Bion of Abdera (Greek : Βίων ὁ Ἀβδηρίτης, gen. Βίωνος) was a Greek mathematician of Abdera, Thrace, and a pupil of Democritus. He wrote both in the Ionic and Attic dialects, and was the first who said that there were some parts of the Earth in which it was night for six months, while the remaining six months were one uninterrupted day.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
In Greek mythology, Abderus or Abderos was a divine hero, reputed by some to be one of Heracles' lovers (eromenoi), and reputedly a son of Hermes by some accounts, and eponym of Abdera, Thrace.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English language encyclopedia first published in 1842. The second, improved and enlarged, edition appeared in 1848, and there were many revised editions up to 1890. The encyclopedia covered law, religion, architecture, warfare, daily life, and similar subjects primarily from the standpoint of a classicist. It was one of a series of reference works on classical antiquity by William Smith, the others cover persons and places. It runs to well over a million words in any edition, and all editions are now in the public domain.
Ariamnes I was satrap of Cappadocia under Persian suzerainty. Son of Datames and father of Ariarathes I and his brother Orophernes (Holophernes), Diodorus states that Ariamnes governed fifty years although it is unclear how this could be correct given the dates that his father Datames and his son Ariarathes I were satraps of Cappadocia.
Bas was the first independent ruler of Bithynia. He ruled for fifty years, from 376 to 326 BC, and died at the age of 71.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, first published in 1854, was the last of a series of classical dictionaries edited by the English scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. As declared by Smith in the Preface: "The Dictionary of Geography ... is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner". The book stays up to the description: in two massive volumes the dictionary provides detailed coverage of all the important countries, regions, towns, cities, geographical features that occur in Greek and Roman literature, without forgetting those mentioned solely in the Bible. The work was last reissued in 2005.
Acanthus the Lacedaemonian, was the victor in two footrace events, the diaulos (δίαυλος) and dolichos (δόλιχος), in the Olympic Games of 720 BC. He was also, according to some accounts, the first who ran naked in these games. Other accounts ascribe this to Orsippus the Megarian. Thucydides says that the Lacedaemonians were the first who contended naked in gymnastic games, although he does not mention Acanthus by name.
Crates of Athens was a Greek philosopher.
Adusius was, according to the account of Xenophon in his Cyropaedeia, sent by Cyrus the Great with an army into Caria, to put an end to the feuds which existed in the country. He afterwards assisted Hystaspes in subduing Phrygia, and was made satrap of Caria, as the inhabitants had requested.
Aeschylus of Rhodes was appointed by Alexander the Great one of the inspectors of the governors of that country after its conquest in 332 BC. He is not spoken of again until 319, when he is mentioned as conveying in four ships six hundred talents of silver from Cilicia to Macedonia, which were detained at Ephesus by Antigonus, in order to pay his foreign mercenaries.
Aetna was in Greek and Roman mythology a Sicilian nymph and, according to Alcimus, a daughter of Uranus and Gaia, or of Briareus. Stephanus of Byzantium says that according to one account Aetna was a daughter of Oceanus. Simonides said that she had acted as arbitrator between Hephaestus and Demeter respecting the possession of Sicily. By Zeus or Hephaestus she became the mother of the Palici. Mount Aetna in Sicily was believed to have derived its name from her, and under it Zeus buried Typhon, Enceladus, or Briareus. The mountain itself was believed to be the place in which Hephaestus and the Cyclops made the thunderbolts for Zeus.
Nymphodorus of Abdera was a citizen of Abdera, Thrace whose sister married Sitalces, a king of Thrace. The Athenians, who had previously regarded Nymphodorus as their enemy, made him their Proxenos in 431 BC, and, through his mediation, obtained the alliance of Sitalces, for which they were anxious, and conferred the freedom of their city on Sadocus, Sitalces' son. Nymphodorus also brought about a reconciliation between the Athenians and Perdiccas II, king of Macedon, and persuaded them to restore to him the town of Therma, which they had taken in 432 BC. In 430 BC, Nymphodorus aided in the seizure, at Bisanthe, of Corinthian Aristeus and the other ambassadors, who were on their way to ask aid of the Persian king against the Athenians.
Diocles of Cnidus was a Platonic philosopher, who is mentioned as the author of Διατριβαί (Discussions) from which a fragment is quoted by Eusebius:
Diocles of Cnidos asserts in his Diatribae, that through fear of the followers of Theodorus, and of the sophist Bion, who used to assail the philosophers, and shrank from no means of refuting them, Arcesilaus took precautions, in order to avoid trouble, by never appearing to suggest any dogma, but used to put forward the "suspense of judgement" as a protection, like the black juice which the cuttlefishes throw out.
Alcimenes can refer to a number of people in Greek mythology and history:
Cleinias was the son of Cleinias, and a younger brother of the famous Athenian statesman Alcibiades, and a member of the wealthy and influential Alcmaeonidae family. Pericles, who was the guardian of the youths, and who feared Alcibiades might somehow corrupt Cleinias, sent the latter away from his own house and placed him for education with his brother Ariphron; but the latter sent him back at the end of six months, finding it impossible to make anything of him. In one of the dialogues of Plato, he is spoken of as quite a madman.
Almo was in ancient Roman religion the eponymous god of the small river Almo in the vicinity of Rome. Like Tiberinus and others, he was prayed to by the augurs of Rome. In the water of Almo the aniconic stone embodying the mother of the gods, Cybele, used to be washed. He had a naiad daughter named Larunda.
Ameipsias of Athens was an Ancient Greek comic poet, a contemporary of Aristophanes, whom he twice bested in the dramatic contests. His Konnos (Κόννος) gained a second prize at the City Dionysia in 423, when Aristophanes won the third prize with The Clouds.
The gens Aliena or Alliena was a plebeian family of the Roman Republic. The first member of the gens to achieve prominence was Lucius Alienus, plebeian aedile in 454 BC. However, the family then slipped into obscurity for several centuries, emerging once more in the first century BC.
Archytas of Amphissa was a Greek poet who was probably a contemporary of Euphorion of Chalcis, about 300 BCE, since it was a matter of doubt with the ancients themselves whether the epic poem Γέρανος (Geranos) was the work of Archytas or Euphorion.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
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