Bitlis Province

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Bitlis Province

Bitlis ili
Bitlis in Turkey.svg
Location of Bitlis Province in Turkey
Country Turkey
Region Central East Anatolia
Subregion Van
Government
   Electoral district Bitlis
  GovernorOktay Çağatay
Area
  Total6,707 km2 (2,590 sq mi)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total349,396
  Density52/km2 (130/sq mi)
Area code(s) 0434
Vehicle registration 13

Bitlis Province (Turkish : Bitlis ili, Kurdish : Parêzgeha Bidlîsê [2] ) is a province of eastern Turkey, located to the west of Lake Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians. [3] The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. [4] [5] The current Governor of the province is Oktay Çağatay. [6]

Contents

History

The province was part of Moxoene [7] of the Kingdom of Armenia. Before the Armenian genocide, the area was part of the six vilayets. [8] [9]

The administrative center was the town of Bitlis which was called Bagesh, in old Armenian sources. [10]

In 1927 the office of the Inspector General was created, which governed with martial law. [11] The Bitlis province was included in the first Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) over which the Inspector General ruled. The UM span over the provinces of Hakkâri, Siirt, Van, Mardin, Bitlis, Sanlıurfa, Elaziğ and Diyarbakır. [12] The Inspectorate General was dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party. [13]

Districts

Bitlis Province is divided into 7 districts (the capital district is in bold):

Economy

As of 1920, the province was producing small amounts of iron, copper, lead, and sulphur. Even smaller amounts of gold and silver were found in the areas of Sairt and Khairwan. Salt made up the largest mineral industry in the province, so much that it was exported to surrounding provinces. The salt was produced in pans, using evaporation, and taking 8 to 10 days to mature. The technique and trade was mainly run by local Kurds. [14]

Attractions

Related Research Articles

Van Province Province of Turkey

Van Province is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital of the province is the city of Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and was part of ancient province of Vaspurakan, the region is considered to be the cradle of Armenian civilization. Before Armenian genocide, Van Province was part of six Armenian vilayets. Modern day majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The current Governor is Mehmet Emin Bilmez.

Muş Province Province of Turkey

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Diyarbakır Province Province of Turkey

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Elazığ Province Province of Turkey

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Bedir Khan Beg

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Şanlıurfa Province Province of Turkey in Southeastern Anatolia

Şanlıurfa Province or simply Urfa Province is a province in southeastern Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,845,667 (2014). The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority with a significant Arab and Turkish minority.

Ağrı Province Province of Turkey

The Ağrı Province is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and mostly was part of ancient province of Ayrarat of Kingdom of Armenia. Before the Armenian genocide, modern Ağri Province was part of the six Armenian vilayets. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority.

Hakkâri Province Province of Turkey

Hakkâri Province, is a province in the southeast of Turkey. The administrative centre is the city of Hakkâri. The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and had a population of 286,470 in 2018. The province was created in 1936 out of Van Province and borders Şırnak Province to the west, Van Province to the north, Iran to the east, and Iraq to the south. The current Governor is İdris Akbıyık. The province is a stronghold for Kurdish nationalism and a hotspot in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.

Mardin Province Province of Turkey

Mardin Province, is a province of Turkey with a population of 809,719 in 2017, slightly down from the population of 835,173 in 2000. Kurds form the majority of the population followed closely by Arabs who represent 40% of the province's population.

Bingöl Province Province of Turkey

Bingöl Province is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1945 when it was renamed as Bingöl province which literally means "thousand lakes" in Turkish language. Its neighboring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km2 and has a population of 255,170. The capital is Bingöl. As the current Governor of the province, Kadir Ekinci was appointed by the president on the 5 November 2018.

Siirt Province Province of Turkey

Siirt Province, is a province of Turkey, located in the southeast. The province borders Bitlis to the north, Batman to the west, Mardin to the southwest, Şırnak to the south, and Van to the east. It has an area of 5,406 km² and a total population of 300,695. The provincial capital is the city of Siirt. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. The current Governor of the Siirt province is Ali Fuat Atik.

Bitlis Vilayet

Bitlis Vilayet was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire. Before the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) it had been part of the Erzurum Vilayet, it was then made a separate vilayet by the Porte. It was one of the six Armenian vilayets of the Empire.

