Bishopric of Cammin

Last updated

Roman Catholic Diocese of Cammin

Dioecesis Caminensis

Bistum Cammin(in German)
Kamien Pomorski - katedra zewnatrz 07.JPG
Then Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Cammin in Pomerania, now Concathedral in Kamień Pomorski
Wappen Bistum Kammin.png
Coat of arms
Location
Territorymost of ducal Pomerania, Stift territory, parts of eastern Mecklenburg, of the New March, and of the Uckermark
Ecclesiastical province exempt
Information
DenominationRoman Catholic
Rite Latin Rite
Established14 October 1140
de facto defunct since 1544
1688 former diocese subject to Nordic Missions Vicariate
Cathedral Cammin in Pomerania: Cathedral of St. John the Baptist
Patron saint Sabinus of Spoleto
Faustinus of Brescia
Current leadership
Bishoplast Catholic: Erasmus von Manteuffel
Prince-Bishopric of Cammin

Hochstift Cammina
1248–1650
Wappen Bistum Kammin.png
Coat of arms
Bistum Cammin 1250.PNG
Territory (violet) about 1250 
StatusVassal of  Holy Roman Empire
Capital Wollin, see till ~1150
Usedom Abbey, see till 1175
then Cammin, see & chapter
Kolberg, bishop's residence as of 1276
Köslin, Stift government
Common languagesOfficial: German
Unofficial: Pomeranian, Kashubian
Religion
Catholic till 1544, then Lutheran
Government elective monarchy, ruled by the prince-bishop or administrator holding the see, elected by the chapter or, exceptionally, appointed by the Pope
Prince-bishop,
administrator, or
chapter (in vacancy)
 
 1394–1398
Prince-Bishop John III
 1479
Prince-Bishop Nicolaus
 1574–1602
Administrator Casimir
 1637–1650
Admin. Ernest Bogislaw
Legislaturebishop, chapter and Stift estates
Historical era High Middle Ages to Early modern period
 Cammin Diocese est.
1140
 Bishop gained rule in temporalities near Kolberg
1248
 acquired imperial immediacy
1345,
1417 (conf.)
 joined Upper Saxon Circle
1512
 immediacy confirmed
1521, and 1542
 autonomy waived, Pomeranian fief
1544
 seized by Brandenburg
1650
 merged in Pomerania Province
1653
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Wappen Pommern.svg Duchy of Pomerania
Province of Pomerania (1653–1815) Wappen Pommern.svg
  1. [1]

The Bishopric of Cammin (also Kammin, Kamień Pomorski) was both a former Roman Catholic diocese in the Duchy of Pomerania from 1140 to 1544, [2] and a secular territory of the Holy Roman Empire (Prince-Bishopric) in the Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) area from 1248 to 1650.

Contents

The diocese comprised the areas controlled by the House of Pomerania in the 12th century, thus differing from the later territory of the Duchy of Pomerania by the exclusion of the Principality of Rügen and inclusion of Circipania, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and the northern Uckermark and New March. The diocese was rooted in the Conversion of Pomerania by Otto of Bamberg in 1124 and 1128, and was dissolved during the Protestant Reformation, when the Pomeranian nobility adopted Lutheranism in 1534 and the last pre-reformatory bishop died in 1544. The Catholic diocese was succeeded by the Pomeranian Evangelical Church.

The secular territory of the former diocese continued to exist as a prince-bishopric and principality within the Duchy of Pomerania, and was dissolved in 1650 when it fell to Brandenburg-Prussia, becoming part of Brandenburgian Pomerania. The area of the former principality was administered as Fürstenthum county within the Prussian Province of Pomerania until its division in 1872.

History

After Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland had conquered Pomerania until 1121/22, Saint Otto of Bamberg between 1124 and 1128 Christianised the area. [3] Otto's first mission in 1124 followed a failed mission by eremite Bernard in 1122, and was initiated by Bolesław with the approval of both Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Pope Callixtus II. [4] Otto's second mission in 1128 was initiated by Lothair after a pagan reaction. [5] Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania supported and aided both missions. [6] Between the missions, he had expanded his duchy westward, up to Güstrow. [7] These former Lutician areas were not subject to Polish overlordship, but claimed by the Holy Roman Empire. [8] [9] Otto during his lifetime did not succeed in founding a diocese, caused by a conflict of the archbishops of Magdeburg and Gniezno about ecclesiastical hegemony in the area. [10] [11] [12] [13] Otto died in 1139. [11]

