Black Sea Fleet

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Black Sea Fleet
Russian: Черноморский Флот
Chernomorsky Flot
Great emblem of the Black Sea fleet.svg
Great emblem of the Black Sea fleet
ActiveMay 13, 1783–present
AllegianceNaval Ensign of Russia.svg Russian Empire
(1783–1918)
Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1918-1937).svg Soviet Russia
(1918–1922)
Naval Ensign of the Soviet Union (1950-1991).svg Soviet Union
(1922–1991)
Naval Ensign of Russia.svg Russian Federation
(1991–present)
Branch Emblem of the Voenno-Morskoi Flot Rossiiskoi Federatsii.svg Russian Navy
Role Naval warfare
Amphibious warfare
Size25,000 (including marines) [1]
53 warships
6 submarines (2014) [2]
Part of Medium emblem of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (27.01.1997-present).svg Russian Armed Forces
Garrison/HQ Sevastopol (HQ), Feodosia (Crimea)
Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Temryuk (Krasnodar Krai)
Taganrog (Rostov Oblast)
AnniversariesMay 13
Engagements Battle of Kerch Strait
Crimean War
Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Russian Civil War
World War II
Yom Kippur War
Russo-Georgian War
Russian military intervention in Ukraine
2014 annexation of Crimea
Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
Commanders
Current
commander
V. Adm. Igor Osipov
Notable
commanders
Grigory Potemkin
Adm. Fyodor Ushakov
Adm. Alexander Menshikov
Adm. Yevgeni Alekseyev
Adm. Alexander Kolchak
Adm. Ivan Yumashev
Adm. Filipp Oktyabrskiy
Adm. Lev Vladimirsky
Fleet Adm. Sergey Gorshkov
Fleet Adm. Vladimir Kasatonov
Adm. Vladimir Masorin
Navies of Russia

Flag of Russia.svg Tsardom of Russia

Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Russian Empire

Flag RSFSR 1918.svg Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federation

The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.

Contents

The fleet traces its history to its founding by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783. The Russian SFSR inherited the fleet in 1918; with the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922 it became part of the Soviet Navy. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 the Russian Federation inherited the Black Sea Fleet and most of its vessels.

The Black Sea Fleet has its official primary headquarters and facilities in the city of Sevastopol (Sevastopol Naval Base). The remainder of the fleet's facilities are based in various locations on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, including Krasnodar Krai, Rostov Oblast and Crimea. The current commander, Vice-Admiral Igor Vladimirovich Osipov, has held his position since May 2019.

History

Russian Black Sea Fleet after the battle of Sinope, 1853 Russian Black Sea Fleet after the battle of Synope 1853.jpg
Russian Black Sea Fleet after the battle of Sinope, 1853

The Black Sea Fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Formerly commanded by such legendary admirals as Dmitriy Senyavin and Pavel Nakhimov, it is a fleet of enormous historical and political importance for Russia. In 1790, Russian naval forces under the command of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait. [3]

From 1841 onward, the fleet was confined to the Black Sea by the London Straits Convention.

As a result of the Crimean War, one provision of the Treaty of Paris was that the Black Sea was to be a demilitarized zone like the Island of Åland in the Baltic Sea, although Russia subsequently renounced the treaty and reconstituted its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea.

The crew of the battleship Potemkin revolted in 1905 soon after the Navy's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Lenin wrote that the Potemkin uprising had had a huge importance in terms of being the first attempt at creating the nucleus of a revolutionary army.

During World War I, there were a number of encounters between the Russian and Ottoman navies in the Black Sea. The Ottomans initially had the advantage due to having under their command the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben, but after the two modern Russian dreadnoughts Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya had been built in Mykolaiv, the Russians took command of the sea until the Russian government collapsed in November 1917. German submarines of the Constantinople Flotilla and Turkish light forces would continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end.

Soviet Navy

During the Russian Civil War, the vast majority of the Black Sea Fleet was scuttled by Bolsheviks in Novorossiysk; some were managed to be interned by the Central Powers (later passed to Ukraine, see Navy of the Ukrainian People's Republic) or Western Allies (later passed to the White movement, see Wrangel's fleet). In 1919 out of the remnants of the Russian Imperial Fleet was established the Red Fleet of Ukraine which existed few months before a major advance of the Armed Forces of South Russia which occupied all the South and East Ukraine. Most of the ships became part of the "Russian Squadron" of Wrangl's armed forces and after the evacuation sailed to Tunisia. Out of those ships, some were passed to the French Navy and some were salvaged.

