Bissau

Last updated

Bissau
Bissau-Stroossenzeen--w.jpg
Ministerio da Justica, Guine-Bissau.jpg
Consulmar Bissau.jpg
Museu Militar da Luta de Libertacao Nacional (13).jpg
Catedral de Bissau 1.jpg
Mausoleu de Amilcar Cabral, novembro de 2017 04.jpg
Hotel Imperio, Bissau.jpg
20130610 - Monumento aos Herois da Independencia.jpg
Agencia BCEAO em Bissau.jpg
Aeroporto de Bissau, Guinea-Bissau 2.jpg
Agencia da Alianca Seguradora, Bissau.jpg
Photos of Bissau
Bandeira Bissau.PNG
Flag
Bissau.PNG
Seal
Guinea-Bissau physical map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bissau
Location of Bissau in Guinea-Bissau
Africa relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Bissau
Bissau (Africa)
Coordinates: 11°51′N15°34′W / 11.850°N 15.567°W / 11.850; -15.567 Coordinates: 11°51′N15°34′W / 11.850°N 15.567°W / 11.850; -15.567
Country Guinea-Bissau
Region Bissau Autonomous Sector
Founded1687
Area
  Total77.5 km2 (29.9 sq mi)
Elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2015 census)
  Total492,004
  Density5,009/km2 (12,974/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+0 (GMT)
ISO 3166 code GW-BS
Climate Aw

Bissau (Portuguese pronunciation:  [βiˈsaw] ) is the capital city of Guinea-Bissau. In 2015, Bissau had a population of 492,004. [1] Bissau is located on the Geba River estuary, off the Atlantic Ocean, and is Guinea-Bissau's largest city, major port, and its administrative and military centre.

Contents

Etymology

The term Bissau would come from the name Itchassu (later N'nssassu and Bôssassum), which means "brave as the jaguar", possibly in reference to the warrior profile of the inhabitants of the island of Bissau, mimicking the African leopard, [2] a great feline predator, known in the country as "jaguar". [3] Over time Bôssassum started to be written as Bisão (or "São José de Bisão"), Bissao and finally "Bissau". [2]

Bôssassu (or Itchassu) was the name given to the nephew of King Mecca - the first sovereign of the island of Bissau -, son of his sister Pungenhum. Bôssassu formed the main clan of the paper peoples and the Kingdom of Bissau, the main of the pre-colonial states on the island of Bissau. The bassassum were the kings and noblemen (djagras) of the Kingdom of Bissau. [4]

History

The city was founded in 1687 by Portugal as a fortified port and trading center. [5] In 1942 it became the capital of Portuguese Guinea.

After the declaration of independence by the anti-colonial guerrillas of PAIGC in 1973, the capital of the rebel territories was declared to be Madina do Boe, while Bissau remained the colonial capital. When Portugal granted independence, following the military coup of April 25 in Lisbon, Bissau became the capital of the new independent state.

Bissau was the scene of intense fighting during the beginning and end of the Guinea-Bissau Civil War in 1998 and 1999. [6]

Geography and climate

View of Downtown Bissau in the 1960s as the capital of Portuguese Guinea DC - Foto Serra No 142 - Vista aerea parcial e Ilheu do Rei - Bissau.jpg
View of Downtown Bissau in the 1960s as the capital of Portuguese Guinea

Bissau is located at 11°52' North, 15°36' West (11.86667, -15.60) GNS: Country Files, on the Geba River estuary, off the Atlantic Ocean. The land surrounding Bissau is extremely low-lying, and the river is accessible to ocean-going vessels despite its modest discharge for about 80 kilometres (50 mi) beyond the city.

Bissau has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), not quite wet enough to qualify as a tropical monsoon climate (Am) but much wetter than most climates of its type.

Almost no rain falls from November to May, but during the remaining five months of the year the city receives around 2,000 millimetres (79 in) of rain.

Climate data for Bissau, Guinea-Bissau (1974-1994)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.7
(98.1)
38.3
(100.9)
38.9
(102.0)
41.1
(106.0)
39.4
(102.9)
35.6
(96.1)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
33.9
(93.0)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95.0)
35.6
(96.1)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F)31.1
(88.0)
32.8
(91.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
31.1
(88.0)
29.4
(84.9)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
31.1
(88.0)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)24.4
(75.9)
25.6
(78.1)
26.6
(79.9)
27.0
(80.6)
27.5
(81.5)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79.0)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
24.8
(76.6)
26.3
(79.3)
Average low °C (°F)17.8
(64.0)
18.3
(64.9)
19.4
(66.9)
20.6
(69.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.2
(72.0)
18.9
(66.0)
21.1
(70.0)
Record low °C (°F)12.2
(54.0)
13.3
(55.9)
15.6
(60.1)
16.7
(62.1)
17.2
(63.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
20.0
(68.0)
15.0
(59.0)
12.8
(55.0)
12.2
(54.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.5
(0.02)
0.8
(0.03)
0.5
(0.02)
0.8
(0.03)
17.3
(0.68)
174.8
(6.88)
472.5
(18.60)
682.5
(26.87)
434.9
(17.12)
194.8
(7.67)
41.4
(1.63)
2.0
(0.08)
2,022.8
(79.63)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 2482262792702482101861551802172402482,707
Source 1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial [7]
Source 2: World Climate Guides (sunshine only) [8]

