Location of Bitlis Province in Turkey
|Region||Central East Anatolia|
|• Electoral district||Bitlis|
|• Governor||Oktay Çağatay|
|• Total||6,707 km2 (2,590 sq mi)|
|• Density||52/km2 (130/sq mi)|
Bitlis Province (Turkish : Bitlis ili, Kurdish : Parêzgeha Bidlîsê ) is a province of eastern Turkey, located to the west of Lake Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. The current Governor of the province is Oktay Çağatay.
The province was part of Moxoeneof the Kingdom of Armenia. Before the Armenian genocide, the area was part of the six vilayets.
The administrative center was the town of Bitlis which was called Bagesh, in old Armenian sources.
In 1927 the office of the Inspector General was created, which governed with martial law.The Bitlis province was included in the first Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) over which the Inspector General ruled. The UM span over the provinces of Hakkâri, Siirt, Van, Mardin, Bitlis, Sanlıurfa, Elaziğ and Diyarbakır. The Inspectorate General was dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party.
Bitlis Province is divided into 7 districts (the capital district is in bold):
As of 1920, the province was producing small amounts of iron, copper, lead, and sulphur. Even smaller amounts of gold and silver were found in the areas of Sairt and Khairwan. Salt made up the largest mineral industry in the province, so much that it was exported to surrounding provinces. The salt was produced in pans, using evaporation, and taking 8 to 10 days to mature. The technique and trade was mainly run by local Kurds.
Van Province is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital of the province is the city of Van. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and was part of ancient province of Vaspurakan, the region is considered to be the cradle of Armenian civilization. Before Armenian genocide, Van Province was part of six Armenian vilayets. Modern day majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The current Governor is Mehmet Emin Bilmez.
Muş Province is a province in eastern Turkey. It is 8,196 km2 in area and has a population of 406,886 according to a 2010 estimate, down from 453,654 in 2000. The provincial capital is the city of Muş. Another town in Muş province, Malazgirt (Manzikert), is famous for the Battle of Manzikert of 1071.
Diyarbakır Province, is a province in southeastern Turkey. The province covers an area of 15,355 km2 and its population is 1,528,958. The provincial capital is the city of Diyarbakır. The province has a Kurdish majority and is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan.
Elâzığ Province is a province of Turkey with its seat in the city of Elâzığ. The province had a population of 568,753 in 2014. The population of the province was 569,616 in 2000 and 498,225 in 1990. The total area of the province is 8,455 square kilometres (3,264 sq mi), 826 km2 (319 sq mi) of which is covered by reservoirs and natural lakes. The current governor of the province is Çetin Oktay Kaldirim.
Bedir Khan Beg was the last Kurdish Mîr and mütesellim of the Emirate of Botan.
Şanlıurfa Province or simply Urfa Province is a province in southeastern Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,845,667 (2014). The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority with a significant Arab and Turkish minority.
The Ağrı Province is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022. The province is considered part of Western Armenia by Armenians and mostly was part of ancient province of Ayrarat of Kingdom of Armenia. Before the Armenian genocide, modern Ağri Province was part of the six Armenian vilayets. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority.
Hakkâri Province, is a province in the southeast of Turkey. The administrative centre is the city of Hakkâri. The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and had a population of 286,470 in 2018. The province was created in 1936 out of Van Province and borders Şırnak Province to the west, Van Province to the north, Iran to the east, and Iraq to the south. The current Governor is İdris Akbıyık. The province is a stronghold for Kurdish nationalism and a hotspot in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict.
Mardin Province, is a province of Turkey with a population of 809,719 in 2017, slightly down from the population of 835,173 in 2000. Kurds form the majority of the population followed closely by Arabs who represent 40% of the province's population.
Bingöl Province is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1945 when it was renamed as Bingöl province which literally means "thousand lakes" in Turkish language. Its neighboring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km2 and has a population of 255,170. The capital is Bingöl. As the current Governor of the province, Kadir Ekinci was appointed by the president on the 5 November 2018.
Siirt Province, is a province of Turkey, located in the southeast. The province borders Bitlis to the north, Batman to the west, Mardin to the southwest, Şırnak to the south, and Van to the east. It has an area of 5,406 km² and a total population of 300,695. The provincial capital is the city of Siirt. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. The current Governor of the Siirt province is Ali Fuat Atik.
Bitlis Vilayet was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire. Before the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) it had been part of the Erzurum Vilayet, it was then made a separate vilayet by the Porte. It was one of the six Armenian vilayets of the Empire.
Şirvan is a town and district in Siirt Province in southeastern Turkey.
Bahçesaray is town and district in Van Province in Turkey. It was a bucak in Pervari district of Siirt Province until 1964 and Gevaş district of Van Province between 1964 and 1987. It is at a distance of 110 kilometres (68 mi) from Van. The town is built at the Bahçesaray rivers' shores.
Şırnak Province is a province of Turkey in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak Province was created in 1990, with areas that were formerly part of the Siirt and Mardin Provinces. It borders both Kurdistan Region of Iraq and Syria. The current Governor of the province is Ali Hamza Pehlivan. As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people.
The Six vilayets or Six provinces or the Six Armenian vilayets were the Armenian-populated vilayets (provinces) of the Ottoman Empire:
The Hamidiye regiments were well-armed, irregular, mainly Sunni Kurdish, but also Turkish, Circassian, Turkmen, Yörük and Arab cavalry formations that operated in the south eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Established by and named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1891, they were intended to be modeled after the Cossacks and were supposedly tasked to patrol the Russo-Ottoman frontier. However, the Hamidiye were more often used by the Ottoman authorities to harass and assault Armenians living in Eastern Provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
The OHAL region was a "super-region" created in Turkey under state of emergency legislation, as part of its approach to the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. From 1994 onwards the scope of the OHAL super-region was gradually narrowed, with provinces being downgraded to "neighbouring province" and then removed from OHAL altogether. The state of emergency was extended 46 times, for four months each time. OHAL was finally discontinued on 30 November 2002.
Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The least densely-populated province in Turkey, it was originally named Dersim Province, then demoted to a district and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. It is moreover the only province in Turkey with an Alevi majority.
During World War I, several Kurdish rebellions took place within the Ottoman Empire. These revolts were encouraged by the western allies, particularly Britain, who promised the Kurds an independent state. The first Kurdish rebellion was launched in August 1914, before the Ottoman entry into World War I. From 1915 to 1916, further Kurdish rebellions took place in Botan, Dersim, and south of Kiğı. 1917 saw 2 additional rebellions, the latter of which received Russian military support. Shortly before the Armistice of Mudros in October 1918, Mahmud Barzanji broke away from the Ottoman Empire and established a quasi-independent Kurdish state under British supervision.
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