Upon the defeat of the Armed Forces of South Russia, the Ukrainian National Army and the Polish Armed Forces in Ukraine the Soviet government signed a military union with the Russian SFSR transferring all the command to the Commander-in-chief of Russia. Few ships that did stay in Black Sea were salvaged in the 1920s, while a large scale new construction programme began in the 1930s. Over 500 new ships were built during that period as well as massive expansion of coastal infrastructure took place. The Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral F.S. Oktyabrskiy on the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941. The Fleet gave a credible account of itself as it fought alongside the Red Army during the Siege of Odessa and the Battle of Sevastopol. [4] (See Black Sea Campaigns (1941–44) for more details.)

In 1952, Turkey decided to join NATO, placing the Bosporus Strait in the Western sphere of influence. Together with the advent of long-range nuclear weapons, this dramatically decreased the strategic value of any naval activity in the Black Sea.[ citation needed ]

In the later post-war period, along with the Northern Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet provided ships for the 5th Operational Squadron in the Mediterranean, which confronted the United States Navy during the Arab-Israeli wars, notably during the Yom Kippur War in 1973. [5]

Monument to Heroes of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet Squadron 1941-1944 in Sevastopol, featuring the list of 28 military ships that distinguished themselves in battles with Nazi invaders Monument to Heroes of the Black Sea Fleet Squadron in Sevastopol.jpg
Monument to Heroes of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet Squadron 1941–1944 in Sevastopol, featuring the list of 28 military ships that distinguished themselves in battles with Nazi invaders

In 1988 Coastal Troops and Naval Aviation units of the Black Sea Fleet included: [6]

In 1989, the 126th Motor Rifle Division at Simferopol was transferred to the Black Sea Fleet from the Odessa Military District. Also that year, the 119th Fighter Aviation Division, with the 86th Guards, 161st, and 841st Guards Fighter Aviation Regiments, joined the Fleet from the 5th Air Army. [8] The 86th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment became part of the Moldovan Air Force upon the breakup of the Soviet Union. The 841st at Meria [ disambiguation needed ] airport (between Poti and Batumi in the Adjar ASSR) (Georgian SSR) became the 841st independent Guards Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment in May 1991 and was disbanded in October 1992. [9]

After the fall of the Soviet Union

“Agreement on the principles for forming the Ukrainian Naval Forces and the Russian Naval Fleet based on the Black Sea Fleet (BSF) of the former USSR," the Yalta Treaty on the Black Sea Fleet was signed by the presidents of Ukraine and the RF on August 3, 1992 in Mukholatka, outside Yalta.

The military importance of the fleet has degraded since the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to significant funding cuts and, to a degree, the loss of its major missions.[ citation needed ] However, in the early 21st century, local conflicts in the Caucasus region (particularly the 2008 South Ossetia war) saw Moscow employ elements of the Black Sea Fleet off the coast of Georgia, and the development of oil transit in the region has strengthened Russia's support of the fleet.[ citation needed ]

In 1992, the major part of the personnel, armaments and coastal facilities of the Fleet fell under formal jurisdiction of the newly independent Ukraine as they were situated on Ukrainian territory. Later, the Ukrainian government ordered the establishment of its own Ukrainian Navy based on the Black Sea Fleet; several ships and ground formations declared themselves Ukrainian.

However, this immediately led to conflicts with the majority of officers who appeared to be loyal to Russia. Simultaneously, pro-Russian separatist groups became active in the local politics of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol municipality where the major naval bases were situated, and started coordinating their efforts with pro-Moscow seamen.

Joint Fleet and its partition

To ease the tensions, the two governments signed an interim treaty, establishing a joint Russo-Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet under bilateral command (and Soviet Navy flag) until a full-scale partition agreement could be reached. Formally, the Fleet's Commander was to be appointed by a joint order of the two countries' Presidents. However, Russia still dominated the Fleet unofficially, and a Russian admiral was appointed as Commander; the majority of the fleet personnel adopted Russian citizenship. Minor tensions between the Fleet and the new Ukrainian Navy (such as electricity cut-offs and sailors' street-fighting) continued.

