Biodynamic agriculture

Last updated

Biodynamic agriculture is a form of alternative agriculture based on pseudo-scientific and esoteric concepts initially developed in 1924 by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). [1] [2] It was the first of the organic farming movements. [3] It treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks, [4] [5] [6] emphasizing spiritual and mystical perspectives.


Biodynamics has much in common with other organic approaches – it emphasizes the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of synthetic (artificial) fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on soil and plants. Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include its treatment of animals, crops, and soil as a single system, an emphasis from its beginnings on local production and distribution systems, its use of traditional and development of new local breeds and varieties. Some methods use an astrological sowing and planting calendar. [7] Biodynamic agriculture uses various herbal and mineral additives for compost additives and field sprays; these are prepared using methods that are more akin to sympathetic magic than agronomy, such as burying ground quartz stuffed into the horn of a cow, which are said to harvest "cosmic forces in the soil". [8]

No difference in beneficial outcomes has been scientifically established between certified biodynamic agricultural techniques and similar organic and integrated farming practices. Biodynamic agriculture is a pseudoscience as it lacks scientific evidence for its efficacy because of its reliance upon esoteric knowledge and mystical beliefs. [9]

As of 2020, biodynamic techniques were used on 251,842 hectares in 55 countries, led by Germany, Australia and France. [10] Germany accounts for 41.8% of the global total; [11] the remainder average 1,750 ha per country. Biodynamic methods of cultivating grapevines have been taken up by several notable vineyards. [12] There are certification agencies for biodynamic products, most of which are members of the international biodynamics standards group Demeter International.


Origin of a theory

Rudolf Steiner, occultist philosopher and founder of "anthroposophic agriculture", later known as "biodynamic". Steiner um 1905.jpg
Rudolf Steiner, occultist philosopher and founder of "anthroposophic agriculture", later known as "biodynamic".

Biodynamics was the first modern organic agriculture. [2] [3] [13] Its development began in 1924 with a series of eight lectures on agriculture given by philosopher Rudolf Steiner at Schloss Koberwitz in Silesia, Germany (now Kobierzyce in Poland). [14] [15] These lectures, the first known presentation of organic agriculture, [2] were held in response to a request by farmers who noticed degraded soil conditions and a deterioration in the health and quality of crops and livestock resulting from the use of chemical fertilizers. [16] The 111 attendees, less than half of whom were farmers, came from six countries, primarily Germany and Poland. [2] The lectures were published in November 1924; the first English translation appeared in 1928 as The Agriculture Course. [17]

Steiner emphasized that the methods he proposed should be tested experimentally. For this purpose, Steiner established a research group, the "Agricultural Experimental Circle of Anthroposophical Farmers and Gardeners of the General Anthroposophical Society". [18] Between 1924 and 1939, this research group attracted about 800 members from around the world, including Europe, the Americas and Australasia. [18] Another group, the "Association for Research in Anthroposophical Agriculture" (Versuchsring anthroposophischer Landwirte), directed by the German agronomist Erhard Bartsch, was formed to test the effects of biodynamic methods on the life and health of soil, plants and animals; the group published a monthly journal, Demeter. [19] Bartsch was also instrumental in developing a sales organisation for biodynamic products, Demeter, which still exists today. The Research Association was renamed the Imperial Association for Biodynamic Agriculture (Reichsverband für biologisch-dynamische Wirtschaftsweise) in 1933. It was dissolved by the National Socialist regime in 1941. In 1931 the association had 250 members in Germany, 109 in Switzerland, 104 in other European countries and 24 outside Europe. The oldest biodynamic farms are the Wurzerhof in Austria and Marienhöhe in Germany. [20]

In 1938, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer's text, Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening, was published in five languages – English, Dutch, Italian, French, and German; this became the standard work in the field for several decades. [19] In July 1939, at the invitation of Walter James, 4th Baron Northbourne, Pfeiffer travelled to the UK and presented the Betteshanger Summer School and Conference on Biodynamic Farming at Northbourne's farm in Kent. [21] The conference has been described as the 'missing link' between biodynamic agriculture and organic farming because, in the year after Betteshanger, Northbourne published his manifesto of organic farming, Look to the Land, in which he coined the term 'organic farming' and praised the methods of Rudolf Steiner. [21] In the 1950s, Hans Mueller was encouraged by Steiner's work to create the organic-biological farming method in Switzerland; this later developed to become the largest certifier of organic products in Europe, Bioland. [4] :5

Geographic developments

Today biodynamics is practiced in more than 50 countries worldwide and in a variety of circumstances, ranging from temperate arable farming, viticulture in France, cotton production in Egypt, to silkworm breeding in China. [22] :141 Demeter International is the primary certification agency for farms and gardens using the methods. In 2020 Demeter International and the International Biodynamic Association joined to become the Biodynamic Federation – Demeter International.

