Blanche of France, Duchess of Orléans

Last updated
Blanche of France
Duchess of Orléans
Blanche de France (fille de Charles IV).jpg
Tomb of Blanche in Notre-Dame
Tenure1345–1376
Born1 April 1328
Died8 February 1393(1393-02-08) (aged 64)
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1345;died 1376)
House House of Capet
FatherKing Charles IV of France
Mother Jeanne of Évreux
Religion Roman Catholicism

Blanche of France (1 April 1328 8 February 1393) was the posthumous daughter of King Charles IV of France and his third wife, Joan of Évreux (the daughter of Louis, Count of Évreux and Margaret of Artois). She was the last direct Capetian and the last-surviving member of her family, and her marriage to her second-cousin, Philip, Duke of Orleans, proved childless. With Blanche's death in 1393, the House of Capet continued to exist only via its numerous cadet branches.

Contents

Succession

As with his brothers before him, King Charles IV died without a male heir, thus ending the direct line of the House of Capet. Twelve years earlier, a rule against succession by females, arguably derived from the Salic law, had been recognized as controlling succession to the French throne. Application of this rule barred Charles's 1-year-old daughter Marie from succeeding as the monarch.

Jeanne was also pregnant at the time of his death. Since it could have been possible that she would give birth to a son, a regency was set up under Philip of Valois, the closest agnate. After two months, Queen Jeanne gave birth to Blanche. The regent thus became king and in May was consecrated and crowned. At this time, a further rule of succession, again arguably based on the Salic law, was recognized as forbidding not only inheritance by a woman, but also inheritance through a female line.

Marriage

Blanche married on 8 January 1345 her cousin Philip, Duke of Orléans (1336–1375), son of King Philip VI of France and Queen Joan the Lame. They had no children but Philip had illegitimate children. He had died in 1376, his title and lands returning to the royal domain.

Blanche died in 1393 and is buried in the chapel of Notre-Dame in the Basilica of St Denis. [1]

Ancestry

Notes

Related Research Articles

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, and a branch of the Robertians. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet, the founder of the dynasty, and his male-line descendants, who ruled in France without interruption from 987 to 1792, and again from 1814 to 1848. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled without interruption until the French Revolution abolished the monarchy in 1792. The Bourbons were restored in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat, but had to vacate the throne again in 1830 in favor of the last Capetian monarch of France, Louis Philippe I, who belonged to the House of Orléans.

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European dynasty of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

House of Valois Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

Philip VI of France King of France from 1328 to 1350; first king from the House of Valois

Philip VI, called the Fortunate and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois, reigning from 1328 until his death in 1350.

Salic law Major body of Frankish law governing all the Franks of Frankia under the rule of its kings during the Old Frankish Period

The Salic law, also called the Salian law, was the ancient Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis. The written text is in Latin and contains some of the earliest known instances of Old Dutch. It remained the basis of Frankish law throughout the early Medieval period, and influenced future European legal systems. The best-known tenet of the old law is the principle of exclusion of women from inheritance of thrones, fiefs and other property. The Salic laws were arbitrated by a committee appointed and empowered by the King of the Franks. Dozens of manuscripts dating from the sixth to eighth centuries and three emendations as late as the ninth century have survived.

Charles IV of France Last King of France who was directly a member of the House of Capet

Charles IV, called the Fair in France and the Bald in Navarre, was last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre from 1322 to 1328. Charles was the third son of Philip IV; like his father, he was known as "the fair" or "the handsome".

Duchy of Burgundy Vassal territory of France, 918–1482

The Duchy of Burgundy emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th-century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were reduced to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France in 1004. Robert II's son and heir, King Henry I of France, inherited the duchy but ceded it to his younger brother Robert in 1032. Other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Burgundy-Arles, including the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté).

Joan of Évreux Queen consort of France and Navarre

Joan of Évreux was Queen of France and Navarre as the third wife of King Charles IV of France.

Blanche of Navarre, Queen of France Queen consort of France

Blanche of Navarre, was a French princess and Infanta of Navarre as a member of the House of Évreux and by marriage Queen consort of France from 29 January until 22 August 1350.

Joan II of Navarre Queen of Navarre

Joan II, also known as Joan of France, was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, the King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen also paid homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, and uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was also a member of the French royal family.

House of Capet Rulers of the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian king.

Marie of Luxembourg, Queen of France Queen consort of France and Navarre

Marie of Luxembourg was Queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Charles IV and I.

Joan of Valois, Queen of Navarre Queen consort of Navarre

Joan of France, also known as Joan or Joanna of Valois, was the daughter of John II of France, and his first wife, Bonne of Luxembourg. She married Charles II of Navarre, and became Queen-consort of Navarre. She served as regent of Navarre during the absence of Charles II between 1369 and 1372.

House of Évreux

The House of Évreux was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal house of France, which flourished from the beginning of the 14th century to the mid 15th century. It became the royal house of the Kingdom of Navarre.

Château de Brie-Comte-Robert

The Château de Brie-Comte-Robert is a castle in the town of Brie-Comte-Robert in the Seine-et-Marne département of France.

Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici were married on October 28, 1533, and their marriage produced ten children. Henry and Catherine became the ancestors of monarchs of several countries.

Marie d'Évreux was the eldest child of Louis d'Évreux and his wife Margaret of Artois. She was a member of the House of Capet.

Joan of France (1351–1371)

Joan of France, also known as Blanche, was the only child of Philip VI of France and his second wife Blanche of Navarre. Joan was posthumously born as her father had died nine months prior to her birth.

This article covers the mechanism by which the French throne passed from the establishment of the Frankish Kingdom in 486 to the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870.