Some major ships (including the flagship) of the Soviet and Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol, August 2007 Soviet and Russian Black Sea Fleet.jpg
Some major ships (including the flagship) of the Soviet and Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol, August 2007

On 28 May 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed several agreements regarding the fleet including the Partition Treaty, establishing two independent national fleets and dividing armaments and bases between them. [10] Ukraine also agreed to lease major parts of its facilities to the Russian Black Sea Fleet until 2017. [11] However, the treaty appeared to be far from perfect: permanent tensions on the lease details (including often reported issue of lighthouse control) continued. The Fleet's main base is still situated in the Crimean port city of Sevastopol. In 2009 the Yushchenko Ukrainian government declared that the lease would not be extended and that the fleet would have to leave Sevastopol by 2017. [12] In 2010 the Russian leasehold was renegotiated with an extension until 2042 and an option for an additional five years until 2047 plus consideration of further renewals.

Georgia in the Fleet partition

The newly independent nation of Georgia, which also hosted several bases of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet when it was the Georgian SSR, also claimed a share of the Fleet, including 32 naval vessels formerly stationed at Georgia's Black Sea port of Poti. Not a CIS member at that time, Georgia was not, however, included in the initial negotiations in January 1992. Additionally, some low-importance bases situated in the Russian-backed breakaway autonomy of Abkhazia soon escaped any Georgian control. In 1996, Georgia resumed its demands, and the Russian refusal to allot Georgia a portion of the ex-Soviet navy became another bone of contention in the progressively deteriorating Georgian-Russian relations. This time, Ukraine endorsed Tbilisi's claims, turning over several patrol boats to the Georgian Navy and starting to train Georgian crews, but was unable to include in the final fleet deal a transfer of the formerly Poti-based vessels to Georgia. [13] Later, the rest of the Georgian share was decided to be ceded to Russia in return for diminution of debt.

Since the 2008 South Ossetia war the Russian Black Sea Fleet has not taken part in any joint naval exercises involving Georgian warships. [14] However, such a statement has little meaning since the Georgian Navy has ceased to exist (early 2009 it was merged with the Georgian coast guard). [15]

Russia is a member of the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group usually referred to as BLACKSEAFOR.

Combat operations

Russia employed part of the fleet during the 2008 Georgian conflict. Russian units operating off Georgia's separatist Abkhazia region resulted in a reported skirmish with the Georgian Navy. As a result, Ukraine's then President Viktor Yushchenko decreed that the Black Sea Fleet would henceforth need permission to cross the Ukrainian border to enter and leave to Sevastopol, [16] to which a Russian admiral retorted that the President of the Russian Federation and not Ukraine commands the Black Sea Fleet.[ citation needed ] Yushchenko's decrees [16] were without force and deployed units of the Russian Black Sea Fleet returned to their home moorings without incident. The texts of the 1997 Ukraine-Russia agreements regarding the presence of Russian Black Sea Fleet ships in Crimea contained no requirement for Ukraine's permission to cross the Ukrainian border to enter or exit Sevastopol.

Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine

In a letter to then Russian President Medvedev, former Ukrainian President Yushchenko complained about alleged "infringements of bilateral agreements and Ukrainian legislation" [17]

Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001 Vladimir Putin in Ukraine 28-29 July 2001-17.jpg
Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001

In 2009, Ukraine government announced that the lease of Russian naval bases on the Crimea would not be extended beyond 2017, [18] [19] in response the Russian Black Fleet initiated the expansion of its base in Novorossiysk. In July 2007, the Navy Commander announced that the new base would be ready in 2012. [20] Under the 1997 bilateral treaty, Russia paid $98 million annually and the treaty provided for an extension by mutual agreement. Russian officials repeatedly said they would like to extend the lease. [21] [22]

In June 2009, the head of the Ukrainian Security Service said that after December 13, 2009, all officers from the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) represented at the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet must leave Ukraine, from then the Security Service of Ukraine will ensure the security of the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet and Russian sailors on Ukrainian territory. [23] According to the Russian Foreign Ministry the employees of the FSB, working at the Black Sea Fleet facilities, are to remain on Ukrainian territory "in line with bilateral agreements". [24]

