Blood in the Water match

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The "Blood in the Water" match (Hungarian : melbourne-i vérfürdő lit. Blood bath of Melbourne; Russian : Кровь в бассейне, translit.  Krov' v basseyne, lit.  'Blood in the swimming pool') was a water polo match between Hungary and the USSR at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics. The match took place on 6 December 1956 against the background of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, and saw Hungary defeat the USSR 4–0. The name was coined after Hungarian player Ervin Zádor emerged during the last two minutes with blood pouring from above his eye after being punched by Soviet player Valentin Prokopov.

Hungarian language language spoken in and around Hungary

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and in Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is its largest member in terms of speakers.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.



Tensions were already high between the Hungarian and Soviet water polo teams, as the Soviets had taken advantage of their political control of Hungary to study and copy the training methods and tactics of the Olympic champion Hungarians. [1]

Then, on 23 October 1956, a demonstration by students of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics escalated into an uprising against the government in Budapest. On 1 November, Soviet tanks began rolling into Hungary and from 4 to 10 November forces began suppressing the uprising with air strikes, artillery bombardments, and tank-infantry actions.

Budapest University of Technology and Economics university

The Budapest University of Technology and Economics, official abbreviation BME, is the most significant University of Technology in Hungary and is considered the world's oldest Institute of Technology which has university rank and structure. It was the first institute in Europe to train engineers at university level. It was founded in 1782.

At the time, the Hungarian water polo team was in a mountain training camp above Budapest. They were able to hear the gunfire and see smoke rising. The players were the defending Olympic champions; with the Summer Olympics in Melbourne two months away, they were moved into Czechoslovakia to avoid being caught in the revolution. [2] The players only learned of the true extent of the uprising and the subsequent crackdown after arriving in Australia and they were all anxious for news of friends and family.

Melbourne City in Victoria, Australia

Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, and is also the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of approximately 4.9 million, and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians".

Czechoslovakia 1918–1992 country in Central Europe, predecessor of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

By the start of the Olympics, the uprising had been suppressed and many players saw the Olympics as a way to salvage pride for their country. "We felt we were playing not just for ourselves but for our whole country", said Zádor after the match. [3] The match was played in front of a partisan crowd bolstered with expatriate Hungarians (many of whom had been in the boxing arena before to see the Hungarian László Papp [4] ) as well as Australians and Americans, two of the Soviet Union's Cold War opponents.

László Papp Hungarian boxer

László Papp was a Hungarian professional boxer from Budapest. A southpaw, he won gold medals in the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, and the 1956 Summer Olympics held in Melbourne, Australia. In his final Olympic competition, he beat José Torres later the professional light-heavyweight world champion, for the gold medal, to become the first boxer in Olympic history to win three successive gold medals. It was a remarkable run of Olympic Boxing supremacy, in that of his 13 Olympic fights, he won 12 of them without losing a round, and dropped only a single round in his last final - to Torres. There would not be another triple gold medalist for 20 years, when Teófilo Stevenson won three, followed by Félix Savón as the latest one of the three men to accomplish the feat.

Cold War State of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins with 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars.

The match

6 December 1956Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg  Soviet Union 04Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg  Hungary Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Centre
A whistle came, I looked at the referee, I said 'What's the whistle for?' And the moment I did that, I knew I'd made a horrible mistake. I turned back and with a straight arm, he just smacked me in the face. He tried to punch me out. I saw about 4,000 stars. And I reached to my face and I felt warm blood pouring down. And I instantly said, 'Oh my God, I won't be able to play the next game.'

Ervin Zádor [5]

In the morning before the start, the Hungarians had created a strategy to taunt the Russians, whose language they had studied in school. In the words of Ervin Zádor: "We had decided to try and make the Russians angry to distract them." [6]

From the beginning, kicks and punches were exchanged. At one point, a punch thrown by Hungarian captain Dezső Gyarmati was caught on film. [6] Meanwhile, Zádor scored two goals to the crowd's cheers of Hajrá Magyarok! ("Go Hungarians!").