Biodynamic method of farming

In common with other forms of organic agriculture, biodynamic agriculture uses management practices that are intended to "restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony". [34] Central features include crop diversification, the avoidance of chemical soil treatments and off-farm inputs generally, decentralized production and distribution, and the consideration of celestial and terrestrial influences on biological organisms. [34] [35] The Demeter Association recommends that "(a) minimum of ten percent of the total farm acreage be set aside as a biodiversity preserve. That may include but is not limited to forests, wetlands, riparian corridors, and intentionally planted insectaries. Diversity in crop rotation and perennial planting is required: no annual crop can be planted in the same field for more than two years in succession. Bare tillage year round is prohibited so land needs to maintain adequate green cover." [36]

The Demeter Association also recommends that the individual design of the land "by the farmer, as determined by site conditions, is one of the basic tenets of biodynamic agriculture. This principle emphasizes that humans have a responsibility for the development of their ecological and social environment which goes beyond economic aims and the principles of descriptive ecology." [22] :141–142 Crops, livestock, and farmer, and "the entire socioeconomic environment" form a unique interaction, which biodynamic farming tries to "actively shape ...through a variety of management practices. The prime objective is always to encourage healthy conditions for life": soil fertility, plant and animal health, and product quality. [22] :141–142 "The farmer seeks to enhance and support the forces of nature that lead to healthy crops, and rejects farm management practices that damage the environment, soil, plant, animal or human health....the farm is conceived of as an organism, a self-contained entity with its own individuality," [37] :148 holistically conceived and self-sustaining. [34] "Disease and insect control are addressed through botanical species diversity, predator habitat, balanced crop nutrition, and attention to light penetration and airflow. Weed control emphasizes prevention, including timing of planting, mulching, and identifying and avoiding the spread of invasive weed species." [36]

Biodynamic agriculture differs from many forms of organic agriculture in its spiritual, mystical, and astrological orientation. It shares a spiritual focus, as well as its view toward improving humanity, with the "nature farming" movement in Japan. [4] :5 Important features include the use of livestock manures to sustain plant growth (recycling of nutrients), maintenance and improvement of soil quality, and the health and well-being of crops and animals. [16] Cover crops, green manures and crop rotations are used extensively and the farms to foster the diversity of plant and animal life, and to enhance the biological cycles and the biological activity of the soil. [34]

Biodynamic farms often have a cultural component and encourage local community, both through developing local sales and through on-farm community building activities. Some biodynamic farms use the Community Supported Agriculture model, which has connections with social threefolding.

Compared to non-organic agriculture, BD farming practices have been found to be more resilient to environmental challenges, to foster a diverse biosphere, and to be more energy efficient, factors Eric Lichtfouse describes being of increasing importance in the face of climate change, energy scarcity and population growth. [38]

Biodynamic preparations

In his "agricultural course" Steiner prescribed nine different preparations to aid fertilization, and described how these were to be prepared. Steiner believed that these preparations mediated terrestrial and cosmic forces into the soil. [39] The prepared substances are numbered 500 through 508, where the first two are used for preparing fields, and the other seven are used for making compost. A long term trial (DOK experiment) evaluating the biodynamic farming system in comparison with organic and conventional farming systems, found that both organic farming and biodynamic farming resulted in enhanced soil properties, but had lower yields than conventional farming.[ citation needed ] Regarding compost development beyond accelerating the initial phase of composting, some positive effects have been noted: [12]

Although the preparations have direct nutrient values, modern biodynamic practitioners believe their benefit is to support the self-regulating capacities of the biota already present in the soil and compost. [41] Critics of the practice have pointed out that no evidence or logic underlies the practices themselves, which instead are dependent on magical thinking and debunked theories of Steiner himself. There is no evidence that biodynamic practices have any benefit beyond the direct nutrients they add as fertilizer, [40] which may itself be of smaller benefit than other traditionally organic or commercial fertilizers. [42]

Field preparations

Field preparations, for stimulating humus formation:

