Bird-and-flower painting (in Chinese 花鸟画) is a kind of Chinese painting prevalent in East Asia named after its subject matter. Normally, most bird-and-flower paintings belong to the scholar-artist style of Chinese painting.
According to Chinese tradition, bird-and-flower painting covers "flowers, birds, fish, and insects" (Traditional Chinese: 花鳥魚蟲, Simplified Chinese: 花鸟鱼虫 huā, niǎo, yú, chóng). It can thus deal with a wide range of natural topics, including flowers (plants), fish, insects, birds, pets (dogs, cats), etc.
The huaniao hua (花鳥畫) or "bird-and-flower painting" is proper of 10th century China. The most representative artists are Huang Quan 哳㥳 (c. 900 – 965) and Xu Xi 徐熙 (937–975). They are the masters of two schools: the first school was led by Huang Quan (imperial painter). It is characterised by an "outline" method of brush work, with emphasis on bright colours filling a meticulously outline (gongbi). The other school was led by Xu Xi (never entered into officialdom) and typically used techniques associated with ink-and-wash painting.
The bird-and-flower motif started appearing in Japanese art around the Muromachi period during the 14th century, and developed its own distinct style. It also entered ukiyo-e woodblock printing, where it was known as kachō-e (花鳥絵). Especially the shin hanga movement produced a number of works with this motif starting in the Meiji era. Artists working with this were Ohara Koson (1877–1945) and Ito Sozan (1884–?), as well as Imao Keinen (1845–1924).
According to painting technique:
Ink wash painting is a type of East Asian brush painting that uses the same black ink used in East Asian calligraphy in different concentrations. Emerging in Tang dynasty China (618–907), it overturned earlier, more realistic techniques. It is typically monochrome, using only shades of black, with a great emphasis on virtuoso brushwork and conveying the perceived "spirit" or "essence" of a subject over the direct imitation. It flourished from the Song dynasty in China (960–1279) onwards, as well as in Japan after it was introduced by Zen Buddhist monks in the 14th century. Somewhat later, it became important in Korean painting.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. Painting in the traditional style is known today in Chinese as guó huà or zhōng guó huà, meaning "national" or "native painting", as opposed to Western styles of art which became popular in China in the 20th century. It is also called Danqing. Traditional painting involves essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black ink or coloured pigments; oils are not used. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made are paper and silk. The finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls. Traditional painting can also be done on album sheets, walls, lacquerware, folding screens, and other media.
A Chinese school is a school that is established for the purpose of teaching the varieties of Chinese, though the purpose can vary to teaching different aspects of Chinese culture such as Chinese art, calligraphy, history and martial arts. The programs can either be an independent institution or a part of an existing educational institution.
Chang Dai-chien or Zhang Daqian was one of the best-known and most prodigious Chinese artists of the twentieth century. Originally known as a guohua (traditionalist) painter, by the 1960s he was also renowned as a modern impressionist and expressionist painter. In addition, he is regarded as one of the most gifted master forgers of the twentieth century.
Gongbi is a careful realist technique in Chinese painting, the opposite of the interpretive and freely expressive xieyi style.
During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Chinese painting progressed further basing on the achievements in painted art during the earlier Song dynasty and Yuan dynasty. The painting techniques which were invented and developed before the Ming period became classical during this period. More colours were used in painting during the Ming dynasty. Seal brown became much more widely used, and even over-used during this period. Many new painting skills/techniques were innovated and developed, calligraphy was much more closely and perfectly combined with the art of painting. Chinese painting reached another climax in the mid and late Ming. The painting was derived in a broad scale, many new schools were born, and many outstanding masters emerged.
Mogu is a painting skill or technique in traditional Chinese painting. It literally means "boneless".
The Hatakeyama Memorial Museum of Fine Art is a private museum established in October 1964 in Tokyo, Japan.
Chan Shing Kau is a Hong Kong painter specialising in ink painting.
Pang Chai-sip was a renowned Hong Kong artist of the Lingnan school (嶺南畫派) of Chinese painting. Born in Guangdong, Pang started his life in art as a student at the Art Institute of Guangzhou (廣州市立美術學院), by which he learnt his painting skills and philosophy with virtuosos in the field like Li Yanshan, Li Jinfa (李金髮), Chao Shao-an, Huang Junbi (黃君璧) and Li Xiongcai (黎雄才).
Lin Yushan, originally named Lin Yinggui, was raised in a family-owned picture framing store. Lin grew up with an early passion for painting, and his first instructors were folk painters hired by his family. He also spent much of his early years learning from artists such as Tan Ting-pho and Isaka Kyokko.
Cai Han, was a Chinese landscape painter. She was the concubine of the painter Mao Xiang and, with his other concubine Jin Yue, she was commissioned by him with the task of producing paintings as gifts to his guests; they became known as "The Two Painters of the Mao Family".
Imao Keinen was a Japanese painter and print designer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, part of the shin-hanga movement. In 1904 he was appointed as an Imperial Household Artist.
Taiwanese animation can be traced back to 1954's black-and-white animation Wu Song Fights the Tiger (武松打虎) by the Kuei Brothers but the earliest surviving is The Race Between Turtle and Rabbit (龜兔賽跑) produced at the end of the 1960s by the Kuangchi Program Service and was also the first color animation in Taiwan. In the 1970s, Taiwanese animators went abroad to study the animation production techniques in the United States and Japan, opening up Taiwan's OEM animation and homemade industry.
Freehand brush work is a genre of Chinese traditional painting which includes poem, calligraphy, painting and seal. In Chinese called Hsieh yi, which literally means "writing ideas". It was formed in a long period of artistic activities and promoted by the literati. Through the inheritance and development in the past dynasties, freehand brush work has gradually become the most influential and popular genre.
The Lingnan School of painting, also called the Cantonese School, is a style of painting from the Guangdong or Lingnan region of China.
Ma Quan, courtesy name Jiangxiang, was a Qing painter who lived during the late 17th–18th centuries, specialising in bird and flower painting. As a female artist who sold her paintings, Ma's art style is markedly different from both that of the imperial court and contemporary "talented young ladies".
Kikkawa Historical Museum is a private museum of artefacts handed down by the Kikkawa clan, daimyō of Iwakuni Domain, in Iwakuni, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Located between Kintai-kyō bridge and Iwakuni Castle and opened by the Kikkawa Hōkōkai Society (吉川報效会) in 1995, the museum's collection totals some seven thousand items, including materials from the Heian and Kamakura periods, a painting attributed to Sesshū, and one National Treasure. There are four changing displays each year. Other materials once owned by the Kikkawa clan are on display at Iwakuni Chōkokan.
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