|Black Sea Fleet|
|Russian: Черноморский Флот|
Great emblem of the Black Sea fleet
|Active||May 13, 1783–present|
|Role|| Naval warfare |
|Size||25,000 (including marines) |
6 submarines (2014)
|Garrison/HQ|| Sevastopol (HQ), Feodosia (Crimea) |
Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Temryuk (Krasnodar Krai)
Taganrog (Rostov Oblast)
|Engagements|| Battle of Kerch Strait |
World War I
Russian Civil War
World War II
Yom Kippur War
Russian military intervention in Ukraine
2014 annexation of Crimea
Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
|V. Adm. Igor Osipov|
| Grigory Potemkin |
Adm. Fyodor Ushakov
Adm. Alexander Menshikov
Adm. Yevgeni Alekseyev
Adm. Alexander Kolchak
Adm. Ivan Yumashev
Adm. Filipp Oktyabrskiy
Adm. Lev Vladimirsky
Fleet Adm. Sergey Gorshkov
Fleet Adm. Vladimir Kasatonov
Adm. Vladimir Masorin
|Navies of Russia|
The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.
The fleet traces its history to its founding by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783. The Russian SFSR inherited the fleet in 1918; with the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922 it became part of the Soviet Navy. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 the Russian Federation inherited the Black Sea Fleet and most of its vessels.
The Black Sea Fleet has its official primary headquarters and facilities in the city of Sevastopol (Sevastopol Naval Base). The remainder of the fleet's facilities are based in various locations on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, including Krasnodar Krai, Rostov Oblast and Crimea. The current [update] commander, Vice-Admiral Igor Vladimirovich Osipov, has held his position since May 2019.
The Black Sea Fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Formerly commanded by such legendary admirals as Dmitriy Senyavin and Pavel Nakhimov, it is a fleet of enormous historical and political importance for Russia. In 1790, Russian naval forces under the command of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait.
From 1841 onward, the fleet was confined to the Black Sea by the London Straits Convention.
As a result of the Crimean War, one provision of the Treaty of Paris was that the Black Sea was to be a demilitarized zone like the Island of Åland in the Baltic Sea, although Russia subsequently renounced the treaty and reconstituted its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea.
The crew of the battleship Potemkin revolted in 1905 soon after the Navy's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Lenin wrote that the Potemkin uprising had had a huge importance in terms of being the first attempt at creating the nucleus of a revolutionary army.
During World War I, there were a number of encounters between the Russian and Ottoman navies in the Black Sea. The Ottomans initially had the advantage due to having under their command the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben, but after the two modern Russian dreadnoughts Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya had been built in Mykolaiv, the Russians took command of the sea until the Russian government collapsed in November 1917. German submarines of the Constantinople Flotilla and Turkish light forces would continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end.
During the Russian Civil War, the vast majority of the Black Sea Fleet was scuttled by Bolsheviks in Novorossiysk; some were managed to be interned by the Central Powers (later passed to Ukraine, see Navy of the Ukrainian People's Republic) or Western Allies (later passed to the White movement, see Wrangel's fleet). In 1919 out of the remnants of the Russian Imperial Fleet was established the Red Fleet of Ukraine which existed few months before a major advance of the Armed Forces of South Russia which occupied all the South and East Ukraine. Most of the ships became part of the "Russian Squadron" of Wrangl's armed forces and after the evacuation sailed to Tunisia. Out of those ships, some were passed to the French Navy and some were salvaged.
Upon the defeat of the Armed Forces of South Russia, the Ukrainian National Army and the Polish Armed Forces in Ukraine the Soviet government signed a military union with the Russian SFSR transferring all the command to the Commander-in-chief of Russia. Few ships that did stay in Black Sea were salvaged in the 1920s, while a large scale new construction programme began in the 1930s. Over 500 new ships were built during that period as well as massive expansion of coastal infrastructure took place. The Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral F.S. Oktyabrskiy on the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941. The Fleet gave a credible account of itself as it fought alongside the Red Army during the Siege of Odessa and the Battle of Sevastopol.(See Black Sea Campaigns (1941–44) for more details.)
