|38th Lieutenant Governor of Texas|
January 15, 1991 –January 19, 1999
|Governor|| Ann Richards |
George W. Bush
|Preceded by||William P. Hobby, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Rick Perry|
|34th Texas Comptroller|
|Governor|| Dolph Briscoe |
Mark Wells White
|Preceded by||Robert S. Calvert|
|Succeeded by||John Sharp|
|72nd Secretary of State of Texas|
September 1, 1971 –January 2, 1973
|Preceded by||Martin Dies, III|
|Succeeded by||V. Larry Teaver, Jr.|
Robert Douglas Bullock
July 10, 1929
|Died||June 18, 1999 (aged 69)|
|Resting place||Texas State Cemetery, Austin|
|Years of service||1951–1954|
Robert Douglas Bullock, Sr. (July 10, 1929 – June 18, 1999), was a Democratic politician from Texas, whose career spanned four decades. His service culminated in his term as the 38th Lieutenant Governor of Texas from January 15, 1991 to January 19, 1999 during the term of Governor Ann Richards and the first term of Governor George W. Bush.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
Born in Hillsboro in Hill County, Bullock attended Hill College, a junior college. In 1955, he received his bachelor's degree from Texas Tech University in Lubbock. He obtained a law degree from Baylor University in Waco.
Hillsboro is a city in and the county seat of Hill County, Texas, United States. The population was 8,456 at the 2010 census.
Hill County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,089. Its county seat is Hillsboro. The county is named for George Washington Hill, secretary of war and secretary of the navy under the Republic of Texas. Hill County is part of Central Texas, though not included in Texas Hill Country.
A junior college is a post-secondary educational institution designed to prepare students for either skilled trades or for additional education at another college with more advanced academic material. Students typically attend junior colleges for 1–3 years.
Bullock served in the United States Air Force during the Korean War.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.
Bullock began his career in public service as a member of the Texas House of Representatives in the 1960s. After a stint as an assistant attorney general and in the private practice of law, Bullock returned to public life when he was appointed Secretary of State of Texas, the state's chief elections and records officer, by Governor Preston Smith. Bullock soon left the post to prepare for a statewide race for state comptroller in the 1974 Democratic primary. Under Texas law, a Secretary of State must resign in order to run for another office, a practice not required in most states. He served for four consecutive four-year terms.
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Texas Legislature. It consists of 150 members who are elected from single-member districts for two-year terms. As of the 2010 Census, each member represents about 167,637 people. There are no term limits, with the most senior member, Tom Craddick, having been elected in 1968.
The Texas Secretary of State is one of the six members of the executive department of the state of Texas, in the United States. Under the Texas Constitution, the appointment is made by the Governor, with confirmation by the Texas Senate. Rolando Pablos is the 111th person to hold the office. He was appointed by Greg Abbott, and sworn in on January 6, 2017. Pablos has announced his resignation, effective December 15, 2018.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government.
Bullock, before he was widely known, was one of the few Texas Democrats to chastise John Connally for his party switch in 1973.In 1998, Bullock himself would urge the reelection of a Republican, then-Governor Bush.
John Bowden Connally Jr. was an American politician. He served as the 39th Governor of Texas and as the 61st United States Secretary of the Treasury. He began his career as a Democrat but switched to Republican in 1973.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
In 1973, Bullock first sought the Democratic nomination for Comptroller. The octogenarian incumbent, Robert S. Calvert, soon withdrew from the contest when he gauged Bullock's strength. In November 1974, he was elected in the general election defeating Republican Nick Rowe, a former Vietnam War Prisoner of war: Bullock garnered 1,099,559 votes (71.61%) to Rowe's 419,657 votes (27.33%). Once sworn into office in January 1975, Bullock promised to modernize the office and to collect certain taxes that had been previously gone uncollected for many years. The officials collecting such taxes were known as "Bullock raiders." Bullock was also the first elected state official to adopt an equal opportunity employment program, a policy that Calvert had opposed. Bullock was among the first elected officials to use computer technology in state government to cut costs and improve productivity. He was the winner of numerous national awards for his management skills, including the "Leon Rothenberg Taxpayer Service Award." During his sixteen years in office, Bullock pledged fair but aggressive audits. He made statewide headlines with a long series of "raids" on businesses which had collected state taxes from customers but had not turned them into the state. As an outgrowth of his tax collecting efforts, the term "Bullock's Raiders" entered the Texas government lexicon.
Robert Seale Calvert was the longest-serving Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, serving for 26 years.
James Nicholas "Nick" Rowe was a United States Army officer and one of only 34 American prisoners of war to escape captivity during the Vietnam War. Colonel Rowe was credited with developing the rigorous US Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) training program taught to high-risk military personnel and the U.S. Army doctrine which institutionalizes these techniques and principles to be followed by captured personnel.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates to 1660.