Şirvan, Turkey Place in Siirt, Turkey

Şirvan is a town and district in Siirt Province in southeastern Turkey.

Bahçesaray (district) District of Van Province, Turkey

Bahçesaray is town and district in Van Province in Turkey. It was a bucak in Pervari district of Siirt Province until 1964 and Gevaş district of Van Province between 1964 and 1987. It is at a distance of 110 kilometres (68 mi) from Van. The town is built at the Bahçesaray rivers' shores.

Şırnak Province Province of Turkey

Şırnak Province is a province of Turkey in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak Province was created in 1990, with areas that were formerly part of the Siirt and Mardin Provinces. It borders both Kurdistan Region of Iraq and Syria. The current Governor of the province is Ali Hamza Pehlivan. As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people.

Six vilayets

The Six vilayets or Six provinces or the Six Armenian vilayets were the Armenian-populated vilayets (provinces) of the Ottoman Empire:

The Hamidiye regiments were well-armed, irregular, mainly Sunni Kurdish, but also Turkish, Circassian, Turkmen, Yörük and Arab cavalry formations that operated in the south eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Established by and named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1891, they were intended to be modeled after the Cossacks and were supposedly tasked to patrol the Russo-Ottoman frontier. However, the Hamidiye were more often used by the Ottoman authorities to harass and assault Armenians living in Eastern Provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

OHAL Regional Governorship under State of Emergency in Turkey

The OHAL region was a "super-region" created in Turkey under state of emergency legislation, as part of its approach to the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. From 1994 onwards the scope of the OHAL super-region was gradually narrowed, with provinces being downgraded to "neighbouring province" and then removed from OHAL altogether. The state of emergency was extended 46 times, for four months each time. OHAL was finally discontinued on 30 November 2002.

Tunceli Province Province of Turkey

Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The least densely-populated province in Turkey, it was originally named Dersim Province, then demoted to a district and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. It is moreover the only province in Turkey with an Alevi majority.

Kurdish rebellions during World War I

During World War I, several Kurdish rebellions took place within the Ottoman Empire. These revolts were encouraged by the western allies, particularly Britain, who promised the Kurds an independent state. The first Kurdish rebellion was launched in August 1914, before the Ottoman entry into World War I. From 1915 to 1916, further Kurdish rebellions took place in Botan, Dersim, and south of Kiğı. 1917 saw 2 additional rebellions, the latter of which received Russian military support. Shortly before the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918, Mahmud Barzanji broke away from the Ottoman Empire and established a quasi-independent Kurdish state under British supervision.

References

  1. "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. "Li Bidlîsê qedexeya derketina derve". Rûadw (in Kurdish). 19 March 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  3. Myhill, John (2006). Language, Religion and National Identity in Europe and the Middle East: A historical study. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. p. 32. ISBN 978-90-272-9351-0.
  4. Watts, Nicole F. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p.  167. ISBN   978-0-295-99050-7.
  5. "Kurds, Kurdistān". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2 ed.). BRILL. 2002. ISBN   9789004161214.
  6. "T.C. Bitlis Valiliği". www.bitlis.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
  7. Discoveries Among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon - Page 358 by Sir Austen Henry Layard, Austin Henry Layard
  8. İsmail Soysal, Türkiye'nin Siyasal Andlaşmaları, I. Cilt (1920-1945), Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1983, p. 14.
  9. Verheij, Jelle (2012). Jongerden, Joost; Verheij, Jelle (eds.). Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, 1870–1915. Brill. p. 88. ISBN 9789004225183
  10. Britannica: Bitlis
  11. Jongerden, Joost (2007-01-01). The Settlement Issue in Turkey and the Kurds: An Analysis of Spatical Policies, Modernity and War . BRILL. pp.  53. ISBN   978-90-04-15557-2.
  12. Bayir, Derya (2016-04-22). Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN   978-1-317-09579-8.
  13. Fleet, Kate; Kunt, I. Metin; Kasaba, Reşat; Faroqhi, Suraiya (2008-04-17). The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 343. ISBN   978-0-521-62096-3.
  14. Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 71.

Coordinates: 38°23′13″N42°07′00″E / 38.38694°N 42.11667°E / 38.38694; 42.11667