Pope Innocent II founded the diocese by a papal bull of 14 October 1140, and made the church of St. Adalbert at (Julin (Wollin/Wolin) on Wollin/Wolin island the see of the diocese. [11] [14] [15] [16] In the bull, the new diocese was placed "under the protection of the see of the Holy Peter", thwarting ambitions of the archbishops of Magdeburg and Gniezno, who both wanted to incorporate the new diocese as suffragan into their archdioceses. [11] [15] Adalbert, a former chaplain of Saint Otto who had participated in Otto's mission as an interpreter and assistant, was consecrated bishop at Rome. [15] [17] Adalbert and Ratibor I founded Stolpe Abbey at the side of Wartislaw I's assassination by a pagan in 1153, the first monastery in Pomerania.

The bishops held the title of Pomeranorum or Pomeranorum et Leuticorum episcopus, referring to the tribal territories of the Pomeranians and Luticians merged in the Duchy of Pomerania. [18]

In the late 12th century the territory of the Griffin dukes was raided several times by Saxon troops of Henry the Lion and Danish forces under King Valdemar I. The initial see of in Wollin was moved to Grobe Abbey on the island of Usedom after 1150. [19] [20] At the same time Wollin economically decayed and was devastated by Danish expeditions, which contributed to the move to Grobe. [20] The see was again moved to Cammin, now Kamień Pomorski, in 1175, [19] [20] [21] where a chapter was founded for the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist. [20] [22] All this time, the question of subordinance of the Pomeranian diocese as suffragan to an archdiocese remained unsolved. [23] Since 1188, when the pope accepted the move of the see, the bishopric was referred to as "Roman Catholic Diocese of Cammin", while before it was addressed as Pomeranensis ecclesia, [18] Pomeranian diocese. [24] The pope furthermore placed the bishopric as an exempt diocese directly under the Holy See. [25] [26] [27] Since 1208, the bishops held the title Caminensis episcopus. [28]

Bistum Cammin 1400.PNG
The Duchy of Pomerania (yellow) in 1400, P.-Stettin and P.-Wolgast are indicated; purple: Secular area of the Cammin bishopric (BM. Cammin) and Teutonic Prussia; orange: Margraviate of Brandenburg; pink: duchies of Mecklenburg
Kirchenprovinzen Deutschland 1500.jpg
Church provinces in 1500, Bishopric of Cammin shown in brown.

The area of the diocese resembled the area controlled by Wartislaw I and his brother and successor, Ratibor I. [21] The northern border was defined by the coastline and the border with the Principality of Rügen (Ryck river). [29] In the West, the diocese included Circipania up to Güstrow. [29] In the Southwest, the border of the diocese ran south to a line Güstrow-Ivenack-Altentreptow in a near straight west–east orientation, then took a sharp southward turn west of Ueckermünde to include Prenzlau. [29] The border then turned east to meet the Oder river south of Gartz and followed the Oder to the Warta (Warthe) confluence to include Zehden. [29] In the South, the diocese border ran immediately north of the Warthe to include Landsberg and Soldin. [29] The southeastern border left the Warthe area with a sharp turn running straight north to Dramburg, then turned eastwards south of the town to include Tempelburg. [29] Then, after a southeast turn, it turned northeast towards Bütow. [29] The eastern border ran east of Bütow and west of Lauenburg in Pomerania to meet the seacoast east of Revekol. [29]

When Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa deposed Henry the Lion in 1180 he granted Pomerania under Bogislaw I the status of an Imperial duchy, but from 1185 it was a Danish fief until the 1227 Battle of Bornhöved. In 1248, the Cammin bishops and the Pomeranian dukes had interchanged the terrae Stargard and Kolberg, leaving the bishops in charge of the latter. [1] In the following, the bishops extended their secular reign which soon comprised the Kolberg (now Kołobrzeg), Köslin (also Cöslin, now Koszalin) and Bublitz (now Bobolice) areas. [30] When in 1276 they became the sovereign of the town of Kolberg also, they moved their residence there. [1] Bishop Hermann von Gleichen founded the towns of Köslin (Koszalin) in 1266 and Massow (Maszewo) in 1278. The administration of the episcopal secular state was done from Köslin. [1]

The bishops at multiple occasions tried to exclude their secular reign from ducal overlordship by applying for Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit). [30] The Pomeranian dukes successfully forestalled these ambitions, [30] and immediacy was granted only temporarily in 1345. [1] The addition of profane territory would be the basis for later turning the status of the diocese into a prince-bishopric. The episcopal territory of secular reign remained a subfief of ducal Pomerania, and did not become an immediately imperial fief.