As Comptroller of Public Accounts, his frequent and increasingly accurate forecasts on state finances allowed the legislature to budget more accurately. He also developed a "Taxpayers Bill of Rights" to guarantee fairness, courtesy and common sense. Bullock was re-elected overwhelmingly in 1978 virtually unopposed garnering 1,288,320 votes (100.00%) since nobody bothered to run against him, in 1982 defeating Republican Mike Richards: Bullock garnered 1,791,650 votes (58.02%) to Richards' 1,245,328 votes (40.33%) and again in 1986 defeating Libertarian George Meeks: garnering 2,416,658 votes (90.02%) to Meeks' 267,872 votes (9.98%) and although Bullock refused to seek the governorship during the 1980s, he saw his eyes on the lieutenant governorship when on June 1, 1987, the longtime incumbent William P. "Bill" Hobby, Jr. of Houston announced he will not to seek re-election to a sixth term. Bullock quickly announced his candidacy for Lieutenant Governor in September of 1987.
In 1990, he was elected Lieutenant Governor, having defeated the 40-year-old Republican nominee, businessman Robert Mosbacher, Jr., of Houston, the son of the sitting United States Secretary of Commerce Robert Mosbacher. Bullock prevailed, garnering 2,002,360 votes (51.69 percent) to Mosbacher's 1,741,893 votes (44.97 percent) for the right to succeed the retiring Bill Hobby. Bullock took office on January 15, 1991, when Democrat Ann W. Richards became the state's second female governor. In 1994, Bullock was easily elected to a second four-year term as lieutenant governor defeating Republican Harold "Tex" Lezar. Bullock received 2,631,843 votes and (61.48 percent), while Lezar got 1,648,848 votes (38.52 percent). He was inaugurated for his second term on January 17, 1995, while Republican George W. Bush was sworn-in as the 46th Governor of Texas, having unseated Ann Richards. Bullock did not seek election to a third term in 1998, having been succeeded by Republican Agriculture Commissioner (and later Governor) Rick Perry on January 19, 1999.
Serving as Texas' 38th Lieutenant Governor, Bullock favored a hands-on management style that he carried onto the lieutenant governor's office and resulted in numerous achievements as the presiding officer of the Texas Senate.Bullock overhauled the ethics laws during his first term in an effort to restore public confidence in state government. He created the Texas Performance Review for the State Comptroller to analyze spending at state agencies and recommended cost-saving alternatives. He helped consolidate all environmental agencies into one department in an effort to better serve Texans and protecting the state's natural resources. As the state's second-highest elected statewide officeholder, Bullock aggressively pushed through a constitutional amendment requiring voter approval before a state personal income tax can be enacted and requiring the money be earmarked for education, if voters approve the tax. He led efforts to modernize the Texas tax system and worked on state problems in tort reform, health and juvenile justice. Bullock was instrumental in finding a legislative solution to get Texas out of federal court lawsuits involving prisons and mental health. He was a leader in legislative efforts to revamp the state's educational funding system and ushered through a law that created the state's first comprehensive water conservation and management plan, and promoted establishing a state museum in the Capitol Complex. Lawmakers during the 76th Legislature voted to name the museum after him for his work on the project.
As Lieutenant Governor, he professed a nonpartisan approach to lawmaking, often telling members of the Texas Senate to leave their politics at the door. Bullock and Bush got along well, in part because Bullock got to lead an increasingly Republican legislature to agree to key laws and policies and, "when they passed, Bullock and House Speaker Pete Laney allowed Bush to claim some credit."Bullock unofficially endorsed Republican Governor Bush's presidential campaign even before it got off the ground. At a November 8, 2006, post-election press conference, a reporter from the Austin American-Statesman , who had covered Bush's tenure as governor, asked Bush if he thought then U.S. House Speaker-elect Nancy Pelosi resembled Bullock. The President replied that the reporter's question was an inside joke. The question was a thinly-veiled reference to the close working relationship, well known in Texas, to have existed between Republican Bush and Democrat Bullock; the reporter apparently was asking whether Bush would be capable of forging a similar bipartisan relationship with the members of the new Democratic legislative majority in the U. S. Congress.
Bullock was renowned for his blunt and sometimes politically incorrect speaking style, but also for his trademark closing line "God bless Texas." A lover of Texas history, he was instrumental in the establishment of the Texas State History Museum, located just to the north of the State Capitol in Austin. Opened to the public on April 21, 2001 (San Jacinto Day) after Bullock's death, it was named in his honor. The second-floor lobby of the museum features a seven-foot-tall bronze statue of Bullock holding a giant gavel, next to a gallery of items and a video from his career in politics.
His political papers are housed in the Baylor Collection of Political Materials.
Bullock's adult life was marred by alcoholism and divorce; he had a total of five marriages, although at least one of them was a repeat. He stopped drinking in 1981 and remained active with Alcoholics Anonymous for the remainder of his life.
Bullock died in Austin of cancer and is interred there at the Texas State Cemetery.
Texas State Highway Loop 20 in Laredo is named the Bob Bullock Loop in his honor. The Laredo Energy Arena is located just off the Bob Bullock Loop. The Texas State History Museum, located a few blocks north of the Capitol Building in Austin, is named to honor Bullock's efforts in the establishment of the facility.