  • 500: A humus mixture prepared by filling a cow's horn with cow manure and burying it in the ground (40–60 cm below the surface) in the autumn. It is left to decompose during the winter and recovered for use as fertilizer the following spring. [43]
  • 501: Crushed powdered quartz stuffed into a cow's horn and buried in the ground in springtime and taken out in autumn. It can be mixed with 500 but is usually prepared on its own. The mixture is sprayed under very low pressure over the crop during the wet season, as a supposed antifungal. [44]

Compost preparations

The compost preparations Steiner recommended employ herbs which are frequently used in alternative medical remedies. Many of the same herbs Steiner referenced are used in organic practices to make foliar fertilizers, green manure, or in composting. The preparations Steiner discussed were:

  • 502: Yarrow blossoms (Achillea millefolium) stuffed into the urinary bladders from red deer (Cervus elaphus), placed in the sun during summer, buried in the ground during winter, and retrieved in the spring. [45]
  • 503: Chamomile blossoms (Matricaria recutita) stuffed into the small intestines of cattle, buried in humus-rich earth in the autumn, and retrieved in the spring. [46]
  • 504: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) plants in full bloom stuffed together underground surrounded on all sides by peat for a year. [47]
  • 505: Oak bark (Quercus robur) chopped in small pieces, placed inside the skull of a domesticated animal, surrounded by peat, and buried in the ground in a place near rain runoff. [48]
  • 506: Dandelion flowers (Taraxacum officinale) stuffed into the mesentery of a cow, buried in the ground during winter, and retrieved in the spring. [49]
  • 507: Valerian flowers (Valeriana officinalis) extracted into water. [50]
  • 508: Horsetail (Equisetum). [51]

Planting calendar

The approach considers that there are lunar and astrological influences on soil and plant development—for example, choosing to plant, cultivate or harvest various crops based on both the phase of the moon and the zodiacal constellation the moon is passing through, and also depending on whether the crop is the root, leaf, flower, or fruit of the plant. [52] [53] This aspect of biodynamics has been termed "astrological" and "pseudoscientific" in nature. [54] [55] [56]

Seed production

Biodynamic agriculture has focused on the open pollination of seeds (with farmers thereby generally growing their own seed) and the development of locally adapted varieties. [57]

Biodynamic certification

The Demeter biodynamic certification system established in 1924 was the first certification and labelling system for organic production. [4] :5 As of 2018, to receive certification as biodynamic, the farm must meet the following standards: agronomic guidelines, greenhouse management, structural components, livestock guidelines, and post-harvest handling and processing procedures. [58]

The term Biodynamic is a trademark held by the Demeter association of biodynamic farmers for the purpose of maintaining production standards used both in farming and processing foodstuffs. The trademark is intended to protect both the consumer and the producers of biodynamic produce. Demeter International an organization of member countries; each country has its own Demeter organization which is required to meet international production standards (but can also exceed them). The original Demeter organization was founded in 1928; the U.S. Demeter Association was formed in the 1980s and certified its first farm in 1982. In France, Biodyvin certifies biodynamic wine. [59] In Egypt, SEKEM has created the Egyptian Biodynamic Association (EBDA), an association that provides training for farmers to become certified. [60] As of 2006, more than 200 wineries worldwide were certified as biodynamic; numerous other wineries employ biodynamic methods to a greater or lesser extent. [61]


Research into biodynamic farming has been complicated by the difficulty of isolating the distinctively biodynamic aspects when conducting comparative trials. [3] Consequently, there is no strong body of material that provides evidence of any specific effect. [3] [62]

Since biodynamic farming is a form of organic farming, it can be generally assumed to share its characteristics, including "less stressed soils and thus diverse and highly interrelated soil communities". [63]

A 2009/2011 review found that biodynamically cultivated fields: [63]

Both factors were similar to the result in organically cultivated fields.


In a 2002 newspaper editorial, Peter Treue, agricultural researcher at the University of Kiel, characterized biodynamics as pseudoscience and argued that similar or equal results can be obtained using standard organic farming principles. He wrote that some biodynamic preparations more resemble alchemy or magic akin to geomancy. [8]