Demographics

At the 1979 census, Bissau had a population of 109,214. By the 2015 census Bissau had a population of 492,004. [1]

Economy

Bissau is the country's largest city, major port, educational, administrative, industrial and military center. Peanuts, hardwoods, copra, palm oil, milk products, and rubber are the chief products. Bissau is also the main city of the fishing and agricultural industry in the country. [9]

Transportation

Air

The airport that serves Bissau is Osvaldo Vieira International Airport, the only international airport in the country, with domestic and international flights to major cities in Africa as well as Europe, on six scheduled commercial airline companies.

Highways

The main highway connecting Bissau to the rest of the nation and the continent is the Trans–West African Coastal Highway. There are also many smaller national highways that connect to other big cities such as Bafatá and Gabu.

Education

The main secondary school institutions in Bissau are the National Lyceum Kwame N'Krumah [10] and the Bethel-Bissau Adventist School. [11] The main higher education institutions in the city are the Amílcar Cabral University, [12] the Catholic University of Guinea Bissau, and the Jean Piaget University of Guinea-Bissau.

The city of Bissau still has two international schools: [13]

Culture

Attractions include the Portuguese-built Fortaleza de São José da Amura barracks from the 18th century, containing Amílcar Cabral's mausoleum, the Pidjiguiti Memorial to the dockers killed in the Bissau Dockers' Strike on August 3, 1959, the Guinea-Bissau National Arts Institute, Bissau New Stadium and local beaches.

Many buildings in the city were ruined during the Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998–1999), including the Guinea-Bissau Presidential Palace and the Bissau French Cultural Centre (now rebuilt), and the city centre is still underdeveloped. Because of the large populations of Muslims in Bissau, Ramadan is also an important celebration. [14] [15]

Sports

Football is the most popular sport in the country, as well as in the city. Many teams are based in the city, such as: UD Internacional, SC de Bissau, SC Portos de Bissau, Sport Bissau e Benfica, and FC Cuntum. Stadiums that are located in the city are Estádio Lino Correia and Estádio 24 de Setembro.

Religion

The majority of the population of Bissau is with the majority being Muslims (40%) Christianity (34%) and animists (7.9%). [16]

Places of Worship

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Muslim mosques. [17] There are also some Christian churches and temples such as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bissau (Catholic Church), Evangelical Churches, and the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Bissau is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

Guinea-Bissau Country in West Africa

Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, is a country in West Africa that covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,874,303. It borders Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south-east.

Economy of Guinea-Bissau National economy

The economy of Guinea-Bissau comprises a mixture of state-owned and private companies. Guinea-Bissau is among the world's least developed nations and one of the 10 poorest countries in the world, and depends mainly on agriculture and fishing. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years, and the country now ranks sixth in cashew production.

Luís Cabral

Luís Severino de Almeida Cabral was a Bissau-Guinean politician who was the first President of Guinea-Bissau. He served from 1974 to 1980, when a military coup d'état led by João Bernardo Vieira deposed him. Luís Cabral was a half-brother of Amílcar Cabral, with whom he co-founded the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) in 1956.

Amílcar Cabral Guinea-Bissauan politician

Amílcar Lopes da Costa Cabral was a Bissau-Guinean and Cape Verdean agricultural engineer, pan-africanist, intellectual, poet, theoretician, revolutionary, political organizer, nationalist and diplomat. He was one of Africa's foremost anti-colonial leaders.

Portuguese Guinea West African colony of Portugal (1588–1974)

Portuguese Guinea, called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951 until 1972 and then State of Guinea from 1972 until 1974, was a West African colony of Portugal from 1588 until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.

African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Political party in Guinea-Bissau

The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. Originally formed to peacefully campaign for independence from Portugal, the party turned to armed conflict in the 1960s and was one of the belligerents in the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence. Towards the end of the war, the party established a socialist one-party state, which remained intact until multi-party democracy was introduced in the early 1990s. Although the party won the first multi-party elections in 1994, it was removed from power in the 1999–2000 elections. However, it returned to office after winning parliamentary elections in 2004 and presidential elections in 2005, since which it has remained the largest party in the National People's Assembly.

Guinea-Bissau War of Independence 1963-1974 conflict for colonial independence of Guinea and Cape Verde from Portugal

The Guinea-Bissau War of Independence was an armed independence conflict that took place in Portuguese Guinea between 1963 and 1974. Fought between Portugal and the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, an armed independence movement backed by Cuba and the Soviet Union, the war is commonly referred to as "Portugal's Vietnam" due to the large numbers of men and amounts of material expended in a long, mostly guerrilla war and the internal political turmoil it created in Portugal. The war ended when Portugal, after the Carnation Revolution of 1974, granted independence to Guinea-Bissau, followed by Cape Verde a year later.