In 1952, Turkey decided to join NATO, placing the Bosporus Strait in the Western sphere of influence. Together with the advent of long-range nuclear weapons, this dramatically decreased the strategic value of any naval activity in the Black Sea.[ citation needed ]
In the later post-war period, along with the Northern Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet provided ships for the 5th Operational Squadron in the Mediterranean, which confronted the United States Navy during the Arab-Israeli wars, notably during the Yom Kippur War in 1973.
In 1988 Coastal Troops and Naval Aviation units of the Black Sea Fleet included:
In 1989, the 126th Motor Rifle Division at Simferopol was transferred to the Black Sea Fleet from the Odessa Military District. Also that year, the 119th Fighter Aviation Division, with the 86th Guards, 161st, and 841st Guards Fighter Aviation Regiments, joined the Fleet from the 5th Air Army. [ disambiguation needed ] airport (between Poti and Batumi in the Adjar ASSR) (Georgian SSR) became the 841st independent Guards Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment in May 1991 and was disbanded in October 1992.The 86th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment became part of the Moldovan Air Force upon the breakup of the Soviet Union. The 841st at Meria
“Agreement on the principles for forming the Ukrainian Naval Forces and the Russian Naval Fleet based on the Black Sea Fleet (BSF) of the former USSR," the Yalta Treaty on the Black Sea Fleet was signed by the presidents of Ukraine and the RF on August 3, 1992 in Mukholatka, outside Yalta.
The military importance of the fleet has degraded since the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to significant funding cuts and, to a degree, the loss of its major missions.[ citation needed ] However, in the early 21st century, local conflicts in the Caucasus region (particularly the 2008 South Ossetia war) saw Moscow employ elements of the Black Sea Fleet off the coast of Georgia, and the development of oil transit in the region has strengthened Russia's support of the fleet.[ citation needed ]
In 1992, the major part of the personnel, armaments and coastal facilities of the Fleet fell under formal jurisdiction of the newly independent Ukraine as they were situated on Ukrainian territory. Later, the Ukrainian government ordered the establishment of its own Ukrainian Navy based on the Black Sea Fleet; several ships and ground formations declared themselves Ukrainian.
However, this immediately led to conflicts with the majority of officers who appeared to be loyal to Russia. Simultaneously, pro-Russian separatist groups became active in the local politics of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol municipality where the major naval bases were situated, and started coordinating their efforts with pro-Moscow seamen.
To ease the tensions, the two governments signed an interim treaty, establishing a joint Russo-Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet under bilateral command (and Soviet Navy flag) until a full-scale partition agreement could be reached. Formally, the Fleet's Commander was to be appointed by a joint order of the two countries' Presidents. However, Russia still dominated the Fleet unofficially, and a Russian admiral was appointed as Commander; the majority of the fleet personnel adopted Russian citizenship. Minor tensions between the Fleet and the new Ukrainian Navy (such as electricity cut-offs and sailors' street-fighting) continued.
On 28 May 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed several agreements regarding the fleet including the Partition Treaty, establishing two independent national fleets and dividing armaments and bases between them.Ukraine also agreed to lease major parts of its facilities to the Russian Black Sea Fleet until 2017. However, the treaty appeared to be far from perfect: permanent tensions on the lease details (including often reported issue of lighthouse control) continued. The Fleet's main base is still situated in the Crimean port city of Sevastopol. In 2009 the Yushchenko Ukrainian government declared that the lease would not be extended and that the fleet would have to leave Sevastopol by 2017. In 2010 the Russian leasehold was renegotiated with an extension until 2042 and an option for an additional five years until 2047 plus consideration of further renewals.