In a 1994 analysis, Holger Kirchmann, a soil researcher with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, concluded that Steiner's instructions were occult and dogmatic, and cannot contribute to the development of alternative or sustainable agriculture. According to Kirchmann, many of Steiner's statements are not provable because scientifically clear hypotheses cannot be made from his descriptions. Kirchmann asserted that when methods of biodynamic agriculture were tested scientifically, the results were unconvincing. [64] Further, in a 2004 overview of biodynamic agriculture, Linda Chalker-Scott, a researcher at Washington State University, characterized biodynamics as pseudoscience, writing that Steiner did not use scientific methods to formulate his theory of biodynamics, and that the later addition of valid organic farming techniques has "muddled the discussion" of Steiner's original idea. Based on the scant scientific testing of biodynamics, Chalker-Scott concluded "no evidence exists" that homeopathic preparations improve the soil. [65]

In Michael Shermer's The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience , Dan Dugan says that the way biodynamic preparations are supposed to be implemented are formulated solely on the basis of Steiner's "own insight". [66] Skeptic Brian Dunning writes "the best way to think of 'biodynamic agriculture' would be as a magic spell cast over an entire farm. Biodynamics sees an entire farm as a single organism, with something that they call a life force." [67]

Florian Leiber, Nikolai Fuchs and Hartmut Spieß, researchers at the Goetheanum, have defended the principles of biodynamics and suggested that critiques of biodynamic agriculture which deny it scientific credibility are "not in keeping with the they take no notice of large areas of biodynamic management and research". Biodynamic farmers are "charged with developing a continuous dialogue between biodynamic science and the natural sciences sensu stricto", despite important differences in paradigms, world views, and value systems. [22] :147

Philosopher of science Michael Ruse has written that followers of biodynamic agriculture rather enjoy the scientific marginalisation that comes from its pseudoscientific basis, revelling both in its esoteric aspects and the impression that they were in the vanguard of the wider anti-science sentiment that has grown in opposition to modern methods such as genetic modification. [9]

Steiner’s theory was similar to those of the agricultural scientist Richard Krzymowski, who was teaching in Breslau since 1922. [68] The environmental scientist Frank M. Rauch mentioned in 1995, concerning the reprint of a book from Raoul Heinrich Francé, another source probably used by Steiner. [69]

According to a scientific paper of Holger Kirchmann in 2021, the auras and forces mentioned by Steiner are not known to science. His statement (hypothesis) of “living forces” affecting crops cannot be tested, and is thus not falsifiable. However, when a hypothesis is not falsifiable, this is a sign of pseudoscience. [70]

A research team from the Botanical Garden and Department of Experimental and Social Sciences Education of the Faculty of Teacher Training of the University of Valencia warned in 2021 about the risk of pseudoscience in relation with myths or beliefs about the influence of the moon on agriculture. The findings of this scientific review of over 100 papers (including scientific articles, papers and higher education textbooks) have been published in the journal Agronomy. [71] They found that there is no reliable, science-based evidence for any relationship between lunar phases and plant physiology in any plant–science related textbooks or peer-reviewed journal articles justifying agricultural practices conditioned by the Moon. Nor does evidence from the field of physics support a causal relationship between lunar forces and plant responses. Therefore, popular agricultural practices that are tied to lunar phases have no scientific backing. [72]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rudolf Steiner</span> Austrian esotericist (1861–1925)

Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian occultist, social reformer, architect, esotericist, and claimed clairvoyant. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy. His teachings are influenced by Christian Gnosticism. Many of his ideas are pseudoscientific. He was also prone to pseudohistory.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organic farming</span> Method of agriculture meant to be environmentally friendly

Organic farming, also known as ecological farming or biological farming, is an agricultural system that uses fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. It originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organic agriculture accounts for 70 million hectares globally, with over half of that total in Australia. Biological pest control, mixed cropping, and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally-occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances. For instance, naturally-occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur, and veterinary drugs. Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewage sludge, plant growth regulators, hormones, and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited. Organic farming advocates claim advantages in sustainability, openness, self-sufficiency, autonomy and independence, health, food security, and food safety.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of organic gardening and farming</span> Overview of and topical guide to organic gardening and farming

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic gardening and farming:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organic movement</span>

The organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of organic food and other organic products. It started during the first half of the 20th century, when modern large-scale agricultural practices began to appear.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albert Howard</span> English botanist (1873–1947)

Sir Albert Howard was an English botanist. His academic background might have been botany. While working in India he was generally considered a pathologist; this more than likely being the reason for his consistent observations of the value of compost applications being an increase in health. Howard was the first Westerner to document and publish the Indian techniques of sustainable agriculture. After spending considerable time learning from Indian peasants and the pests present in their soil, he called these two his professors. He was a principal figure in the early organic movement. He is considered by many in the English-speaking world to have been, along with Rudolf Steiner and Eve Balfour, one of the key advocates of ancient Indian techniques of organic agriculture.