In October–November 2009, the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet complained about illegal inspection of (non-boat) transport vehicles owned by the fleet by the Sevastopol State Auto Inspectorate and Ukrainian security officers, calling them "disrespect for the status of the Russian military units and an unfriendly step aimed at worsening the Russian-Ukrainian relations". [25] [26]

On April 21, 2010, Ukrainian President Yanukovych and Russian President Medvedev reached an agreement whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea would be extended beyond 2017 by 25 years with an additional 5-year renewal option (to 2042–47) in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas. [27] [28] [29] This deal is controversial in Ukraine. [30] [31] [32] [33] [34]

Joint exercises of the Ukrainian Navy and the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet were resumed after a seven-year interval with a command-staff exercise in June 2010. [35] In May 2011, Russian-Ukrainian at-sea naval "Peace Fairway" (Farvater Mira) exercises resumed. [36]

In 2010, based on an agreement between Ukrainian and Russian governments military counterintelligence officers from the Russian Federal Security Service returned to the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet base. [37]

While a Yushchenko Foreign Minister said that Russia cannot unilaterally replace its Black Sea Fleet ships without Ukraine's consent, [38] the recent lease extension also revalidated the agreements of 1997. Those agreements stipulate that the Russian Black Sea Fleet can maintain the same numbers and types of ships that it had based in Sevastopol as a result of the 1997 fleet division without approval by Ukraine. This stipulation permits Russia to increase the current size of the fleet which has fallen below those numbers. [39]

As a result of the stance of the Ukrainian authorities, it was reported on 20 May 2013 that Russia would be concentrating on its new base in Novorossiysk and putting Sevastopol on hold as it upgrades the Black Sea Fleet. The Project-11356 frigate Admiral Grigorovich and the Project-636 submarines (Kilo class submarine) Novorossiysk and Rostov-na-Donu were expected to join the Fleet in 2014 and new moorings were being made ready for them at the base. [40]

Additions of ships to the Fleet

Repeated and sometimes contradictory announcements have been made claiming that new ships will join the fleet. On December 3, 2009, First Vice Mayor of Sevastopol Vladimir Kazarin stated that Russia's Black Sea Fleet could lose its combat capability, given a small number of ships and the absence of new ones. [41] Similar doubts had been stated by the Russian media. The Gazeta newspaper noted that, by 2015, the majority of the warships would no longer be fit for duty. [42]

In April 2010, Russian Navy sources said that up to four frigates and four diesel-electric submarines will be added to the Black Sea Fleet by 2015. [43] In June 2010, Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky announced that Russia was reviewing plans for the naval modernization of the Black Sea Fleet. The plans include 15 new warships and submarines by 2020. [44] [45] These vessels will partially replace the reported decommissioning of Kerch, Ochakov (decommissioned in 2011 and sunk as a blockship in 2014), several large support ships, and a diesel-electric submarine.

Also in 2010, Russian Navy Headquarters sources said that, by 2020, six frigates of Project 22350 Gorshkov-class, six submarines of Project 677 Lada-class, two large landing ships of Project 11711 Ivan Gren-class and four class-unspecified ships will be delivered. Due to the obsolescence of the Beriev Be-12 by 2015, they will be replaced with Il-38s. Sukhoi Su-24M aircraft are planned to be upgraded to Su-24M2 at the same time. [46] [47] [48] However, the November 2011 suspension of the building of the second and third Lada-class boats throws this particular announcement into doubt.

The Project 636.3 (Kilo-class) diesel-electric submarine Novorossiysk — the first of three such new submarines, which was laid down at Admiralty Wharves Shipyard, St. Petersburg on August 20, 2010 — is destined to serve in the Black Sea Fleet. [49] Navy sources also say that Project 11356 Grigorovich-class frigate will be dispatched to the Black Sea. [50] The Admiral Grigorovich, the lead ship of the class, was laid down on December 18, 2010 and was expected to be in service 34 months from that date (October 2013). Three ships of this class are to be in service in the Black Sea Fleet before 2015. [51]

After the 2014 Crimean crisis, in which Ukrainian Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Navy were evicted from their bases and subsequently withdrawn from Crimea, [52] Russia planned to integrate several vessels from the Ukrainian Navy into the Black Sea Fleet. According to sources from Black Sea Fleet Headquarters, inspections of all ships were to be done by the end of 2014. [53]

