Black Mesa (Oklahoma)

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Black Mesa
Black Mesa summit, Oklahoma.jpg
Black Mesa, highest point in Oklahoma
Highest point
Elevation 5,705 ft (1,739 m) [1]
Listing U.S. state high point 23rd
Coordinates 37°04′53″N103°20′47″W / 37.08141°N 103.34633°W / 37.08141; -103.34633 Coordinates: 37°04′53″N103°20′47″W / 37.08141°N 103.34633°W / 37.08141; -103.34633 [1]
Geography
Usa edcp relief location map.png
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Black Mesa
Topo map USGS Jacks Gap
Geology
Mountain type Mesa
Climbing
Easiest route Hike

Black Mesa is a mesa in the U.S. states of Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. It extends from Mesa de Maya, Colorado southeasterly 28 miles (45 km) along the north bank of the Cimarron River, crossing the northeast corner of New Mexico to end at the confluence of the Cimarron River and Carrizo Creek near Kenton in the Oklahoma panhandle. Its highest elevation is 5,705 feet (1,739 m) in Colorado. [1] The highest point of Black Mesa within New Mexico is 5,239 feet (1,597 m). [2] In northwestern Cimarron County, Oklahoma, Black Mesa reaches 4,973 feet (1,516 m), the highest point in the state of Oklahoma. [2] The plateau that formed at the top of the mesa has been known as a "geological wonder" of North America. [3] There is abundant wildlife in this shortgrass prairie environment, including mountain lions, butterflies, and the Texas horned lizard.

Mesa Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs

Mesa is the American English term for tableland, an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs. It takes its name from its characteristic table-top shape. It may also be called a table hill, table-topped hill or table mountain. It is larger than a butte, which it otherwise resembles closely.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Colorado State of the United States of America

Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census.

Contents

History

The plateau has been home to Plains Indians. [4]

In the late-nineteenth and early twentieth century the area was a hideout for outlaws such as William Coe and Black Jack Ketchum. The outlaws built a fort known as the Robbers' Roost. The stone fort housed a blacksmith shop, gun ports, and a piano. The present-day Oklahoma Panhandle area, which was then considered a no man's land, lacked law enforcement agencies and hence the outlaws found it safe to hide in the region. However, as new settlers arrived in the area for copper and coal mining and also for cattle ranching activities by grazing cattle in the mesa region, law enforcement became more effective, and the outlaws were brought under control. [3] In more recent times, at least one person has claimed to have been abducted by extraterrestrial aliens at Black Mesa. [5]

Outlaw person, that is declared as outside the protection of the law

In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, the criminal is withdrawn all legal protection, so that anyone is legally empowered to persecute or kill them. Outlawry was thus one of the harshest penalties in the legal system. In early Germanic law, the death penalty is conspicuously absent, and outlawing is the most extreme punishment, presumably amounting to a death sentence in practice. The concept is known from Roman law, as the status of homo sacer, and persisted throughout the Middle Ages.

Oklahoma Panhandle panhandle in north-western Oklahoma

The Oklahoma Panhandle is the extreme northwestern region of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, consisting of Cimarron County, Texas County and Beaver County, from west to east. As with other salients in the United States, its name comes from the similarity of its shape to the handle of a pan.

No mans land strip of land between wartime trenches

No man's land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was originally used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms. In modern times, it is commonly associated with World War I to describe the area of land between two enemy trench systems, which neither side wished to cross or seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process.

Geography

The Mesa is situated in the Cimarron County in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The Black Mesa plateau there is part of the Rocky Mountains and the shortgrass prairie. [3] Some features include the Old Maid Rock, [6] and Devil's Tombstone. [7] The mesa's base includes a 200 feet (61 m) escarpment which is parallel with the Dry Cimarron River's north bank. [8] Its highest elevation is 5,705 feet (1,739 m) in Colorado. [1] The highest point of Black Mesa within New Mexico is 5,239 feet (1,597 m). [2] In northwestern Cimarron County, Oklahoma, Black Mesa reaches 4,975 feet (1,516 m), the highest point in the state of Oklahoma. [2]

Cimarron County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Cimarron County is the westernmost county in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,475, making it the least-populous county in Oklahoma. Its county seat is Boise City.

A hiking trail of 4.2 miles (6.8 km) leads from the preserve to the summit which rises about 800 feet (240 m) above the level of the surrounding plains, [9] and a round trip requires four hours minimum; overnight camping is not permitted. [10]

The mesa's highest point within Oklahoma is marked by a granite obelisk, and a visitors' log. [11]

An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top. These were originally called tekhenu by their builders, the Ancient Egyptians. The Greeks who saw them used the Greek term 'obeliskos' to describe them, and this word passed into Latin and ultimately English. Ancient obelisks are monolithic; that is, they consist of a single stone. Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; some, like the Washington Monument, are buildings.