The Protestant Reformation reached Pomerania in the early 16th century, mostly starting from the cities, and Lutheranism was made the Duchy of Pomerania's religion in 1534 by the diet of Treptow upo Rega (Trzebiatów). The Pomeranian reformator Johannes Bugenhagen, appointed bishop of Cammin by 1544, did not assume the office, the cathedral chapter elected instead Bartholomaeus Swawe, the former chancellor of Duke Barnim XI of Pomerania-Stettin, who promptly renounced Cammin's imperial immediacy. From 1556 on the Griffin dukes held also the office of a titular bishop ruling in Cammin's secular territory. In 1650 the last bishop Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ resigned and the diocese was secularised. With Farther Pomerania it fell to Brandenburg-Prussia forming its Province of Pomerania.

Bishops of Cammin

Catholic bishops

Prince-Bishops

Lutheran Bishops and Superintendents

Pomeranian Prince-Administrators ("Bishops")

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Gerhard Köbler, Historisches Lexikon der Deutschen Länder: die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, 7th edition, Munich: C.H.Beck, 2007, p. 113, ISBN   3-406-54986-1.
  2. Diocese of Cammin, Germany Archived 4 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  3. Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland : in Two Volumes (2005 edition), p. 69.
  4. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp. 36–37, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  5. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 40, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  6. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp. 38 and 40, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  7. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 41, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  8. Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Rostock: Hinstorff, 2008, p. 17, ISBN   978-3-356-01044-2
  9. Norbert Buske, Pommern, Schwerin: Helms, 1997, p. 11, ISBN   3-931185-07-9
  10. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 47, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092: "...gelang es ihm nicht, ein pommersches Bistum ins Leben zu rufen – vermutlich eine Folge der Kompetenzstreitigkeiten zwischen den Erzbistümern Gnesen und Magdeburg."
  11. 1 2 3 4 Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Rostock: Hinstorff, 2008, p. 15, ISBN   978-3-356-01044-2: "Zunächst waren die kirchlichen Verhältnisse noch ungeordnet, da sowohl Gnesen als auch Magdeburg Ansprüche auf die neue Kirchenprovinz erhoben. Erst nach dem Tod des Pommernapostels Otto von Bamberg (1139) bestätigte Papst Innozenz II. 1140 das pommersche Landesbistum und unterstellte die Pomeraniae ecclesia dem Schutz des Heiligen Petrus. Es entstand ein unabhängiges pommersches Bistum mit Sitz in Wollin (Jumne)."
  12. Norbert Buske, Pommern, Schwerin: Helms, 1997, p. 14, ISBN   3-931185-07-9: "...erhoben sowohl das Erzbistum Gnesen [...] als auch das Erzbistum Magdeburg [...] Ansprüche auf das pommersche Gebiet. Die pommersche Kirche blieb deshalb zunächst unter der unmittelbaren Aufsicht von Bamberg."
  13. André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Michael Lapidge, Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, p. 1061., Routledge, 2000, ISBN   1-57958-282-6
  14. PEK History (German) PEK History (Polish)
  15. 1 2 3 Norbert Buske, Pommern, Schwerin: Helms, 1997, p. 14, ISBN   3-931185-07-9
  16. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 47, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  17. Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p. 29, ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  18. 1 2 Wolfgang Wilhelminus et al., Pommern: Geschichte, Kultur, Wissenschaft, University of Greifswald, 1990, p. 57
  19. 1 2 Norbert Buske, Pommern, Schwerin: Helms, 1997, pp. 14–15, ISBN   3-931185-07-9
  20. 1 2 3 4 Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 48, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  21. 1 2 Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Rostock: Hinstorff, 2008, p. 16, ISBN   978-3-356-01044-2
  22. Catholic Encyclopedia, article "Pomerania"
  23. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 48, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092: "Die Zugehörigkeit des pommerschen Bistums zu einer Erzdiozese blieb anscheinend weiter unentschieden."
  24. Norbert Buske, Pommern, Schwerin: Helms, 1997, p. 15, ISBN   3-931185-07-9
  25. Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 49, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092: "Schließlich entschied der Pabst die Frage der Zugehörigkeit und unterstellte das Bistum Cammin – sicherlich mit Zustimmung des pommerschen Klerus – direkt Rom."
  26. Kyra T. Inachin, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Rostock: Hinstorff, 2008, p. 16, ISBN   978-3-356-01044-2: "1188 wurde schließlich Pommern als exemptes Bistum unmittelbar der römischen Kirche unterstellt und genoß damit eine außergewöhnliche rechtliche Selbstständigkeit. Damit waren die konkurrierenden Ansprüche der Erzbistümer Gnesen und Magdeburg beseitigt.
  27. Norbert Buske, Pommern, Schwerin: Helms, 1997, p. 15, ISBN   3-931185-07-9: "Als 1188 die feierliche päpstliche Anerkennung der Verlegung des Bischofssitzes erfolgte, wurde die exempte Stellung des Bistums, die sich inzwischen herausgebildet hatte, bestätigt. Das in der Folgezeit als Bistum Kammin bezeichnete pommersche Bistum war damit unmittelbar dem Papst unterstellt und unabhängig gegenüber den benachbarten Erzbistümern. Es war ihnen unter diesem Gesichtspunkt etwa gleichgestellt."
  28. Heitz, Gerhard; Rischer, Henning (1995). Geschichte in Daten. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (in German). Münster-Berlin: Koehler&Amelang. p. 163. ISBN   3-7338-0195-4.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Jan M Piskorski citing Hermann Hoogeweg, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p. 98, ISBN   83-906184-8-6 OCLC   43087092
  30. 1 2 3 Norbert Buske, Pommern, Schwerin: Helms, 1997, p. 16, ISBN   3-931185-07-9