Speaking ahead of the nationwide Navy Day festivities in 2015, Black Sea Fleet commander Adm. Vitko said that, "For the first time in quite a long period, more than ten brand-new boats and support vessels have been accepted into service within one calendar year." [54] Overall, in 2015 the fleet received 15 new ships, including two submarines, two missile corvettes, seven counter-sabotage boats, support, rescue and auxiliary vessels. [55]

Controversies

The Russian Black Sea Fleet's (BSF) use of leased facilities in Sevastopol and the Crimea was sometimes controversial. A number of incidents took place:

Fleet Commanders

#RankNameYear
1VADM Aleksey Fedotovich Klokachev 1783
2VADM Yakov Filippovich Sukhotin 1784 – 1785
3RADM Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov 1785 – 1789
4RADM Marko Ivanovich Voynovich 1789 – 1790
5RADM Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov 1790 – 1792
#ADM Nikolay Semenovich Mordvinov 1792 – 1799
6ADM Vilim Petrovich Fondezin 1799 – 1802
7ADM Aleksandr Ivanovich de Travers 1802 – 1811
8ADM Roman Romanovich Gall 1811
9VADM Nikolay Lvovich Yazykov 1811 – 1816
10ADM Aleksey Samuilovich Greig 1816 – 1833
11ADM Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev 1834 – 1851
12ADM Morits Borisovich Berg 1851 – 1855
13VADM Nikolay Fedorovich Metlin Sep 1855 – Dec 1855
14VADM Aleksandr Ivanovich Panfilov Jan 1856 – Aug 1856
15RADM Grigoriy Ivanovich Butakov Aug 1856 – Jan 1860
16VADM Bogdan Aleksandrovich Glazenap 1860 – Jan 1871
17ADM Nikolay Andreyevich Arkas 1871 – 1881
18ADM Mikhail Pavlovich Manganari 1881 – 1882
19VADM Aleksey Alekseyevich Peshchurov 1882 – 1890
20RADM Roman Andreevich Grenkvist 1890
21VADM Nikolay Vasilyevich Kopytov 1891 – 1898
22VADM Yevgeni Ivanovich Alekseyev 1898
23VADM Sergey Petrovich Tyrtov 6 May 1898 – 1903
24VADMYakov Appolonovich Giltebrandt1903
25VADM Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov 1903 – 1904
26VADMAleksandr Khristianovich Kriger1904
27VADM Grigoriy Pavlovich Chukhnin 1904 – 1906
28RADM Ivan Konstantinovich Grigorovich 1906
29VADM Nikolay Illarionovich Skrydlov 1906 – 1907
30RADMGenrikh Faddeevich Tsyvinskiy1907
31RADM Robert Nikolayevich Viren 1907 – 1908
32VADMIvan Fyodorovich Bostrem1908 – 1909
33VADMVladimir Simonovich Sarnavskiy1909 – 1911
34VADMIvan Fyodorovich Bostrem1911
35RADMPavel Ivanovich Novitskiy1911
36VADM Andrey Avgustovich Ehbergard 1911 – Jun 1916
37VADM Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak Jun 1916 – Jun 1917
38 (Acting)RADMVeniamin Konstantinovich LukinJun 1917 – Jul 1917
39RADM Aleksandr Vasilyevich Nemitts Jul 1917 – Dec 1917
40RADM Mikhail Sablin 1918
41Captain 1st RankAleksandr Ivanovich Tikhmenev1918
42Captain 1st RankAleksandr Ivanovich Sheykovskiy1919
43Captain 1st RankAleksey Vladimirovich DombrovskiyMay 1920 – Oct 1920
44 Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy Nov 1920 – Nov 1921
45Andrey Semenovich MaksimovNov 1921 – Jul 1922
46 Aleksandr Karlovich Vekman Jul 1922 – May 1924
47 Mikhail Vladimirovich Viktorov May 1924 – Dec 1924
48 Ehduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy Dec 1924 – Oct 1926
49 Vladimir Mitrofanovich Orlov Oct 1926 – Jun 1931
50Fleet Flag Officer 2nd RankIvan Kuz'mich KozhanovJun 1931 – Aug 1937
51Fleet Flag Officer 2nd RankPetr Ivanovich Smirnov-SvetlovskiyAug 1937 – Dec 1937
52Fleet Flag Officer 2nd Rank Ivan Stepanovich Yumashev 1938 – Mar 1939
53VADM Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy Mar 1939 – Apr 1943
54VADM Lev Anatol'evich Vladimirskiy Apr 1943 – Mar 1944
55VADM Filipp Sergeyevich Oktyabrskiy Mar 1944 – Nov 1948
56ADM Nikolai Efremovich Basistiy Nov 1948 – Aug 1951
57ADM Sergey Georgiyevich Gorshkov Aug 1951 – Jul 1955
58VADMViktor Aleksandrovich ParkhomenkoJul 1955 – Dec 1955
59ADM Vladimir Afanasyevich Kasatonov Dec 1955 – Feb 1962
60ADMSerafim Evgeniyevich ChursinFeb 1962 – Dec 1968
61ADM Viktor Sergeyevich Sysoyev Dec 1968 – Mar 1974
62ADM Nikolay Ivanovich Khovrin Mar 1974 – April 1983
63ADM Aleksey Mikhailovich Kalinin Apr 1983 – Jul 1985
64ADM Mikhail Nikolayevich Khronopulo Jul 1985 – Oct 1991
65ADM Igor Vladimirovich Kasatonov Oct 1991 – Dec 1992
66ADM Ehduard Dmitriyevich Baltin Dec 1992 – Feb 1996
67ADM Viktor Andreyevich Kravchenko Feb 1996 – Jul 1998
68ADM Vladimir Petrovich Komoyedov Jul 1998 – Oct 2002
69ADM Vladimir Vasilyevich Masorin Oct 2002 – Feb 2005
70ADM Aleksandr Arkadyevich Tatarinov Feb 2005 – Jul 2007
71VADM Aleksandr Dmitrievich Kletskov Jul 2007 – Jul 2010
72VADM Vladimir Ivanovich Korolev Jul 2010 – Jun 2011
73VADM Aleksandr Nikolayevich Fedotenkov Jun 2011 – May 2013
74ADM Aleksandr Viktorovich Vitko [60] 17 May 2013  – June 2018
75VADM Aleksandr Alekseevich Moiseev [61] 26 June 2018  – 3 May 2019
76VADM Igor Vladimirovich Osipov [62] 3 May 2019  – present