Dorothy Ann Willis Richards was an American politician and 45th Governor of Texas (1991–95). A Democrat, she first came to national attention as the Texas State Treasurer, when she delivered the keynote address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Richards was the second female governor of Texas and was frequently noted in the media for her outspoken feminism and her one-liners.
Dolph Briscoe Jr. was an American rancher and businessman who was the 41st Governor of Texas between 1973 and 1979. He was a member of the Democratic Party.
Kent Ronald Hance is the former Chancellor of the Texas Tech University System. In his role, he oversaw Texas Tech University, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and Angelo State University in San Angelo, Texas. He is also a lobbyist and lawyer who was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from West Texas, having served from 1979 to 1985. After his congressional service, he switched to the Republican Party and in 1990 made an unsuccessful primary race for governor of Texas.
Carole Stewart Keeton, formerly known as Carole Keeton McClellan, Carole Keeton Rylander and Carole Keeton Strayhorn, is an American politician and the former Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts.
Robert Allan Shivers was an American politician who served as the 37th Governor of Texas. Shivers was a leader of the Texas Democratic Party during the turbulent 1940s and 1950s, and also developed the lieutenant governor's post into an extremely powerful perch in state government.
The 2006 Texas gubernatorial election was held on November 7, 2006 to elect the Governor of Texas. The election was a rare five-way race, with incumbent Republican Governor Rick Perry running for re-election against Democrat Chris Bell and Independents Carole Keeton Strayhorn and Kinky Friedman, as well as Libertarian nominee James Werner. Perry was re-elected to a second full term in office, winning 39% of the vote to Bell's 30%, Strayhorn's 18% and Friedman's 12%.
David Henry Dewhurst is an American politician, businessman, and attorney who served as the 41st Lieutenant Governor of Texas, serving from 2003 to 2015. A member of the Republican Party, he was the Texas Land Commissioner from 1999 to 2003. Dewhurst was a candidate in 2012 for the U.S. Senate seat vacated by the retiring Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison, but he lost his party's runoff election to former Solicitor General Ted Cruz, who went on to win the general election.
Kirk Preston Watson is an American attorney and Democratic politician from the capital city of Austin, Texas. He served as Austin mayor from 1997 to 2001. He ran unsuccessfully for Texas Attorney General in the 2002 election, when he was defeated by the Republican Greg Abbott, later governor of Texas. In 2006, Watson was elected to the Texas State Senate from District 14.
Henry Cushing Grover, usually known as Hank Grover, was a conservative politician from the U.S. state of Texas best known for his relatively narrow defeat as the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1972.
James Albon Mattox was an American lawyer and politician who served three terms in the United States House of Representatives and two four-year terms as state Attorney General, but lost high-profile races for Governor in 1990, the U.S. Senate in 1994, and again as attorney general in 1998. He was known as the "people's lawyer" because of his advocacy of what he deemed the needs of everyday Texans. He was a member of the Democratic Party.
The 1998 Texas gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1998 to elect the Governor of Texas. Incumbent Republican Governor George W. Bush was re-elected in a landslide over 4-term Democrat Texas Land Commissioner Garry Mauro, winning 68% of the vote to Mauro's 31%. Bush's 37% margin of victory was the largest won by any candidate since 1966 and is, to date, the largest ever won by a Republican candidate.
William Pettus Hobby Jr. is an American Democratic politician who served a record eighteen years as the 37th Lieutenant Governor of Texas. He held that office from January 16, 1973 to January 15, 1991 for five unprecedented terms, he was the last lieutenant governor to serve a two-year term and the first elected to a four-year term when the Texas Constitution was amended to lengthen terms for statewide elected officeholders to four years beginning with the 1974 elections. The principal duty of the Texas lieutenant governor is to preside over the Texas State Senate.
Michael Lawrence Williams is the former Education Commissioner of the U.S. state of Texas, in which capacity he was leader of the Texas Education Agency. Williams was appointed to the position on August 27, 2012, by then Governor Rick Perry. On October 15, 2015, Williams announced that he would step down as Education Commissioner at the end of the year to return to the private sector.
Glenn Allen Hegar Jr., is an American attorney who serves as Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. He was a Republican member of the Texas Senate representing the 18th District west of Houston. He succeeded fellow Republican Susan Combs as comptroller on January 2, 2015. He was elected Comptroller in the general election on November 4, 2014.
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George W. Bush served as the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 until 2000, when he resigned as governor following his election as the 43rd President of the United States. As governor, Bush successfully sponsored legislation for tort reform, increased education funding, set higher standards for schools, and reformed the criminal justice system. Bush also pioneered faith-based welfare programs and helped make Texas the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the US.
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|Texas House of Representatives|
| Member of the Texas House of Representatives |
from District 54 (Hillsboro)
Ronald E. Roberts
Martin Dies, III
| Secretary of State of Texas |
V. Larry Teaver, Jr.
Robert S. Calvert
| Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts |
William P. Hobby, Jr.
| Lieutenant Governor of Texas |
January 15, 1991 – January 19, 1999