The newly independent nation of Georgia, which also hosted several bases of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet when it was the Georgian SSR, also claimed a share of the Fleet, including 32 naval vessels formerly stationed at Georgia's Black Sea port of Poti. Not a CIS member at that time, Georgia was not, however, included in the initial negotiations in January 1992. Additionally, some low-importance bases situated in the Russian-backed breakaway autonomy of Abkhazia soon escaped any Georgian control. In 1996, Georgia resumed its demands, and the Russian refusal to allot Georgia a portion of the ex-Soviet navy became another bone of contention in the progressively deteriorating Georgian-Russian relations. This time, Ukraine endorsed Tbilisi's claims, turning over several patrol boats to the Georgian Navy and starting to train Georgian crews, but was unable to include in the final fleet deal a transfer of the formerly Poti-based vessels to Georgia.Later, the rest of the Georgian share was decided to be ceded to Russia in return for diminution of debt.
Since the 2008 South Ossetia war the Russian Black Sea Fleet has not taken part in any joint naval exercises involving Georgian warships.However, such a statement has little meaning since the Georgian Navy has ceased to exist (early 2009 it was merged with the Georgian coast guard).
Russia is a member of the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group usually referred to as BLACKSEAFOR.
Russia employed part of the fleet during the 2008 Georgian conflict. Russian units operating off Georgia's separatist Abkhazia region resulted in a reported skirmish with the Georgian Navy. As a result, Ukraine's then President Viktor Yushchenko decreed that the Black Sea Fleet would henceforth need permission to cross the Ukrainian border to enter and leave to Sevastopol, [ citation needed ] Yushchenko's decrees were without force and deployed units of the Russian Black Sea Fleet returned to their home moorings without incident. The texts of the 1997 Ukraine-Russia agreements regarding the presence of Russian Black Sea Fleet ships in Crimea contained no requirement for Ukraine's permission to cross the Ukrainian border to enter or exit Sevastopol.to which a Russian admiral retorted that the President of the Russian Federation and not Ukraine commands the Black Sea Fleet.
This section needs to be updated.March 2014)(
In a letter to then Russian President Medvedev, former Ukrainian President Yushchenko complained about alleged "infringements of bilateral agreements and Ukrainian legislation"
In 2009, Ukraine government announced that the lease of Russian naval bases on the Crimea would not be extended beyond 2017, $98 million annually and the treaty provided for an extension by mutual agreement. Russian officials repeatedly said they would like to extend the lease.in response the Russian Black Fleet initiated the expansion of its base in Novorossiysk. In July 2007, the Navy Commander announced that the new base would be ready in 2012. Under the 1997 bilateral treaty, Russia paid
In June 2009, the head of the Ukrainian Security Service said that after December 13, 2009, all officers from the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) represented at the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine, from then the Security Service of Ukraine will ensure the security of the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet and Russian sailors on Ukrainian territory.According to the Russian Foreign Ministry the employees of the FSB, working at the Black Sea Fleet facilities, are to remain on Ukrainian territory "in line with bilateral agreements".
In October–November 2009, the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet complained about illegal inspection of (non-boat) transport vehicles owned by the fleet by the Sevastopol State Auto Inspectorate and Ukrainian security officers, calling them "disrespect for the status of the Russian military units and an unfriendly step aimed at worsening the Russian-Ukrainian relations".
On April 21, 2010, Ukrainian President Yanukovych and Russian President Medvedev reached an agreement whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea would be extended beyond 2017 by 25 years with an additional 5-year renewal option (to 2042–47) in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas.This deal is controversial in Ukraine.
Joint exercises of the Ukrainian Navy and the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet were resumed after a seven-year interval with a command-staff exercise in June 2010.In May 2011, Russian-Ukrainian at-sea naval "Peace Fairway" (Farvater Mira) exercises resumed.
In 2010, based on an agreement between Ukrainian and Russian governments military counterintelligence officers from the Russian Federal Security Service returned to the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet base.