With one minute remaining in the match, Hungary was leading 4–0. Zádor was marking Valentin Prokopov, with whom he had already exchanged words, and a whistle was blown. In the intermission, Prokopov struck him, causing a bleeding gash. Zádor left the pool; his bleeding was the final straw for a crowd already in frenzy. Many angry spectators jumped onto the concourse beside the water, shook their fists, shouted abuse and spat at the Russians. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] To avoid a riot, police entered the arena and shepherded the crowd away.

External images
Searchtool.svg Ervin Zádor leaving the pool with a cut eye (National Library of Australia). [13]
Searchtool.svg First-aid officer escorting Ervin Zádor to the medical room for treatment of his cut eye (National Library of Australia). [13]
Searchtool.svg Ervin Zádor in the medical room, receiving treatment, protected by a police officer (National Library of Australia) [13]
Searchtool.svg Ervin Zádor’s cut eye (Public Record Office Victoria) [13]
Searchtool.svg Ervin Zádor’s cut eye (Public Record Office Victoria) [13]
Searchtool.svg Spectators invading the concourse (Public Record Office Victoria) [13]
Searchtool.svg Spectators invading the concourse (Public Record Office Victoria) [13]
Searchtool.svg Spectators invading the concourse (Public Record Office Victoria) [13]
Searchtool.svg Spectators invading the concourse (Public Record Office Victoria) [13]

Pictures of Zádor's injuries were published around the world, leading to the "Blood in the Water" moniker. [14] Reports that the water in the pool turned red were, however, an exaggeration. Zádor said his only thought was whether he would be able to play the next match. [15]

The referees stopped the match; Hungary was declared the winner since they had been leading. Hungary then beat Yugoslavia 2–1 in the final to win their fourth Olympic gold medal. Zádor's injury would force him to miss the match. After the event was completed, he and some of his teammates defected to the West. [1] [16] [17] [18] [19]

In film

In 2006, for the 50th anniversary of the attempted Hungarian Revolution, the documentary Freedom's Fury , produced by Kristine Lacey and Thor Halvorssen, told the story of the match. [20] Quentin Tarantino described it as "the best untold story ever". [21] The documentary was narrated by the Olympic swimmer Mark Spitz, who, as a teenager had been coached by Ervin Zádor.

Also in 2006, a feature film about the match was released, entitled Children of Glory (Hungarian title: Szabadság, szerelem, meaning "Freedom, love", after the lines of Sándor Petőfi, the martyred poet of the 1848–49 revolution [ citation needed ]). The movie shows the Hungarian Revolution through the eyes of a player on the water polo team and a young woman who is one of the student leaders. It was directed by Krisztina Goda, and produced by Andrew G. Vajna. [22] The movie appeared in Hungarian cinemas on 23 October 2006, the 50th anniversary of the revolution. [23] On 29 October 2006, it was shown at the White House for President George W. Bush and guests (including Hungarian-American figures such as George Pataki, Governor of New York, and George A. Olah, Nobel Prize winner). [24]

The incident also features in the 1978 Australian film Newsfront . [25]

Related Research Articles

Water polo ballgame-team sport played in water by teams competing to put the ball into the opponents goal

Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal. The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of six field players and one goalkeeper. Except for the goalkeeper, players participate in both offensive and defensive roles. Water polo is typically played in an all-deep pool meaning that players cannot touch the bottom.

1956 Summer Olympics Games of the XVI Olympiad, celebrated in Melbourne in 1956

The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, from 22 November to 8 December 1956, with the exception of the equestrian events, which were held in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 1956.

Hungarian Revolution of 1956 conflict

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or the Hungarian Uprising, was a nationwide revolution against the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II.

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Ervin Zádor was a Hungarian water polo player and member of the Hungarian national team.

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Dezső Gyarmati Hungarian water polo player

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Valentin Prokopov is a Russian water polo player who competed for the Soviet Union in the 1952 Summer Olympics and in the 1956 Summer Olympics. He became notorious for striking Hungarian player Ervin Zádor in the Blood in the Water match.

Vyacheslav Grigorevich Kurennoy was a Russian water polo player who competed for the Soviet Union in the 1956 Summer Olympics and in the 1960 Summer Olympics.