List of Black Sea Fleet warships

New ships included from the Ukrainian Navy

In the 2014 Crimean crisis Ukrainian Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Navy were evicted from their bases and Ukraine subsequently withdrew its forces from Crimea. [52] Fifty-four out of sixty-seven ships of the Ukrainian Navy have been transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, with St. Andrew flags raised on them. [63] On 8 April 2014 an agreement was reached between Russia and Ukraine to return Ukrainian Navy materials to Ukraine proper. [64] The greater portion of the Ukrainian naval ships and vessels were then returned to Ukraine but Russia suspended this process after Ukraine did not renew its unilaterally declared ceasefire on 1 July 2014 in the conflict in the Donbass. [65] According to the fleet commander Aleksandr Vitko, this happened because the vessels were old "and, if used [by Ukraine], could hurt its own people". [66]

30th Surface Ship Division

#TypeNameClassYearStatus
121Guided Missile Cruiser Moskva Slava 1983Active, Fleet Flagship
810Guided Missile Destroyer Smetlivyy Kashin 1969Active
801Guided Missile Frigate Ladnyy Krivak 1980Active
808Guided Missile FrigatePytlivyyKrivak1981Active
745Guided Missile Frigate Admiral Grigorovich Admiral Grigorovich 2016Active [67]
751Guided Missile Frigate Admiral Essen Admiral Grigorovich 2016Active
799Guided Missile Frigate Admiral Makarov Admiral Grigorovich 2017Active

4th Independent Submarine Brigade

#TypeNameClassYearBaseStatus
554Diesel Attack Submarine Alrosa (B-871) Kilo 877V1990 Sevastopol Active
555Diesel Attack Submarine Novorossiysk (B-261) Improved Kilo 636.32014 Novorossiysk Active
556Diesel Attack Submarine Rostov na donu (B-237) Improved Kilo 636.32014 Novorossiysk Active
557Diesel Attack Submarine Staryy Oskol (B-262) Improved Kilo 636.32015 Novorossiysk Active[ citation needed ]
558Diesel Attack Submarine Krasnodar (B-265) Improved Kilo 636.32015 Novorossiysk Active [68]
559Diesel Attack Submarine Velikiy Novgorod (B-268) Improved Kilo 636.32016 Novorossiysk Active [69]
560Diesel Attack Submarine Kolpino (B-271) Improved Kilo 636.32016 Novorossiysk Active [70]