While a Yushchenko Foreign Minister said that Russia cannot unilaterally replace its Black Sea Fleet ships without Ukraine's consent,the recent lease extension also revalidated the agreements of 1997. Those agreements stipulate that the Russian Black Sea Fleet can maintain the same numbers and types of ships that it had based in Sevastopol as a result of the 1997 fleet division without approval by Ukraine. This stipulation permits Russia to increase the current size of the fleet which has fallen below those numbers.
As a result of the stance of the Ukrainian authorities, it was reported on 20 May 2013 that Russia would be concentrating on its new base in Novorossiysk and putting Sevastopol on hold as it upgrades the Black Sea Fleet. The Project-11356 frigate Admiral Grigorovich and the Project-636 submarines (Kilo class submarine) Novorossiysk and Rostov-na-Donu were expected to join the Fleet in 2014 and new moorings were being made ready for them at the base.
Repeated and sometimes contradictory announcements have been made claiming that new ships will join the fleet. On December 3, 2009, First Vice Mayor of Sevastopol Vladimir Kazarin stated that Russia's Black Sea Fleet could lose its combat capability, given a small number of ships and the absence of new ones.Similar doubts had been stated by the Russian media. The Gazeta newspaper noted that, by 2015, the majority of the warships would no longer be fit for duty.
In April 2010, Russian Navy sources said that up to four frigates and four diesel-electric submarines will be added to the Black Sea Fleet by 2015.In June 2010, Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky announced that Russia was reviewing plans for the naval modernization of the Black Sea Fleet. The plans include 15 new warships and submarines by 2020. These vessels will partially replace the reported decommissioning of Kerch, Ochakov (decommissioned in 2011 and sunk as a blockship in 2014), several large support ships, and a diesel-electric submarine.
Also in 2010, Russian Navy Headquarters sources said that, by 2020, six frigates of Project 22350 Gorshkov-class, six submarines of Project 677 Lada-class, two large landing ships of Project 11711 Ivan Gren-class and four class-unspecified ships will be delivered. Due to the obsolescence of the Beriev Be-12 by 2015, they will be replaced with Il-38s. Sukhoi Su-24M aircraft are planned to be upgraded to Su-24M2 at the same time.However, the November 2011 suspension of the building of the second and third Lada-class boats throws this particular announcement into doubt.
The Project 636.3 (Kilo-class) diesel-electric submarine Novorossiysk — the first of three such new submarines, which was laid down at Admiralty Wharves Shipyard, St. Petersburg on August 20, 2010 — is destined to serve in the Black Sea Fleet.Navy sources also say that Project 11356 Grigorovich-class frigate will be dispatched to the Black Sea. The Admiral Grigorovich, the lead ship of the class, was laid down on December 18, 2010 and was expected to be in service 34 months from that date (October 2013). Three ships of this class are to be in service in the Black Sea Fleet before 2015.
After the 2014 Crimean crisis, in which Ukrainian Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Navy were evicted from their bases and subsequently withdrawn from Crimea,Russia planned to integrate several vessels from the Ukrainian Navy into the Black Sea Fleet. According to sources from Black Sea Fleet Headquarters, inspections of all ships were to be done by the end of 2014.
Speaking ahead of the nationwide Navy Day festivities in 2015, Black Sea Fleet commander Adm. Vitko said that, "For the first time in quite a long period, more than ten brand-new boats and support vessels have been accepted into service within one calendar year."Overall, in 2015 the fleet received 15 new ships, including two submarines, two missile corvettes, seven counter-sabotage boats, support, rescue and auxiliary vessels.