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kammin". Encyclopædia Britannica . 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 646.PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.Missing or empty |title= (help)

Related Research Articles

Pomerania Historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe

Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany. The western part of Pomerania belongs to the German states of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg, while the eastern part belongs to the West Pomeranian and Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland. Its historical border in the west is the Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian border valley, which now constitutes the border between the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, while it is bounded by the Vistula River in the east. The easternmost sub-regions of Pomerania are alternatively known as Pomerelia and Kashubia, which are inhabited by ethnic Kashubians.

Pyrzyce Place in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Pyrzyce, is a town in Pomerania, north-western Poland, with 13,331 inhabitants (2007).

Duchy of Pomerania

The Duchy of Pomerania was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins).

History of Pomerania

The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers. Before that the area was recorded nearly 2000 years ago as Germania, and in modern-day times Pomerania is split between Germany and Poland. The name Pomerania comes from the Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea.

Wolin (town) Place in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Wolin is a town in northwestern Poland, situated on the southern tip of the Wolin island off the Baltic coast of the historic region of Pomerania. The island lies at the edge of the strait of Dziwna in Kamień County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

The County of Gützkow was a part of the Duchy of Pomerania during the High Middle Ages (1219–1359), named after the central town of Gützkow and stretching roughly from the Peene River in the South to the Ryck River in the North. It emerged from the earlier Liutician Principality of Gützkow, that was turned into a castellany when subdued by the Dukes of Pomerania. When the last Count of Gützkow died in 1359, the area was turned into a Vogtei, which was merged into Amt Wolgast in the beginning 16th century.

Adalbert of Pomerania was the first bishop of the 12th century Pomeranian bishopric, with its see in Wolin. He was a monk of the Michaelsberg Abbey, Bamberg and former chaplain to Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, whence he knew the Pomeranian language of the temporarily Polish-subjugated West Slavic population, whereas the Joms Vikings and other Germanic inhabitants of the Pomeranian coast understood his old German language.

Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages

Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages covers the History of Pomerania from the 7th to the 11th centuries.

Pomerania during the High Middle Ages

Pomerania during the High Middle Ages covers the history of Pomerania in the 12th and 13th centuries.