Biodynamic wines are wines made employing the biodynamic methods both to grow the fruit and during the post-harvest processing. Biodynamic wine production uses organic farming methods while also employing soil supplements prepared according to Rudolf Steiner's formulas, following a planting calendar that depends upon astrological configurations, and treating the earth as "a living and receptive organism."

Biointensive agriculture is an organic agricultural system that focuses on achieving maximum yields from a minimum area of land, while simultaneously increasing biodiversity and sustaining the soil fertility. The goal of the method is long term sustainability on a closed system basis. It is particularly effective for backyard gardeners and smallholder farmers in developing countries, and also has been used successfully on small-scale commercial farms.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organic horticulture</span> Organic cultivation of fruit, vegetables, flowers or ornamental plants

Organic horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants by following the essential principles of organic agriculture in soil building and conservation, pest management, and heirloom variety preservation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demeter International</span> Certification organization for biodynamic agriculture

The Biodynamic Federation Demeter International is the largest certification organization for biodynamic agriculture Its name is a reference to Demeter, the Greek goddess of grain and fertility. It is a non-profit umbrella organisation with 46 members organisations in 36 countries around the world, representing both the global biodynamic movement and the Demeter certified biodynamic farms. The organization incorporates 19 certifying Demeter organizations, and the rest of the certification is done by the international certification committee. The Demeter Biodynamic Certification is used in over 65 countries to verify that biodynamic products meet international standards in production and processing. The Demeter symbol was introduced and registered as a trademark in 1928, and as such was the first ecological label for organically produced foods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of organic farming</span> Aspect of history

Traditional farming was the original type of agriculture, and has been practiced for thousands of years. All traditional farming is now considered to be "organic farming" although at the time there were no known inorganic methods. For example, forest gardening, a fully organic food production system which dates from prehistoric times, is thought to be the world's oldest and most resilient agroecosystem. The industrial revolution introduced inorganic methods, most of which were not well developed and had serious side effects. An organic movement began in the 1940s as a reaction to agriculture's growing reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The history of this modern revival of organic farming dates back to the first half of the 20th century at a time when there was a growing reliance on these new synthetic, non-organic methods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ehrenfried Pfeiffer</span> German soil scientist

Ehrenfried Pfeiffer was a German scientist, soil scientist, leading advocate of biodynamic agriculture, anthroposophist and student of Rudolf Steiner.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">SEKEM</span>

The organization SEKEM was founded in 1977 by the Egyptian pharmacologist and social entrepreneur Dr. Ibrahim Abouleish in order to bring about cultural renewal in Egypt on a sustainable basis. Located northeast of Cairo, the organization now includes:

The Biodynamic Association is a United States-based company that promotes Biodynamic agriculture system through educational and research programs and has headquarters in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Marjorie Spock was an environmentalist, writer and poet, best known for her influence on Rachel Carson when the latter was writing Silent Spring. Spock was also a noted Waldorf teacher, eurythmist, biodynamic gardener and anthroposophist.

Animal-free agriculture, also known as veganic agriculture, stockfree farming or veganic farming, consists of farming methods that do not use animals or animal products.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Weleda</span> Alternative medicine and beauty products company

Weleda is a multinational company that produces both beauty products and naturopathic medicines. Both branches design their products based on anthroposophic principles, an alternative medicine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organic farming in New Zealand</span> Farming organically in New Zealand

Organic farming in New Zealand began in the 1930s and became more popular in the 1980s. It has gained importance within the farming market, particularly with the recent involvement of larger companies, such as Wattie's.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Natural farming</span> Sustainable farming approach

Natural farming, also referred to as "the Fukuoka Method", "the natural way of farming", or "do-nothing farming", is an ecological farming approach established by Masanobu Fukuoka (1913–2008). Fukuoka, a Japanese farmer and philosopher, introduced the term in his 1975 book The One-Straw Revolution. The title refers not to lack of effort, but to the avoidance of manufactured inputs and equipment. Natural farming is related to fertility farming, organic farming, sustainable agriculture, agroecology, agroforestry, ecoagriculture and permaculture, but should be distinguished from biodynamic agriculture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hügelkultur</span> Mounded gardening technique

Hügelkultur, literally mound bed or mound culture, is a horticultural technique where a mound constructed from decaying wood debris and other compostable biomass plant materials is later planted as a raised bed. Adopted by permaculture advocates, the technique helps to improve soil fertility, water retention, and soil warming, thus benefitting plants grown on or near such mounds.