The Russian Black Sea Fleet's (BSF) use of leased facilities in Sevastopol and the Crimea was sometimes controversial. A number of incidents took place:
|1||VADM||Aleksey Fedotovich Klokachev||1783|
|2||VADM||Yakov Filippovich Sukhotin||1784 – 1785|
|3||RADM||Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov||1785 – 1789|
|4||RADM||Marko Ivanovich Voynovich||1789 – 1790|
|5||RADM||Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov||1790 – 1792|
|#||ADM||Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov||1792 – 1799|
|6||ADM||Vilim Petrovich Fondezin||1799 – 1802|
|7||ADM||Aleksandr Ivanovich de Travers||1802 – 1811|
|8||ADM||Roman Romanovich Gall||1811|
|9||VADM||Nikolay Lvovich Yazykov||1811 – 1816|
|10||ADM||Aleksey Samuilovich Greig||1816 – 1833|
|11||ADM||Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev||1834 – 1851|
|12||ADM||Morits Borisovich Berg||1851 – 1855|
|13||VADM||Nikolay Fedorovich Metlin||Sep 1855 – Dec 1855|
|14||VADM||Aleksandr Ivanovich Panfilov||Jan 1856 – Aug 1856|
|15||RADM||Grigoriy Ivanovich Butakov||Aug 1856 – Jan 1860|
|16||VADM||Bogdan Aleksandrovich Glazenap||1860 – Jan 1871|
|17||ADM||Nikolay Andreyevich Arkas||1871 – 1881|
|18||ADM||Mikhail Pavlovich Manganari||1881 – 1882|
|19||VADM||Aleksey Alekseyevich Peshchurov||1882 – 1890|
|20||RADM||Roman Andreevich Grenkvist||1890|
|21||VADM||Nikolay Vasilyevich Kopytov||1891 – 1898|
|22||VADM||Yevgeni Ivanovich Alekseyev||1898|
|23||VADM||Sergey Petrovich Tyrtov||6 May 1898 – 1903|
|24||VADM||Yakov Appolonovich Giltebrandt||1903|
|25||VADM||Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov||1903 – 1904|
|26||VADM||Aleksandr Khristianovich Kriger||1904|
|27||VADM||Grigoriy Pavlovich Chukhnin||1904 – 1906|
|28||RADM||Ivan Konstantinovich Grigorovich||1906|
|29||VADM||Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov||1906 – 1907|
|30||RADM||Genrikh Faddeevich Tsyvinskiy||1907|
|31||RADM||Robert Nikolayevich Viren||1907 – 1908|
|32||VADM||Ivan Fyodorovich Bostrem||1908 – 1909|
|33||VADM||Vladimir Simonovich Sarnavskiy||1909 – 1911|
|34||VADM||Ivan Fyodorovich Bostrem||1911|
|35||RADM||Pavel Ivanovich Novitskiy||1911|
|36||VADM||Andrey Avgustovich Ehbergard||1911 – Jun 1916|
|37||VADM||Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak||Jun 1916 – Jun 1917|
|38 (Acting)||RADM||Veniamin Konstantinovich Lukin||Jun 1917 – Jul 1917|
|39||RADM||Aleksandr Vasilyevich Nemitts||Jul 1917 – Dec 1917|
|41||Captain 1st Rank||Aleksandr Ivanovich Tikhmenev||1918|
|42||Captain 1st Rank||Aleksandr Ivanovich Sheykovskiy||1919|
|43||Captain 1st Rank||Aleksey Vladimirovich Dombrovskiy||May 1920 – Oct 1920|
|44||Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy||Nov 1920 – Nov 1921|
|45||Andrey Semenovich Maksimov||Nov 1921 – Jul 1922|
|46||Aleksandr Karlovich Vekman||Jul 1922 – May 1924|
|47||Mikhail Vladimirovich Viktorov||May 1924 – Dec 1924|