197th Assault Ship Brigade

#TypeNameClassYear
152Landing Ship Nikolay Filchenkov  [ ru ] Alligator 1975
148Landing ShipOrskAlligator1968
150Landing ShipSaratovAlligator1966
151Landing ShipAzov Ropucha-II 1990
142Landing ShipNovocherkassk Ropucha-I 1987
158Landing Ship Caesar Kunikov Ropucha-I1986
156Landing ShipYamalRopucha-I1988

68th Coastal Defense Ship Brigade

149th Antisubmarine Ship Task Force
#TypeNameClassYear
059ASW CorvetteAlexandrovetsGrisha I1982
071ASW CorvetteSuzdaletsGrisha III1983
064ASW CorvetteMuromets Grisha III 1983
150th Minesweeper Task Force
#TypeNameClassYear
913Seagoing MinesweeperKovrovets Natya I 1974
911Seagoing MinesweeperIvan GolubetsNatya I1973
912Seagoing MinesweeperTurbinistNatya I1972
601Base MinesweeperIvan Antonov Alexandrit 2018

41st Missile Boat Brigade

166th Novorossiysk Small Missile Boat Division
#TypeNameClassYear
609Guided Missile CorvetteVyshniy Volochyok Buyan-M 2018
615Guided Missile CorvetteBora Dergach 1989
616Guided Missile CorvetteSamum Dergach 2000
617Guided Missile CorvetteMirazh Nanuchka-III 1986
620Guided Missile CorvetteShtil Nanuchka-III 1978
626Guided Missile CorvetteOrekhovo-Zuyevo Buyan-M 2018
295th Sulinsk Missile Boat Division
#TypeNameClassYear
962Missile BoatShuya Tarantul-II Mod 1985
955Missile BoatBurya Tarantul-III 1987
952Missile BoatVeter Tarantul-III 1991
953Missile BoatNaberezhnye Chelny Tarantul-III 1991
954Missile BoatIvanovets Tarantul-III 1988
630Guided Missile CorvetteIngushetiya Buyan-M 2019

184th Novorossiysk Coastal Defense Brigade

181th Antisubmarine Ship Division
#TypeNameClassYear
053Small Antisubmarine ShipPovorinoGrisha III1989
054Small Antisubmarine ShipEysk Grisha-III 1987
055Small Antisubmarine ShipKasimovGrisha-III1984
368Patrol shipVasiliy Bykov Project 22160 2018
375Patrol shipDmitriy Rogachev Project 22160 2019
170th Minesweeper Division
#TypeNameClassYear
901Seagoing MinesweeperAnatoliy Zheleznyakov Gorya 1988
770Seagoing MinesweeperValentin Pikul Natya I Mod 2001
908Seagoing MinesweeperVice-Admiral Zakharin Pr.02668 2009
426Base MinesweeperMineralnyye Vody Sonya 1990
438Base MinesweeperLeytenant IlinSonya1982
201Base MinesweeperRTShch RT-46 Yevgenya 1997
219Base MinesweeperRT-278 Olya 1997
575Landing CraftD-144 Serna 2008
659Landing CraftD-199Serna2014
653Landing CraftD-106 Ondatra 2009

Black Sea Naval Infantry and Coastal Missile-Artillery Forces

Black Sea Fleet Naval Air Force – HQ Sevastopol

Also, a squadron of Sukhoi Su-30SMs (2016). [72]

See also

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Ukrainian Navy navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine

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History of Crimea Describes the development of peoples and cultures on the Crimean peninsula

The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as Tauris, Taurica, and the Tauric Chersonese, begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast. The southern coast remained Greek in culture for almost two thousand years as part of the Roman Empire, and its successor states, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Trebizond, and the independent Principality of Theodoro. In the 13th century, some port cities were controlled by the Venetians and by the Genovese. The Crimean interior was much less stable, enduring a long series of conquests and invasions; by the early medieval period it had been settled by Scythians (Scytho-Cimmerians), Tauri, Greeks, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Kipchaks and Khazars. In the medieval period, it was acquired partly by Kievan Rus', but fell to the Mongol invasions as part of the Golden Horde. They were followed by the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, which conquered the coastal areas as well, in the 15th to 18th centuries.