Climate

Black Mesa is not only the highest point in Oklahoma but it is also the driest, harshest and coldest place in the state. [12]

Climate data for Kenton, Oklahoma (Elevation 4,330ft)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)83
(28)
86
(30)
89
(32)
97
(36)
102
(39)
109
(43)
108
(42)
108
(42)
107
(42)
99
(37)
89
(32)
84
(29)
109
(43)
Average high °F (°C)50.4
(10.2)
55.1
(12.8)
62.3
(16.8)
70.3
(21.3)
78.8
(26.0)
88.6
(31.4)
92.6
(33.7)
89.9
(32.2)
83.8
(28.8)
73.5
(23.1)
59.7
(15.4)
51.3
(10.7)
71.4
(21.9)
Average low °F (°C)19.7
(−6.8)
23.8
(−4.6)
31.0
(−0.6)
38.7
(3.7)
48.5
(9.2)
57.8
(14.3)
63.1
(17.3)
61.5
(16.4)
53.7
(12.1)
40.6
(4.8)
29.0
(−1.7)
21.6
(−5.8)
40.8
(4.9)
Record low °F (°C)−23
(−31)
−19
(−28)
−18
(−28)
13
(−11)
27
(−3)
39
(4)
47
(8)
44
(7)
27
(−3)
6
(−14)
−15
(−26)
−17
(−27)
−23
(−31)
Average precipitation inches (mm)0.40
(10)
0.33
(8.4)
0.96
(24)
1.48
(38)
2.47
(63)
2.18
(55)
3.10
(79)
2.67
(68)
1.58
(40)
0.99
(25)
0.67
(17)
0.35
(8.9)
17.18
(436.3)
Average snowfall inches (cm)4.9
(12)
3.6
(9.1)
6.4
(16)
1.3
(3.3)
0.2
(0.51)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.51)
0.5
(1.3)
2.8
(7.1)
4.1
(10)
24
(59.82)
Source: NOAA [13]

Geology

The visual and map view appearance of Black Mesa is as an "inverted valley" because erosion has removed the relatively soft sedimentary strata from either side of the resistant Raton basalt of the lava which originally had occupied and filled a river valley. The mesa is capped by erosion-resistant basaltic lava formed by a volcanic eruption 3 to 5 million years ago. The lava erupted from a vent in the Raton-Clayton volcanic field in northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado. The volcanic cap to the mesa is 600 feet (180 m) thick, 55 miles (89 km) long and from 0.5 miles to 8 miles wide, which is 65 miles (105 km) to the north-northwest of Oklahoma. [3] The erupting lava filled a stream channel in the Pliocene age Ogallala Formation. During the years since the eruption, the adjacent rock of the Ogallala and older formations have been removed leaving the valley-filling basalt perched atop a long ridge. Strata exposed along the mesa below the basalt and Ogallala include the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone and the Jurassic Morrison Formation. [14]

Beginning in 1935, geologists and paleontologists have searched the mesa's outcroppings, finding dinosaur fossils in the Jurassic and Triassic strata. A large quantity of dinosaur bones has been recovered from the Black Mesa locale; totaling over eighteen tonnes, these remains were split between several species, including stegosaurus, camptosaurus, diplodocus, and edmontosaurus. Clear fossil physical evidence, a distinct line of footprints believed to have been made by an allosaurus, has been found juxtaposed with the Carrizo Creek, which runs around the modern-day northern edge of the mesa. [3]

Protected area

View from the summit

The mesa lies in the protected area known as the Black Mesa Nature Preserve which was established in 1991, covering 1,600 acres (6.5 km2). The preserve protects 60% of the area of the mesa peak. The peak is accessible along an 8-mile-long (13 km) trail. [3]

Apart from the nature reserve, there is also the Black Mesa State Park encompassing 549 acres (2.22 km2), with a 200 acres (0.81 km2) lake known as the Lake Carl G. Etling. The park is a recreational area with many facilities for camping, hiking and many other outdoor activities. The park is about 15 miles away from the peak. [3]

Wildlife

The flora and fauna reported from Black Mesa are unique to the Mesa. They are typically of "wildwest" type with arid grasslands and rocky buttes. The flora and fauna found here are not found anywhere else in the US, as they are adapted to the harshest climatic conditions. [12]

Black Mesa Nature Preserve in particular covers around 60% of the flat portion of the mesa in Oklahoma. [10] Wildlife reported in the park and the reserve are golden eagles, piñon jays, red-tailed hawks, and mule deer, part from a bird area for bird watchers. [3]

Flora

The vegetation of the preserve is mostly shortgrass prairie with scattered juniper trees and Cholla cactus. The summit plateau is vegetatively classified as a "Bluestem-grama shortgrass community". The preserve contains 23 plant species listed by the state as "rare". [10]

Fauna

The prairie rattlesnake is well adapted to Black Mesa's dry environment. Crotalus viridis oreganus02.jpg
The prairie rattlesnake is well adapted to Black Mesa's dry environment.