|48||Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy||Dec 1924 – Oct 1926|
|49||Vladimir Mitrofanovich Orlov||Oct 1926 – Jun 1931|
|50||Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank||Ivan Kuz'mich Kozhanov||Jun 1931 – Aug 1937|
|51||Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank||Petr Ivanovich Smirnov-Svetlovskiy||Aug 1937 – Dec 1937|
|52||Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank||Ivan Stepanovich Yumashev||1938 – Mar 1939|
|53||VADM||Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy||Mar 1939 – Apr 1943|
|54||VADM||Lev Anatol'evich Vladimirskiy||Apr 1943 – Mar 1944|
|55||VADM||Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy||Mar 1944 – Nov 1948|
|56||ADM||Nikolai Efremovich Basistiy||Nov 1948 – Aug 1951|
|57||ADM||Sergey Georgiyevich Gorshkov||Aug 1951 – Jul 1955|
|58||VADM||Viktor Aleksandrovich Parkhomenko||Jul 1955 – Dec 1955|
|59||ADM||Vladimir Afanasyevich Kasatonov||Dec 1955 – Feb 1962|
|60||ADM||Serafim Evgeniyevich Chursin||Feb 1962 – Dec 1968|
|61||ADM||Viktor Sergeyevich Sysoyev||Dec 1968 – Mar 1974|
|62||ADM||Nikolay Ivanovich Khovrin||Mar 1974 – April 1983|
|63||ADM||Aleksey Mikhailovich Kalinin||Apr 1983 – Jul 1985|
|64||ADM||Mikhail Nikolayevich Khronopulo||Jul 1985 – Oct 1991|
|65||ADM||Igor Vladimirovich Kasatonov||Oct 1991 – Dec 1992|
|66||ADM||Ehduard Dmitriyevich Baltin||Dec 1992 – Feb 1996|
|67||ADM||Viktor Andreyevich Kravchenko||Feb 1996 – Jul 1998|
|68||ADM||Vladimir Petrovich Komoyedov||Jul 1998 – Oct 2002|
|69||ADM||Vladimir Vasilyevich Masorin||Oct 2002 – Feb 2005|
|70||ADM||Aleksandr Arkadyevich Tatarinov||Feb 2005 – Jul 2007|
|71||VADM||Aleksandr Dmitrievich Kletskov||Jul 2007 – Jul 2010|
|72||VADM||Vladimir Ivanovich Korolev||Jul 2010 – Jun 2011|
|73||VADM||Aleksandr Nikolayevich Fedotenkov||Jun 2011 – May 2013|
|74||ADM||Aleksandr Viktorovich Vitko||17 May 2013 – June 2018|
|75||VADM||Aleksandr Alekseevich Moiseev||26 June 2018 – 3 May 2019|
|76||VADM||Igor Vladimirovich Osipov||3 May 2019 – present|
In the 2014 Crimean crisis Ukrainian Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Navy were evicted from their bases and Ukraine subsequently withdrew its forces from Crimea.Fifty-four out of sixty-seven ships of the Ukrainian Navy have been transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, with St. Andrew flags raised on them. On 8 April 2014 an agreement was reached between Russia and Ukraine to return Ukrainian Navy materials to Ukraine proper. The greater portion of the Ukrainian naval ships and vessels were then returned to Ukraine but Russia suspended this process after Ukraine did not renew its unilaterally declared ceasefire on 1 July 2014 in the conflict in the Donbass. According to the fleet commander Aleksandr Vitko, this happened because the vessels were old "and, if used [by Ukraine], could hurt its own people".