Ukrainian Naval Aviation Component of the Ukrainian Navy

The Ukrainian Naval Aviation is a component of the Ukrainian Navy.

Ukrainian corvette <i>Ternopil</i> Ukrainian Grisha-class anti-submarine corvette

Ternopil (U209) is a Grisha-class anti-submarine corvette of the Ukrainian Navy, In March 2014 the ship was captured by the Russian forces during the Crimean crisis.

Battle off the coast of Abkhazia Naval engagement during the 2008 South Ossetia War

The Battle off the coast of Abkhazia was a naval engagement between warships of the Russian Black Sea Fleet and Georgian patrol boats during the Russo-Georgian War.

Kharkiv Pact 2010 agreement between Ukraine and Russia on the status of the Black Sea Fleet in Crimea

The Agreement between Ukraine and Russia on the Black Sea Fleet in Ukraine, widely referred to as the Kharkiv Pact or Kharkiv Accords, was a treaty between Ukraine and Russia whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea was extended beyond 2017 until 2042, with an additional five-year renewal option in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas.

Novofedorivka

Novofedorivka is an urban-type settlement and a military air base on the Black Sea coast in Saky Raion in western Crimea. Novofedorivka was established in 1992. Population: 5,610 .

Ukrainian corvette <i>Vinnytsia</i>

Vinnytsia (U206) is an anti-submarine corvette of the Ukrainian Navy. Prior to joining the Ukrainian Navy she was a former KGB Border Guard patrol ship named Dnepr. In March 2014, she was seized by Russian soldiers and de facto came under control of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. The ship was returned to the Ukrainian Navy from Crimea on 19 April 2014.

Southern Military District part of the armed forces of the Russian Federation

The Southern Military District is a military district of Russia.

City with special status Type of first-level administrative division of Ukraine

City with special status refers to two of Ukraine's 27 administrative regions, which are the cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol. Their administrative status is recognized in the Ukrainian Constitution in Chapter IX: Territorial Structure of Ukraine and they are governed in accordance with laws passed by Ukraine's parliament, the Verkhovna Rada.

Port of Sevastopol

Sevastopol Marine Trade Port (SMTP) is a port in Sevastopol. It is located mainly at the Bay of Sevastopol, and at smaller bays around the Heracles peninsula. The port infrastructure is fully integrated with the city of Sevastopol and naval bases of the Russian Navy and the Black Sea Fleet.

Denis Berezovsky Rear admiral and former commander of the Ukrainian Navy

Denis Valentinovich Berezovsky is a rear admiral and the Russian Black Sea Fleet deputy commander. He is also a former commander of the Ukrainian Navy. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Ukrainian Navy by Interim President Oleksandr Turchynov on March 1, 2014, serving for just one day before defecting to the self-declared pro-Russian separatist Crimean government during the 2014 Crimean crisis. On March 24, 2014, the Defense Minister of Russia Sergei Shoigu appointed Berezovsky as the Russian Black Sea Fleet deputy commander. On March 5, 2014, the Office of the General Prosecutor of Ukraine issued an order to detain Berezovsky on suspicion of treason.

Timeline of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation timeline

The annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation took place in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. On 22–23 February, Russian President Vladimir Putin convened an all-night meeting with security services chiefs to discuss pullout of deposed President, Viktor Yanukovych, and at the end of that meeting Putin remarked that "we must start working on returning Crimea to Russia.". Russia sent in soldiers on February 27, 2014. Crimea held a referendum. According to official Russian and Crimean sources 95% voted to reunite with Russia. The legitimacy of the referendum has been questioned by the international community on both legal and procedural grounds.

Autonomous Republic of Crimea Administrative division of Ukraine; disputed with Russia since 2014

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is an autonomous republic of Ukraine encompassing most of Crimea that was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014.

Sevastopol Naval Base Russian naval base

The Sevastopol Naval Base is a naval base located in Sevastopol, on disputed Crimean peninsula. It is a base of the Russian Navy and the main base of the Black Sea Fleet.

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Further reading