Articles related to Guinea-Bissau include:

The Pidjiguiti massacre was an incident that took place on 3 August 1959 at the Port of Bissau's Pijiguiti docks in Bissau, Portuguese Guinea. Dock workers went on strike, seeking higher pay, but a manager called the PIDE, the Portuguese state police, who fired into the crowd, killing at least 25 people. The government blamed the revolutionary group African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), arresting several of its members. The incident caused PAIGC to abandon their campaign of nonviolent resistance, leading to the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence in 1963.

This name uses Portuguese naming customs. The first or paternal family name is Ernestina and the second or paternal family name is Silá.

Cape Verdean Guinea-Bissauan are Guinea-Bissauan residents whose ancestry originated in Cape Verde.

Operation Green Sea

Operation Green Sea was an amphibious attack on Conakry, the capital of Guinea, by between 350 and 420 Portuguese soldiers and Portuguese-led Guinean fighters in November 1970. The goals of the operation included the overthrow of Ahmed Sékou Touré's government, capture of the leader of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), Amílcar Cabral, destruction of the naval and air assets of the PAIGC and its Guinean supporters, and the rescue of Portuguese POWs held in Conakry.

The Two Faces of War is a 2007 documentary shot in Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and Portugal that includes a series of interviews and testimonies of people who lived through the period of the anti-colonial war and liberation in Guinea-Bissau. This documentary, directed by Diana Andringa and Flora Gomes, sets the tone for a debate around the themes of reconciliation and historical memory in the post-conflict period of the Portuguese colonial war.

Raúl Pires Ferreira Chaves was a Portuguese civil engineer and inventor. A graduate of the Instituto Superior Técnico of Lisbon, he lived and primarily worked in Portugal, Portuguese Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea.

Zamora Induta is a Guinea-Bissauan lieutenant general. He was the Chief of Staff of the Military of Guinea-Bissau from October 27, 2009 to April 1, 2010.

National Library of Guinea-Bissau

The Biblioteca Pública do INEP is the national library of Guinea-Bissau and it is located in Bissau. It is also the biggest public library in the country and serves as library of the Universidade Amílcar Cabral.

Maria Odete da Costa Semedo is a writer and educator from Guinea-Bissau. She works in both in Portuguese and Guinea Creole.

The Liberation Front of Portuguese Guinea and Cape Verde was a militant political party in Guinea-Bissau, then part of Portuguese Guinea, formed to seek independence from Portugal.

The National Lyceum Kwame N'Krumah is a Bissau-Guinean educational institution, based in Bissau, the country's capital.

References

  1. 1 2 "Africa by Country Internet User Stats and 2017 Population". internetworldstats.com. Archived from the original on 2019-08-04. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
  2. 1 2 "Revoltas e resistências dos Papéis da Guiné-Bissau contra o Colonialismo Português - 1886-1915. (Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso de Bacharelado em Humanidades)" (PDF).
  3. "Quadro Nacional da Biotecnologia e da Biossegurança da Guiné-Bissau" (PDF).
  4. "O casamento tradicional na Guiné-Bissau" (PDF).
  5. Cybriwsky, Roman Adrian (2013). Capital Cities Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 53.
  6. "Guinea-Bissau". Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia. Uppsala University. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
  7. "GUINEA-BISSAU - BISSAU". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  8. "Bissau Climate Guide". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  9. Urbanização na Guiné-Bissau: Morfologia e Estrutura Urbana da sua Capital [Urbanization in Guinea-Bissau: Morphology and Urban Structure of its Capital] (Master's thesis) (in Portuguese). Lisbon University of Humanities and Technologies. 2010. pp. 93–97. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2020.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  10. Furtado, Alexandre Brito Ribeiro (2005). Administração e Gestão da Educação na Guiné-Bissau: Incoerências e Descontinuidades[Administration and Management of Education in Guinea-Bissau: Inconsistencies and Discontinuities] (Doctorate thesis) (in Portuguese). Universidade de Aveiro. hdl: 10773/1098 .
  11. "Voluntários Fazem Diferença em Projeto em Guiné-Bissau" [Volunteers Make a Difference in a Project in Guinea-Bissau]. Notícias Adventistas (in Portuguese). 22 July 2016. Archived from the original on 2021-01-06.
  12. "Equipamento Novo e Desafios Adicionais para Universidade Amílcar Cabral" [New Equipment and Additional Challenges for Universidade Amílcar Cabral]. Rádio das Nações Unidas (in Portuguese). 19 May 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-29. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  13. "Escolas com Currículo Português na Guiné-Bissau" [Portuguese Curriculum Schools in Guinea-Bissau]. Direção de Serviços de Ensino e Escolas Portuguesas no Estrangeiro (DSEEPE) of the Portuguese Education Ministry (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2015-05-31. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  14. "Korité in Guinea-Bissau in 2021". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  15. "Guinea-Bissau Holidays and Festivals". iexplore.com. Archived from the original on 2021-01-06. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  16. "Guinea-Bissau: socio-cultural characteristics" (PDF). National Statistics Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-05. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  17. "Guinea-Bissau | History - Geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2015-04-19. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  18. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2017-11-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. "Sister Cities of Ankara". www.ankara.bel.tr. Archived from the original on 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2016-08-11.

Further reading