|121||Guided Missile Cruiser||Moskva||Slava||1983||Active, Fleet Flagship|
|810||Guided Missile Destroyer||Smetlivyy||Kashin||1969||Active|
|801||Guided Missile Frigate||Ladnyy||Krivak||1980||Active|
|808||Guided Missile Frigate||Pytlivyy||Krivak||1981||Active|
|745||Guided Missile Frigate||Admiral Grigorovich||Admiral Grigorovich||2016||Active|
|751||Guided Missile Frigate||Admiral Essen||Admiral Grigorovich||2016||Active|
|799||Guided Missile Frigate||Admiral Makarov||Admiral Grigorovich||2017||Active|
|554||Diesel Attack Submarine||Alrosa (B-871)||Kilo 877V||1990||Sevastopol||Active|
|555||Diesel Attack Submarine||Novorossiysk (B-261)||Improved Kilo 636.3||2014||Novorossiysk||Active|
|556||Diesel Attack Submarine||Rostov na donu (B-237)||Improved Kilo 636.3||2014||Novorossiysk||Active|
|557||Diesel Attack Submarine||Staryy Oskol (B-262)||Improved Kilo 636.3||2015||Novorossiysk||Active[ citation needed ]|
|558||Diesel Attack Submarine||Krasnodar (B-265)||Improved Kilo 636.3||2015||Novorossiysk||Active|
|559||Diesel Attack Submarine||Velikiy Novgorod (B-268)||Improved Kilo 636.3||2016||Novorossiysk||Active|
|560||Diesel Attack Submarine||Kolpino (B-271)||Improved Kilo 636.3||2016||Novorossiysk||Active|
|152||Landing Ship||Nikolay Filchenkov||Alligator||1975|
|158||Landing Ship||Caesar Kunikov||Ropucha-I||1986|
|059||ASW Corvette||Alexandrovets||Grisha I||1982|
|071||ASW Corvette||Suzdalets||Grisha III||1983|
|064||ASW Corvette||Muromets||Grisha III||1983|
|913||Seagoing Minesweeper||Kovrovets||Natya I||1974|
|911||Seagoing Minesweeper||Ivan Golubets||Natya I||1973|
|912||Seagoing Minesweeper||Turbinist||Natya I||1972|
|601||Base Minesweeper||Ivan Antonov||Alexandrit||2018|
|609||Guided Missile Corvette||Vyshniy Volochyok||Buyan-M||2018|
|615||Guided Missile Corvette||Bora||Dergach||1989|
|616||Guided Missile Corvette||Samum||Dergach||2000|
|617||Guided Missile Corvette||Mirazh||Nanuchka-III||1986|
|620||Guided Missile Corvette||Shtil||Nanuchka-III||1978|
|626||Guided Missile Corvette||Orekhovo-Zuyevo||Buyan-M||2018|
|962||Missile Boat||Shuya||Tarantul-II Mod||1985|
|953||Missile Boat||Naberezhnye Chelny||Tarantul-III||1991|
|630||Guided Missile Corvette||Ingushetiya||Buyan-M||2019|
|053||Small Antisubmarine Ship||Povorino||Grisha III||1989|
|054||Small Antisubmarine Ship||Eysk||Grisha-III||1987|
|055||Small Antisubmarine Ship||Kasimov||Grisha-III||1984|
|368||Patrol ship||Vasiliy Bykov||Project 22160||2018|
|375||Patrol ship||Dmitriy Rogachev||Project 22160||2019|
|901||Seagoing Minesweeper||Anatoliy Zheleznyakov||Gorya||1988|
|770||Seagoing Minesweeper||Valentin Pikul||Natya I Mod||2001|
|908||Seagoing Minesweeper||Vice-Admiral Zakharin||Pr.02668||2009|
|426||Base Minesweeper||Mineralnyye Vody||Sonya||1990|
|438||Base Minesweeper||Leytenant Ilin||Sonya||1982|
|201||Base Minesweeper||RTShch RT-46||Yevgenya||1997|
Also, a squadron of Sukhoi Su-30SMs (2016).
Sevastopol is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port. Since annexing Crimea in 2014, the Russian Federation has administered Sevastopol as a federal city. Nevertheless, Ukraine and most of the UN member countries continue to regard Sevastopol as a city with special status within Ukraine. The population is made up of mostly Russians with small numbers of Ukrainians and Tatars.
The Russian Navy is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces. It has existed in various forms since 1696, the present iteration of which was formed in January 1992 when it succeeded the Navy of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The Northern Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Arctic.
