Blackfriars Bridge, Manchester

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Coordinates: 53°29′02″N2°14′52″W / 53.483768°N 2.24782°W / 53.483768; -2.24782

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Blackfriars Bridge
Former Fairburn House and Blackfriars Bridge, Manchester.jpg
Coordinates 53°29′01″N2°14′52″W / 53.483721°N 2.247717°W / 53.483721; -2.247717 Coordinates: 53°29′01″N2°14′52″W / 53.483721°N 2.247717°W / 53.483721; -2.247717
Carries Blackfriars Street
Crosses River Irwell
Locale Manchester, England
Heritage status Grade II listed structure
Characteristics
Design Arch bridge
History
Designer Thomas Wright
Opened 1 August 1820

Blackfriars Bridge is a stone arch bridge in Greater Manchester, England. Completed in 1820, it crosses the River Irwell, connecting Salford to Manchester.

Arch bridge bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side. A viaduct may be made from a series of arches, although other more economical structures are typically used today.

Greater Manchester County of England

Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972; and designated a functional city region on 1 April 2011.

River Irwell river in Lancashire, United Kingdom

The River Irwell is a 39-mile (63 km) long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in North West England. Its source is at Irwell Springs on Deerplay Moor, approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of Bacup. It forms the boundary between Manchester and Salford and empties into the River Mersey near Irlam.

It replaced an earlier wooden footbridge, built in 1761 by a company of comedians who performed in Salford, and who wanted to grant patrons from Manchester access to their theatre. The old bridge was removed in 1817. The new design, by Thomas Wright of Salford, was completed in June 1820, and opened on 1 August that year. The bridge is built from sandstone and uses three arches to cross the river. To obscure the then badly polluted river from view, at some point in the 1870s its original stone balustrade was replaced with cast iron. In 1991 this was replaced with stone-clad reinforced concrete.

Sandstone A clastic sedimentary rock composed mostly of sand-sized particles

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments.

The Act of Parliament that enabled its construction allowed for its owners to charge a toll for crossing the bridge, but this arrangement was brought to an end in March 1848. Blackfriars Bridge was declared a Grade II listed building in 1988.

Listed building Collection of protected architectural creations in the United Kingdom

A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.

History

Blackfriars Bridge (1831-1834) by Agostino Aglio Blackfriars wooden bridge manchester.jpg
Blackfriars Bridge (1831–1834) by Agostino Aglio

The current Blackfriars Bridge replaced an earlier, wooden structure, dating from 1761. This was erected by a company of comedians keen to allow people from Manchester to easily cross the Irwell, to visit the Riding School on Water Street in Salford, where they performed. [1] For the rest of its life it was maintained at the public's expense. A series of 29 steps [nb 1] led from the Manchester side of the river down to its flagged surface. [2] [3] It was named Blackfriars Bridge, as Blackfriars Bridge in London was then being built. [4]

Manchester City and metropolitan borough in England

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 2.8 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

Blackfriars Bridge road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London

Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfriars station. The south end is near the Tate Modern art gallery and the Oxo Tower.

Engraving by Edward Finden, c.1830 Blackfriars Bridge, Manchester.jpg
Engraving by Edward Finden, c.1830

The old bridge was narrow, suitable for pedestrians only and liable to flooding. [5] An Act of Parliament [nb 2] of 1817 enabled its replacement by a superior structure. The Company of Proprietors of the Blackfriars Bridge were empowered to raise funds for the bridge's construction, and allowed to charge tolls to recoup their investment, maintain the bridge and pay off any further debts. The proprietors were also allowed to earn interest on surplus funds, but tolls were to cease once the bridge and the mortgages taken out to fund it, were paid off. As per the act, they raised £17,700 in shares of £50 each, and obtained mortgages for an additional £12,000, but this proved insufficient; they therefore borrowed a further £3,225. [7]

A competition was held to produce designs for the new bridge, which would be required to carry more traffic than the existing structure. Prizes of £150 and £100 were offered for the first and second best designs. William Fairbairn entered with a design for a single-span cast iron bridge. His employer at the time, Thomas Hewes, was also an entrant. [8] [9] Thomas Wright of Salford won the competition with a three-arched stone bridge complete with Ionic columns. [10] The old wooden structure was taken down in 1817, [11] and construction on the new bridge began on 4 January 1819. [12] The keystone was laid by J. E. Scholes, boroughreeve of Salford, on 17 June 1820, and the bridge was opened on 1 August. [13]

The bridge's tollgate was removed on 10 March 1848. [14] At a meeting of the committee for the removal of the bridge tolls, the bridge's creditors agreed to give up any interest in the structure; the remaining surplus of funds was used to purchase a "token of respect" for the committee's chairman, Thomas Chadwick. [15]

Design

Blackfriars Bridge is a sandstone ashlar and cast-iron construction, crossing the water below in three classical-style semicircular arches. The easternmost end of the bridge is partly embedded in the river bank. The central arch has paired Ionic pilasters on each side. The voussoirs on each arch use vermiculated rustication. At some point during the 1870s the bridge's open balustrade was replaced with cast iron, to remove the badly polluted river from view. In 1991 this was replaced with stone-clad reinforced concrete, partially restoring the bridge to its original appearance. It lies within the Parsonage Gardens Conservation Area, and was granted Grade II listed status on 4 February 1988. [16] [17]

See also

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References

Footnotes
  1. Some sources, for instance, Collectanea Relating to Manchester and its Neighbourhood (1866) say there were 39 steps.
  2. 57 George III. cap. 58 "Act for building a bridge across the river Irwell, from Water Street, in the township of Salford, to St. Mary's Gate, in the township of Manchester, and for making proper Avenues thereto." [6]
Notes
  1. Axon 1886 , p. 94
  2. Farrer & Brownbill 1966 , p. 182
  3. Aston 1826 , p. 219
  4. Parkinson-Bailey 2000 , p. 10n
  5. Moule & Westall 1834 , p. 37
  6. Axon 1886, p. 152
  7. Anon 1839 , pp. 603–605
  8. Pole 1877 , pp. 105–106
  9. Smiles 2006 , p. 200
  10. Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004 , p. 304
  11. Axon 1886 , p. 153
  12. Axon 1886 , p. 155
  13. Axon 1886 , p. 159
  14. Axon 1886 , p. 244
  15. From a Liverpool Correspondent, The Manchester Guardian, 15 April 1848, p. 7
  16. Parsonage Gardens Conservation Area, manchester.gov.uk, retrieved 24 February 2012
  17. Historic England, "Blackfriars Bridge (that Part in City of Manchester), Blackfriars Street (1279490)", National Heritage List for England , retrieved 24 February 2012
Bibliography