The indigenous top predator is the mountain lion; its cousin, the smaller bobcat, is also present. The more omnivorous American black bear is present, along with a variety of prey species including bighorn sheep, mule deer, and pronghorn. [15] Eight native species of animal are state-level designated as "rare". [10] Two lagomorphs are present, the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), and the black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus). [15] Other mammals include the dog-like coyote, [15] as well as the much smaller prairie dog and a species of badger. [12]

Nine snake species are found in this arid environment, the plains hog-nosed snake, western coachwhip, bullsnake, longnose snake, plains blackhead snake, blackneck garter snake, plains garter snake, lined snake, and prairie rattlesnake. The broad-headed skink, prairie racerunner, red-lipped plateau lizard, northern earless lizard, eastern collared lizard, and Texas horned lizard are also indigenous to the area. Two types of turtle, the ornate box turtle and the yellow mud turtle have been found in the Black Mesa preserve. Only one frog is found in this desert habitat, the American bullfrog, but there are six other species of amphibians; the Great Plains narrowmouth toad, New Mexico spadefoot, plains spadefoot, Woodhouse's toad, red-spotted toad, and the western green toad, all toads. [16]

Birds are common, and there are 59 species present during at least some years. Seven different raptors are found, the turkey vulture, American kestrel, golden eagle, ferruginous hawk, red-tailed hawk, Mississippi kite, and the prairie falcon, all of which are classed as being of least concern according to the IUCN. There is one other bird of prey, the western screech-owl. There are no waterfowl found on Black Mesa. The mourning dove, greater roadrunner, common nighthawk, common poorwill, ladder-backed woodpecker, red-shafted flicker, olive-sided flycatcher, Say's phoebe, ash-throated flycatcher, Cassin's kingbird, and western kingbird are also found. There are five corvids; the black-billed magpie, pinyon jay, American crow, and common raven, as well as the more local Chihuahuan raven. [17]

Papilio polyxenes , the state butterfly of Oklahoma, is found on Black Mesa. P1030326 copy filtered.jpg
Papilio polyxenes , the state butterfly of Oklahoma, is found on Black Mesa.

61 species of butterfly are found in the preserve, [18] including seventeen skippers, three swallowtails, four hairstreaks, a copper, four whites, nine true brushfoots, two satyrs, and a leafwing. [18]

There are 91 species of moths on Black Mesa. No species of fish are found on Black Mesa. [19]

Culture

A permanent exhibit in the Sam Noble Museum is a diorama of the Black Mesa. It covers 2,000 square feet (190 m2) and is housed in the Hall of Natural Wonders. Funds for its creation were provided by the Whitten-Newman Foundation. [12] The diorama is touchscreen computerized and interactive and is set within the boundaries of the mesa. It is a replication of the real shape and form of the mesa and is modeled to a suitable scale which brings out the short-grass prairie habitat next to a rivulet. Stuffed and mounted animals on display are the ones found in the mesa, including eagle, vulture, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, mountain lion, prairie dog, jackrabbit and badger. An ephemeral lake is also on display in a cross section format. [12] Stargarzers gather each October near Black Mesa for the annual Okie-Tex Star Party. [20]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Black Mesa, CO". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Black Mesa, NM". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lewis, Tom; Richter, Sarah Jan. "Black Mesa". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  4. Reader's Digest (2003). Off the Beaten Path: A Travel Guide to More Than 1,000 Scenic and Interesting Places Still Uncrowded and Inviting. Reader's Digest Association. pp. 270–. ISBN   978-0-7621-0424-6.
  5. "Abducted By UFOs! Sooners Report Close Encounters". NewsOK.com. January 23, 1994. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  6. Richter, Sara Jane (July 2011). The Oklahoma Panhandle. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 28–. ISBN   978-0-7385-8295-5.
  7. Capace, Nancy (March 1, 1999). Encyclopedia of Oklahoma. North American Book Dist LLC. pp. 130–. ISBN   978-0-403-09837-8.
  8. Hoppe, Bruce (February 1, 2006). Don't Let All the Pretty Days Get by. Back-To-One Books. pp. 70–. ISBN   978-0-9777611-0-4.
  9. "Oklahoma High Point - Black Mesa - Kenton OK" . Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  10. 1 2 3 4 "Oklahoma:Black Mesa Nature Preserve". The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  11. "Black Mesa (Oklahoma) – Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering". Mountain Forecast.Com. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 "Black Mesa". Sam Noble Museum: The University of Oklahoma. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  13. NOAA. Retrieved 20 February 2011
  14. "Suneson and Luza, A Field Trip Guide to the Geology of the Black Mesa State Park Area, Cimarron County OK" (pdf). Oklahoma Geological Survey. 1999. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  15. 1 2 3 "Checklist of Oklahoma Preserve Mammal Species" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. July 3, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  16. "Checklist of Oklahoma Preserve Reptile & Amphibian Species" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. July 3, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  17. "Checklist of Oklahoma Preserve Bird Species" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. July 3, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
  18. 1 2 "Checklist of Oklahoma Preserve Butterfly Species" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. July 3, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  19. "Checklist of Oklahoma Preserve Fish Species" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. July 3, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  20. Richter, p. 34