The Ukrainian Naval Forces is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as Tauris, Taurica, and the Tauric Chersonese, begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast. The southern coast remained Greek in culture for almost two thousand years as part of the Roman Empire, and its successor states, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Trebizond, and the independent Principality of Theodoro. In the 13th century, some port cities were controlled by the Venetians and by the Genovese. The Crimean interior was much less stable, enduring a long series of conquests and invasions; by the early medieval period it had been settled by Scythians (Scytho-Cimmerians), Tauri, Greeks, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Kipchaks and Khazars. In the medieval period, it was acquired partly by Kievan Rus', but fell to the Mongol invasions as part of the Golden Horde. They were followed by the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, which conquered the coastal areas as well, in the 15th to 18th centuries.
The Ukrainian Naval Aviation is a component of the Ukrainian Navy.
Ternopil (U209) is a Grisha-class anti-submarine corvette of the Ukrainian Navy, In March 2014 the ship was captured by the Russian forces during the Crimean crisis.
The Battle off the coast of Abkhazia was a naval engagement between warships of the Russian Black Sea Fleet and Georgian patrol boats during the Russo-Georgian War.
The Agreement between Ukraine and Russia on the Black Sea Fleet in Ukraine, widely referred to as the Kharkiv Pact or Kharkiv Accords, was a treaty between Ukraine and Russia whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea was extended beyond 2017 until 2042, with an additional five-year renewal option in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas.
Novofedorivka is an urban-type settlement and a military air base on the Black Sea coast in Saky Raion in western Crimea. Novofedorivka was established in 1992. Population: 5,610 .
Vinnytsia (U206) is an anti-submarine corvette of the Ukrainian Navy. Prior to joining the Ukrainian Navy she was a former KGB Border Guard patrol ship named Dnepr. In March 2014, she was seized by Russian soldiers and de facto came under control of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. The ship was returned to the Ukrainian Navy from Crimea on 19 April 2014.
The Southern Military District is a military district of Russia.
City with special status refers to two of Ukraine's 27 administrative regions, which are the cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol. Their administrative status is recognized in the Ukrainian Constitution in Chapter IX: Territorial Structure of Ukraine and they are governed in accordance with laws passed by Ukraine's parliament, the Verkhovna Rada.
Sevastopol Marine Trade Port (SMTP) is a port in Sevastopol. It is located mainly at the Bay of Sevastopol, and at smaller bays around the Heracles peninsula. The port infrastructure is fully integrated with the city of Sevastopol and naval bases of the Russian Navy and the Black Sea Fleet.
Denis Valentinovich Berezovsky is a rear admiral and the Russian Black Sea Fleet deputy commander. He is also a former commander of the Ukrainian Navy. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Ukrainian Navy by Interim President Oleksandr Turchynov on March 1, 2014, serving for just one day before defecting to the self-declared pro-Russian separatist Crimean government during the 2014 Crimean crisis. On March 24, 2014, the Defense Minister of Russia Sergei Shoigu appointed Berezovsky as the Russian Black Sea Fleet deputy commander. On March 5, 2014, the Office of the General Prosecutor of Ukraine issued an order to detain Berezovsky on suspicion of treason.
The annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation took place in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. On 22–23 February, Russian President Vladimir Putin convened an all-night meeting with security services chiefs to discuss pullout of deposed President, Viktor Yanukovych, and at the end of that meeting Putin remarked that "we must start working on returning Crimea to Russia.". Russia sent in soldiers on February 27, 2014. Crimea held a referendum. According to official Russian and Crimean sources 95% voted to reunite with Russia. The legitimacy of the referendum has been questioned by the international community on both legal and procedural grounds.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is an autonomous republic of Ukraine encompassing most of Crimea that was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014.
The Sevastopol Naval Base is a naval base located in Sevastopol, on disputed Crimean peninsula. It is a base of the Russian Navy and the main base of the Black Sea Fleet.
The Russian frigate Admiral Essen and the submarine Krasnodar fired four Kalibr missiles towards Palmyra, the Russian Ministry of Defense said on Wednesday, state news agency RIA Novosti announced.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Black Sea fleet of Russia .|