Margaret Cross was a British educator and school principal, a pioneer of Co-education and of Steiner Waldorf education in Britain as well as of Biodynamic agriculture. Together with Hannah Clark she founded the Kings Langley Priory School, later the Rudolf Steiner School Kings Langley, which was closed in March 2019.


  1. Lejano, Raul P.; Ingram, Mrill; Ingram, Helen M. (2013). "Chapter 6: Narratives of Nature and Science in Alternative Farming Networks". Power of Narrative in Environmental Networks. MIT Press. p. 155. ISBN   9780262519571.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Paull, John (2011). "Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course: Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924". European Journal of Social Sciences. 21 (1): 64–70.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Vogt G (2007). Lockeretz W (ed.). Chapter 1: The Origins of Organic Farming. CABI Publishing. pp. 9–30. ISBN   9780851998336.{{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  4. 1 2 3 4 Paul Kristiansen and Charles Mansfield, "Overview of organic agriculture", in Paul Kristiansen, Acram Taji, and John Reganold (2006), Organic Agriculture: A global perspective, Collingwood, AU: CSIRO Publishing
  5. Ikerd, John (2010). "Sustainability, Rural". In Leslie A. Duram (ed.). Encyclopedia of Organic, Sustainable, and Local Food. ABC-CLIO. pp. 347–49. ISBN   978-0313359637.
  6. Abbott, L. K.; Murphy, Daniel V. (2007). Soil Biological Fertility: A Key to Sustainable Land Use in Agriculture. Springer. p. 233. ISBN   978-1402066184.
  7. 2015 Biodynamic Lunar and Planetary Calendar; Desmond Ansel Jolly, Isabella Kenfield, California's New Green Revolution: Pioneers in Sustainable Agriculture, University of California Small Farm Program 2008, p. 114; Carl F. Jordan, An Ecosystem Approach to Sustainable Agriculture, Springer 2013, p. 126; Arnaldo Walter and Pedro Gerber Machado, "Socio-Economic Impacts of Bioethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil", in Socio-Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Production Dominik Rutz, Rainer Janssen (eds.), Springer 2014 ISBN   978-3-319-03828-5 pp. 193–215. p. 208; Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Twenty-First Century Systems Agriculture, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century, National Academies Press 2010. ISBN   978-0-309-14896-2 p. 21
  8. 1 2 Treue, Peter (13 March 2002). "Blut und Bohnen: Der Paradigmenwechsel im Künast-Ministerium ersetzt Wissenschaft durch Okkultismus". Die Gegenwart (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Archived from the original on 17 April 2003. Retrieved 15 November 2011. (Translation: "Blood and Beans: The paradigm shift in the Ministry of Renate Künast replaces science with occultism")
  9. 1 2 Ruse M (2013). Pigliucci M, Boudry M (eds.). Chapter 12: Evolution – From Pseudoscience to Popular Science, from Popular Science to Professional Science. University of Chicago Press. p. 227. ISBN   978-0-226-05182-6.{{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  10. Paull, John & Hennig, Benjamin (2020). A World Map of Biodynamic Agriculture, Agricultural and Biological Sciences Journal. 6 (42): 114-119
  11. "Demeter Monitor 2018/2019 (page 6)" (PDF) (in Dutch). Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  12. 1 2 Reeve, Jennifer R.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Reganold, John P.; York, Alan L.; McGourty, Glenn; McCloskey, Leo P. (December 1, 2005). "Soil and Winegrape Quality in Biodynamically and Organically Managed Vineyards". American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 56 (4): 367–76. doi:10.5344/ajev.2005.56.4.367. ISSN   0002-9254. OCLC   60652537. S2CID   55723731.
  13. Traditional agriculture employed organic practices in the absence of any alternative.
  14. Paull, John (2013) "Koberwitz (Kobierzyce); In the footsteps of Rudolf Steiner'", Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania, 109 (Autumn), pp. 7–11.
  15. Paull, John (2013) "Breslau (Wrocław): In the footsteps of Rudolf Steiner", Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania, 110: 10–15.
  16. 1 2 Diver (1999), "Introduction" Archived 2011-05-26 at the Wayback Machine .
