mountainous country, and exports timber to a large extent. The population is 373,981 according to the census of 2012.

Ñuble Province Province in Bío Bío, Chile

Ñuble Province was one of the provinces of the Chilean region of Bío Bío (VIII). It used to span an area of 13,178.5 km2 (5,088 sq mi) and it was administratively constituted by 21 communes. It has in 2017 a population of 441,604 inhabitants. Its capital was the city of Chillán. On the 6th of September of 2018, the province became the Ñuble Region.

Lota, Chile City and Commune in Biobío, Chile

Lota is a city and commune located in the center of Chile on the Gulf of Arauco, in the southern Concepción Province of the Biobío Region, 39 kilometres south of Concepción, and is one of the ten cities (communes) that constitutes the Concepción metropolitan area. The city is mostly known for being the traditional centre of coal mining in Chile, albeit mining ended in the 1990s.

Concepción Province, Chile Province in Bío Bío, Chile

Concepción Province is one of four provinces of the Chilean region of Bío Bío (VIII). Its capital, Concepción, is part of the Greater Concepción conurbation, the nation's second largest metropolitan area after Santiago.

San Pedro de la Paz City and Commune in Biobío, Chile

San Pedro de la Paz is a Chilean city and commune located in the Concepción Province, Biobío Region. It has some 80,447 inhabitants according to the 2002 national census. In 2005, the Pedro Aguirre Cerda avenue, the main avenue in the city, was completed. Most of the inhabitants of this comuna commute daily to Concepción - either by car, bus or train - over the Biobío River. It is considered to be part of Greater Concepción conurbation.

Tucapel Town and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Tucapel is a town and commune in the Arauco Province, Bío Bío Region, Chile. It was once a region of Araucanía named for the Tucapel River. The name of the region derived from the rehue and aillarehue of the Moluche people of the area between the Lebu and the Lleulleu Rivers, who were famed for their long resistance to the Spanish in the Arauco War. Tucapel is also the name of a famous leader from that region in the first resistance against the Spanish mentioned in Alonso de Ercilla's epic poem La Araucana. Formerly belonging to the Nuble Province, in the Department of Yungay. Near the town of Tucapel is the Plaza de San Diego de Tucapel. The capital of the commune is the town of Huépil, moving the municipality from Tucapel in 1967. In mapudungún its name means "To seize or to take by force".

Arauco, Chile City and Commune in Bío Bío, Chile

Arauco is a city and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region. The meaning of Arauco means Chalky Water in Mapudungun. The region was a Moluche aillarehue. The Spanish settlements founded here during the Conquest of Chile were destroyed on numerous occasions by the Mapuche during the Arauco War.

Hualpén City and Commune in Biobío, Chile

Hualpén is a Chilean city and commune belonging to Concepción Province and the Biobío Region. It is part of the conurbation of Greater Concepción. The commune spans an area of 53.5 km2 (21 sq mi).

Tomé City and Commune in Biobío, Chile

Tomé is a port city and commune in the Biobío Region of Chile. It is bordered by Coelemu to the north, Ránquil and Florida to the east, Penco to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The local economy is based mainly on textile manufacturing and fishing industry.

Antonio de Guill y Gonzaga was a Spanish colonial administrator who served as Royal Governor of Panama and Royal Governor of Chile.

Tirúa Town and Commune in Biobío, Chile

Tirúa is a Chilean commune and town in Arauco Province, Biobío Region. The 2010 Chile earquake led to a permanent uplift of Tirúa of about 180 cm above sea level, the highest recorded uplift related to the earthquake. This caused a large islet to form at the mouth of Tirúa River next to the town. The Misión Jesuita Mapuche is based in Tirúa.

Chillán Viejo City and Commune in Ñuble, Chile

Chillán Viejo is a city and commune in the Diguillín Province of Chile Region of Ñuble According to the 2002 census, the population of the commune was 22,084 and it has an area of 292 km2 (113 sq mi).

Ñuble Region Region of Chile

The Ñuble Region, officially the Region of Ñuble, is — since 5 September 2018 – one of Chile's sixteen regions. It spans an area of 13,178.5 km2 (5,088 sq mi), making it the smallest region in Chile in terms of area, and is administratively constituted by 21 communes. It has a population of 480,609 inhabitants. Its capital is the city of Chillán.

References

  1. "Biobío Region". Government of Chile Foreign Investment Committee. Retrieved 13 March 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  2. "CIFRAS DE ENVEJECIMIENTO Y MIGRACIÓN MUESTRAN UN CHILE DISTINTO AL DE HACE UN DECENIO". POBLACIÓN PAÍS Y REGIONES - ACTUALIZACIÓN 2002-2012. National Statistics Institute. 4 September 2014. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  3. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  4. Finkbeiner, Matthias (12 August 2011). Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Management. Springer. p. 260. ISBN   9789400718982 . Retrieved 26 July 2012. [...] and at Talcahuano port (Biobío region) [...]
  5. Trigger, Bruce G.; Washburn, Wilcomb E.; Adams, Richard E. W.; Frank Salomon; Murdo J. Macleod; Stuart B. Schwartz (1996). The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Cambridge University Press. p. 172. ISBN   9780521333931 . Retrieved 26 July 2012. [...] and the banks of the Río Colorado and sold in the Biobío region.
  6. "Biobío Region, Chile" (PDF). Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 26 July 2012. The Biobío region presents a diversified economic structure that has [...]
  7. "Decreto Ley 2339. Otorga denominación a la Región Metropolitana y a las regiones del país, en la forma que indica". Ley Chile (in Spanish). Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile. 10 October 1978. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  8. "After quake, giant wave swallowed port town". Associated Press . 2 March 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  9. 1 2 "National Statistics Institute" (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  10. 1 2 "Territorial division of Chile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
  11. "Asociacion Chilena de Municipalidades" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 April 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.