Black Island (Ross Archipelago)

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Black Island
Black Island and Skidoos at Sunset.jpg
Black Island and Skidoos at sunset
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Black Island
Location in Antarctica
Geography
Location Antarctica
Coordinates 78°14′S166°20′E / 78.233°S 166.333°E / -78.233; 166.333 Coordinates: 78°14′S166°20′E / 78.233°S 166.333°E / -78.233; 166.333
Archipelago Ross Archipelago
Length12 mi (19 km)
Highest elevation1,041 m (3415 ft)
Administration
Administered under the Antarctic Treaty System
Demographics
PopulationUninhabited

Black Island ( 78°14′S166°20′E / 78.233°S 166.333°E / -78.233; 166.333 ), in the Ross Archipelago, is immediately west of White Island. It was first named by the Discovery Expedition (1901–04) because of its lack of snow. [1] [2] The island's northernmost point is named Cape Hodgson, commemorating Thomas Vere Hodgson, one of the oldest members of the Discovery Expedition. [3]

The highest point is Mount Aurora, a principal radio relay point. [1] [4] Mt. Aurora was named between 1958-1959 for the Aurora, one of the ships on Shackleton's Expedition. [5] On the minor peak of Mount Melania [1] is the principal earth-based ground-station for the US Antarctic Program. [4]

Black Island is volcanic in origin, consisting of a series of trachytic lava domes and basaltic pyroclastic cones. [1] Potassium–argon dating of Black Island volcanic rocks has given ages ranging from 1.69 to 3.8 million years. [1] [6] There are three main geological formations representing three eruptive sequences on Black Island: Nubian Basalt Formation, Aurora Trachyte Formation, and Melania Basalt Formation. [1] The lack of snow is not due to volcanic activity but rather the fact that it is protected from wind by nearby Minna Bluff. [7]

A topographical map of the Mount Discovery area by the US Geological Survey. Black Island lies between 166-167degE and 78deg00'-78deg30'S. C78192s1 Ant.Map Mount Discovery.jpg
A topographical map of the Mount Discovery area by the US Geological Survey. Black Island lies between 166-167°E and 78°00′-78°30′S.

See also

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Mount Nubian is a sharp point of rock at the end of a ridge formed by a lava flow, situated 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) southeast of Mount Aurora on Black Island, in the Ross Archipelago. The rock forming the mountain is a glossy basalt and appears exceptionally black. Named by the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (NZGSAE) (1958–59) after a tribe resident in Sudan, and in keeping with Black Island.

Mount Vision is a peak in the volcanic complex 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) northwest of Mount Aurora on Black Island. So named by the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (NZGSAE) (1958–59) because of the magnificent view obtained of the peaks in this vicinity and of the Ross Archipelago and Minna Bluff area.

Melania Ridge is a basalt ridge running southeast for 3 nautical miles (6 km) from Mount Melania, on Black Island in the Ross Archipelago, Antarctica. It was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (1999) in association with Mount Melania.

Mount Melania is a prominent rounded hill, 330 metres (1,080 ft) high, at the north end of Black Island, in the Ross Archipelago, Antarctica. It was first climbed by Hartley T. Ferrar and Louis Bernacchi of the British National Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04. The name, from a Greek word connoting the color black, an appropriate name for a feature on Black Island, was given by the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition in 1958–59.

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The McMurdo Volcanic Group is a large group of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the western Ross Sea and central Transantarctic Mountains areas of Antarctica. It is one of the largest provinces of alkaline volcanism in the world, having formed as a result of continental rifting along the West Antarctic Rift System.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kyle, P.R. (1990). "A. McMurdo Volcanic Group Western Ross Embayment". In LeMasurier, W.E.; Thomson, J.W.; Baker, P.E.; Kyle, P.R.; Rowley, P.D.; Smellie, J.L.; Verwoerd, W.J. (eds.). Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. Antarctic Research Series. Vol. 48. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union. pp. 113–116. doi:10.1029/ar048. ISBN   978-0-87590-172-5. Archived from the original on 2021-08-02. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  2. "Black Island". SCAR Composite Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 2021-08-02. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  3. "Thomas Vere Hodgson - Biographical notes". Cool Antarctica. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
  4. 1 2 "Black Island". www.southpolestation.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-24. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  5. "Mount Aurora". Gazetteer - AADC. Archived from the original on 2014-03-02. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  6. "Black Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  7. "Black Island". Gazetteer - AADC. Archived from the original on 2014-03-04. Retrieved 2021-08-02.