  17. Paull, John (2011). "The secrets of Koberwitz: the diffusion of Rudolf Steiner's agriculture course and the founding of biodynamic agriculture". Journal of Social Research & Policy. 2 (1): 19–29. Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  18. 1 2 Paull, John (2013) A history of the organic agriculture movement in Australia. In: Bruno Mascitelli, and Antonio Lobo (Eds.) Organics in the Global Food Chain. Connor Court Publishing, Ballarat, ch.3, pp. 37–61.
  19. 1 2 3 Paull, John (2011). "Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924–1938". Journal of Organic Systems. 6 (1): 27–41.
  20. Herbert Koepf and Bodo von Plato "Die biologisch-dynamische Wirtschaftsweise im 20.Jahrhundert", Dornach, 2001
  21. 1 2 3 Paull, John (2011) "The Betteshanger Summer School: Missing link between biodynamic agriculture and organic farming", Journal of Organic Systems, 6(2):13–26.
  22. 1 2 3 4 Florian Leiber, Nikolai Fuchs and Hartmut Spieß, "Biodynamic agriculture today", in Paul Kristiansen, Acram Taji, and John Reganold (2006), Organic Agriculture: A global perspective, Collingwood, AU: CSIRO Publishing
  23. 1 2 Paull, John (2019) The Pioneers of Biodynamics in USA: The Early Milestones of Organic Agriculture in the United States, American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 6(2):89–94.
  24. Paull, John (2019) The Pioneers of Biodynamics in Great Britain: From Anthroposophic Farming to Organic Agriculture (1924–1940), Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development, 5(4): 138–145.
  25. Paull, John (2015) "Ernesto Genoni: Artist, Pacifist, Anthroposophist", Uriel Lecture, Christian Community, Hawthorn, pp. 1–67.
  26. Paull, John (2014) "Ernesto Genoni: Australia's pioneer of biodynamic agriculture", Journal of Organics, 1(1):57–81.
  27. Paull, John (2019) Dalmore Farm: Victoria's first biodynamic farming venture (1933–1934), Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania, 131: 26–31.
  28. Paull, John (2017) Ileen Macpherson: Life and tragedy of a pioneer of biodynamic farming at Demeter Farm and a benefactor of Anthroposophy in Australia, Journal of Organics, 4(1):29–56.
  29. Paull, John (2012) "Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Architects of Anthroposophy", Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania, 106: 20–30.
  30. "Demeter Bio-Dynamic".
  31. ""A Brief History of Bio-dynamics – an Australian Perspective" Biodynamic Growing No 1 Dec 2003" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2011.
  32. Paull, John (2010) "From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)" Archived 2020-04-19 at the Wayback Machine , Journal of Social Research & Policy, 1(2):93–102.
  33. Biodynamic Agriculture Dept. of the University of Kassel Archived October 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  34. 1 2 3 4 Lotter, Donald W. (2003). "Organic Agriculture". Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 21 (4): 59–128. doi:10.1300/J064v21n04_06. ISSN   1044-0046. S2CID   216090323.
  35. Harwood, Richard R. (1990). "A History of Sustainable Agriculture". In Clive A. Edwards, Rattan Lal, Patrick Madden, Robert H. Miller and Gar House (Eds.). Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Ankeny, IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society. pp. 3–19. ISBN   0-935734-21-X. p. 7
  36. 1 2 Demeter, USA, Farm Standard
  37. Alsos, G. A., Carter, S., and Ljunggren, E. (2011), The Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship in Agriculture and Rural Development Cheltenham, GB:Edward Elgar Publishing
  38. K. Padmavathy; G. Poyyamoli (2011). Lichtfouse, Eric (ed.). Genetics, biofuels and local farming system. Berlin: Springer. p. 387. ISBN   978-94-007-1520-2.
  39. Kirchmann, H.; Thorvaldsson, G.; Bergstrom, L.; Gerzabek, M.; Andren, O.; Eriksson, L.O.; Winninge, M. (2008). "Fundamentals of Organic Agriculture – Past and Present" (PDF). In Kirchmann, H.; Bergström, L. (eds.). Organic Crop Production – Ambitions and Limitations. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 13–37. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9316-6_2. ISBN   978-1-4020-9315-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
  40. 1 2 Chhabra, Esha (5 March 2017). "Biodynamic farming is on the rise – but how effective is this alternative agricultural practice?". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  41. Raupp, J. and U.J. König. (1996). "Biodynamic preparations cause opposite yield effects depending upon yield levels". Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 13, pp. 175–88.