<i>Freedoms Fury</i> 2006 film by Colin Keith Gray

Freedom's Fury is a documentary film about the Melbourne, Australia 1956 Summer Olympics semifinal water polo match between Hungary and the USSR, and the events that led up to the violent battle, the match that what would later be known as the "Blood in the Water match."

Children of Glory, is a 2006 film directed by Krisztina Goda. Children of Glory commemorates Hungary's Revolution of 1956 and the "Blood in the Water" match. Taking place in Budapest and at the Melbourne Olympic Games in October and November of that year, the film takes viewers into the passion and sadness of one of the most dramatic popular revolts of the twentieth century. In the same year Soviet tanks were violently suppressing the Revolution within Hungary, the Hungarian water polo team was winning over Russia in the Olympic pool in Melbourne, in what is sometimes described as the bloodiest water polo match in history. While telling the story of 1956 in part through fictional lead characters, the film-makers simultaneously recreated many of the key public events of the Revolution, including the huge demonstrations and the fighting in the streets of Budapest.

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Colin Keith Gray is a Canadian actor, writer and film director. He played Frank Hardy on the TV show The Hardy Boys for thirteen episodes. He is known for directing the documentary film Freedom's Fury.


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  2. Ron Fimrite (28 July 1996). "A bloody war that spilled into the pool". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
  3. Abrams, Roger I. (2013). Playing Tough: The World of Sports and Politics. UPNE. p. 6. ISBN   9781555537531.
  4. Dunai, Marton (12 March 2012). "FEATURE-Olympics-Water polo's Gyarmati recalls last London Games". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  5. "Blood in the water: Hungary's 1956 water polo gold". BBC News. 20 Aug 2011. Retrieved 20 Aug 2011.
  6. 1 2 Mike Rowbottom (2 December 2006). "Ervin Zador: Blood in the water (interview)". The Independent. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
  7. "Cold War violence erupts at Melbourne Olympics". Sydney Morning Herald. 7 December 1956. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
  8. Riot Narrowly Avoided at Olympic Pool, The Canberra Times, (Friday, 7 December 1956), p.1
  9. Olympic Games Peace Shattered: Fists Fly in Pool Fracas, The Argus, (Friday, 7 December 1956), pp.1, 3.
  10. Hungarian Injured in Polo, The Age, (Friday, 7 December 1956), p.1.
  11. Player Punched in Rough Water Polo, The Age, (Friday, 7 December 1956), p.1.
  12. That evening, a similar anti-Russian protest occurred during a fencing match between Hungarian Pál Kovács and Russian Lev Kuznetsov at the St Kilda Town Hall: Mr. Brundage hears crowd hoot Russian, The Argus, (Friday, 7 December 1956), p.14; Tireless Hungarian Takes Sabre Title: Appeal to Crowd, The Age, Friday, 7 December 1956), p.12.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  14. Knight, Matthew (2 March 2012). "'Blood in the water' - Hungary's sporting battle against Soviet oppression". CNN . Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  15. Reid, Kirsty (20 August 2011). "Blood in the water at the 1956 Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  16. Nine Hungarians Miss First Plane for Home, The Canberra Times, (Saturday, 8 December 1956), p.3.
  17. Hungarians Stay Behind, The Age, (Monday, 10 December 1956), p.1.
  18. 46 Hungarians Refuse to go Home, and . . . Security Men Guard "Village", The Argus, (Monday, 10 December 1956), p.3.
  19. Security Guard for Hungarian Athletes, The Canberra Times, (Tuesday, 11 December 1956), p.3.
  20. Krastev, Nikola (5 May 2006). "Hungary: New Film Revisits 1956 Water-Polo Showdown". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  21. "Freedom's Fury". Pacific Cinémathèque. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  22. Children of Glory at AllMovie
  23. Lemercier, Fabien (3 November 2006). "Children of Glory gets off to sensational start". Cineuropa. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  24. "Guest List for the "Children of Glory" Screening and Dinner". The White House. 30 October 2006. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  25. "Monday, July 30". Sydney Morning Herald. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2018.