Early history of Pomerania

After the glaciers of the Ice Age in the Early Stone Age withdrew from the area, which since about 1000 AD is called Pomerania, in what are now northern Germany and Poland, they left a tundra. First humans appeared, hunting reindeer in the summer. A climate change in 8000 BC allowed hunters and foragers of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture to continuously inhabit the area. These people became influenced by farmers of the Linear Pottery culture who settled in southern Pomerania. The hunters of the Ertebølle-Ellerbek culture became farmers of the Funnelbeaker culture in 3000 BC. The Havelland culture dominated in the Uckermark from 2500 to 2000 BC. In 2400 BC, the Corded Ware culture reached Pomerania and introduced the domestic horse. Both Linear Pottery and Corded Ware culture have been associated with Indo-Europeans. Except for Western Pomerania, the Funnelbeaker culture was replaced by the Globular Amphora culture a thousand years later.

Pomerania during the Late Middle Ages

Pomerania during the Late Middle Ages covers the history of Pomerania in the 14th and 15th centuries.

History of Pomerania (1945–present)

History of Pomerania (1945–present) covers the history of Pomerania during World War II aftermath, the Communist and since 1989 Democratic era.

Medieval Pomerania was converted from Slavic paganism to Christianity by Otto von Bamberg in 1124 and 1128, and in 1168 by Absalon.

The Duchy of Pomerania was partitioned several times to satisfy the claims of the male members of the ruling House of Pomerania dynasty. The partitions were named after the ducal residences: Pomerania-Barth, -Demmin, -Rügenwalde, -Stettin, -Stolp, and -Wolgast. None of the partitions had a hereditary character, the members of the House of Pomerania inherited the duchy in common. The duchy thus continued to exist as a whole despite its division. The only exception was made during a war with the Margraviate of Brandenburg, when in 1338 Barnim III of Pomerania-Stettin was granted his partition as a fief directly from the Holy Roman Emperor, while Pomerania-Wolgast remained under formal Brandenburgian overlordship. However, already in 1348, German king and later emperor Charles IV again granted the Duchy of Pomerania as a whole and the Principality of Rügen as a fief to the dukes of both Pomerania-Stettin and Pomerania-Wolgast, nullifying Brandenburg's claims by granting Imperial immediacy.

Usedom Abbey

Usedom Abbey was a medieval Premonstratensian monastery on the isle of Usedom near the town of Usedom. It was founded in Grobe and later moved to nearby Pudagla, and is thus also known as Grobe Abbey or Pudagla Abbey respectively.

The Wolinians were a Lechitic tribe in Early Middle Age Pomerania. They were first mentioned as "Velunzani" with 70 civitates by the Bavarian Geographer, ca. 845. Associated with both the Veleti and the Pomeranians, they were based on the island of Wolin and the adjacent mainland. Compared to other tribes of these groups, the Wolinians' territory was relatively small but densely settled: in the 11th century, there was one settlement per four square kilometers. The Wolinians are described by Jan Maria Piskorski as the most powerful Pomeranian tribe. This position resulted from the multi-ethnic emporium at the site of the present-day town of Wolin (Wollin), then known as Jomsborg, Jumne, Julin or Vineta.

The Prissani or Pyritzans were a medieval tribe in Pomerania. They were first mentioned as "Prissani" with 70 civitas by the Bavarian Geographer, ca. 845. They are associated with the Pomeranians, and were based in the lower Oder region around the modern town of Pyrzyce (Pyritz). The mention in the Bavarian Geographer is the only written record referring to the tribe.

John Frederick, Duke of Pomerania

John Frederick was Duke of Pomerania from 1560 to 1600, and Bishop of Cammin (Kamień) from 1556 to 1574. Elected bishop in 1556 and heir of the duchy in 1560, he remained under tutelage of his great-uncle Barnim XI until he took on his offices in 1567.

Ernst Ludwig, Duke of Pomerania

Ernst Ludwig was duke of Pomerania from 1560 to 1592. From 1569 to 1592, he was duke in the Teilherzogtum Pomerania-Wolgast, sharing the rule over the Duchy of Pomerania with his older brother Johann Friedrich, duke in the other Teilherzogtum Pomerania-Stettin and bishop of Cammin.

The Treaty of Pyzdry (Peisern) was signed on 2 November 1390 between Jogaila, king of Poland and Wartislaw VII of Pomerania-Stolp. The treaty, signed in Pyzdry, contained an oath of vassalage of Wartislaw to Jogaila, the obligation to support the latter in the Polish-Teutonic War, and mutual trade alleviations for Pomeranian and Polish merchants. Wartislaw VII, who with his brothers was allied with the Teutonic Order before, received the Polish castellany of Nakło (Nakel) and probably some adjacent areas as a fief.