  42. Chalker-Scott, Linda (December 2013). "The Science Behind Biodynamic Preparations: A Literature Review". HortTechnology. 23 (6): 814–819. doi: 10.21273/HORTTECH.23.6.814 . Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  43. Proctor (1997) , pp. 33–37
  44. Proctor (1997) , pp. 47–48
  45. Proctor (1997) , pp. 67–69
  46. Proctor (1997) , pp. 70–73
  47. Proctor (1997) , pp. 73–74
  48. Proctor (1997) , pp. 74–76
  49. Proctor (1997) , pp. 77–78
  50. Proctor (1997) , pp. 79–80
  51. Proctor (1997) , pp. 81–82
  52. Desai, B K (2007). Sustainable agriculture: a vision for the future. New Delhi: B T Pujari/New India Pub. Agency. pp. 228–29. ISBN   978-81-89422-63-9.
  53. Biodynamic Tea (2007), "Beyond Organic Biodynamic Tea" Archived 2009-02-05 at the Wayback Machine .
  54. Diver (1999), "Planetary Influences" Archived 2011-05-26 at the Wayback Machine .
  55. Novella, Steven (19 June 2017). "Biodynamic Farming and Other Nonsense". NeuroLogica Blog. The New England Skeptical Society. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  56. Stableford, Brian M. (1 July 2015). Science fact and science fiction : an encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 42. ISBN   978-1138868823 . Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  57. Nemoto, K.; Nishikawa, Y. (2007). "Seed supply system for alternative agriculture: Case study of biodynamic agriculture in Germany". Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture. Shinshu University, Japan. 43 (1–2): 73–81.
  58. Magali Delmas, Vered Doctori-Blass, Kara Shuster, "Ceago Vinegarden: How green is your wine?: Environmental differentiation strategy through Eco-labels". Case Study, Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, p.9
  59. Paul Gregutt, "Not Woo-Woo Anymore: More and more wineries are tasting the benefits of saving the soil", The Seattle Times, November 20, 2005. Reprint copy Archived May 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . Accessed 2008-01-26.
  60. Egyptian Biodynamic Association (EBDA). Accessed 2008-01-26. Archived May 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  61. Monty Waldin, Biodynamic Wines, ISBN   1-84000-964-0
  62. Nene, Y. L. (15 July 2017). "A Critical Discussion on the Methods Currently Recommended to Support Organic Crop Farming in India" (PDF). Asian Agri-History. 21 (4): 265–283.
  63. 1 2 Turinek, M.; Grobelnik-Mlakar, S.; Bavec, M.; Bavec, F. (2009). "Biodynamic agriculture research progress and priorities". Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 24 (2): 146–54. doi:10.1017/S174217050900252X. S2CID   154750013.
  64. Kirchmann, Holger (1994). "Biological dynamic farming – an occult form of alternative agriculture?". Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 7 (2): 173–87. doi:10.1007/BF02349036. S2CID   153540221.
  65. Chalker-Scott, Linda (2004). "The Myth of Biodynamic Agriculture" (PDF). Master Gardener Magazine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2017.
  66. Dugan D (2002). Shermer M (ed.). Anthroposophy and Anthroposophical Medicine. Vol. 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 32. ISBN   978-1-57607-653-8.{{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  67. Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #26: Biodynamic Agriculture". Skeptoid . Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  68. Helmut Zander (2011). Rudolf Steiner. Die Biographie. Piper, Munich. p. 458. ISBN   978-3-492-05448-5.
  69. Frank M. Rauch (1995). "Lebendige Erde". Zur Neuauflage: Francé Das Leben im Boden und Das Edaphon, Report about the new edition. Edition Siebeneicher.
  70. Kirchmann, Holger (2021). "Revisiting the original reasons for excluding inorganic fertilizers in organic farming—Why the ban is not consistent with our current scientific understanding". Outlook on Agriculture. 50 (2): 107–115. doi: 10.1177/00307270211020025 . S2CID   236203111.
  71. "New study contradicts pseudoscientific beliefs about the influence of the moon on agriculture". 19 February 2021.
  72. Mayoral, Olga (2020). "What Has Been Thought and Taught on the Lunar Influence on Plants in Agriculture? Perspective from Physics and Biology". Agronomy. 10 (7): 955. doi: 10.3390/agronomy10070955 . hdl: 10550/76090 .

Further reading


  • Proctor, Peter (1997). Grasp the Nettle: Making Biodynamic Farming & Gardening Work. With Gillian Cole. Random House.