Robert Stephen Gould
|Cause of death||Injuries from a fall|
|Political party||Australian Labor Party|
Mairi Petersen (divorced)
Robert Stephen "Bob" Gould (1937 – 22 May 2011) was an Australian activist and bookseller. He was a leader of the anti-conscription movement, and of protests against Australian involvement in the Vietnam War, in the 1960s. He went on to become a successful second-hand bookseller.
Gould first came to public attention in 1966 as Convenor of the Vietnam Action Campaign, a group opposed to conscription and participation in the Vietnam War. Gould was already being described as a "habitual protester".By 1969 Gould was seen as having influence over Labor Clubs at the University of Sydney, the University of New South Wales and Macquarie University.
The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist in 1975.
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. The university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington. The university comprises nine faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor, master and doctoral degrees.
The University of New South Wales is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington. Out of all Australian universities, UNSW has the highest median ATAR and attracts the highest number of top 500 students. Established in 1949, it is ranked 4th in Australia, 43rd in the world according to the 2020 QS World University Rankings. The university comprises nine faculties, through which it offers bachelor, master and doctoral degrees. The main campus is located on a 38-hectare (94-acre) site in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, 7 km from the Sydney central business district. The creative arts faculty, UNSW Art & Design, is located in Paddington, UNSW Canberra is located at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra and sub-campuses are located in the Sydney CBD, the suburbs of Randwick and Coogee. Research stations are located throughout the state of New South Wales. UNSW is one of the founding members of the Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, and of Universitas 21, a global network of research universities. It has international exchange and research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world.
Gould went on to fight for many other issues, including Irish civil rights,Indonesian atrocities in East Timor, and the war on Iraq. He was a prolific writer on the many causes in which he believed. The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) held a file on Gould that ran to 8000 pages.
The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation is Australia's national security agency responsible for the protection of the country and its citizens from espionage, sabotage, acts of foreign interference, politically motivated violence, attacks on the Australian defence system, and terrorism. ASIO is comparable to the British Security Service (MI5) and the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ASIO is part of the Australian Intelligence Community.
He inspired organisations like the scandalously named but nobly aspirational SCREW (the Society for the Cultivation of Revolution Everywhere) and the more sober High School Students Against the Vietnam War. He was also a key supporter of the anti-conscription movement of this time.
In 1966 Gould helped to chase and capture the attempted assassin of Labor leader Arthur Calwell.
Arthur Augustus Calwell KCSG was an Australian politician who served as the leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. He led the party to three federal elections without success.
Bob Gould joined the Australian Labor Party at the age of 17, about 1954, and remained a member of that party throughout his life.
He joined the party just as the Labor Party split of 1955 was brewing and quickly became embroiled in the struggle against the right-wing Groupers. Gould wrote about some of his experiences at that time in his essay, Bob Santamaria and Bob Gould.
The Australian Labor Party split of 1955 was a split within the Australian Labor Party along ethnocultural lines and about the position towards communism. Key players in the split were the federal opposition leader H. V. "Doc" Evatt and B. A. Santamaria, the dominant force behind the "Catholic Social Studies Movement" or "the Movement".
While he was involved in the struggle against the Groupers, Gould has written that he was also "in the orbit" of the Communist Party of Australia, but he broke with Communist Party influence in 1956, after Khruschev's Secret Speech and the USSR's invasion of Hungary.
The Communist Party of Australia (CPA) was founded in 1920 and dissolved in 1991. The CPA achieved its greatest political strength in the 1940s and faced an attempted ban in 1951. Though it never presented a major challenge to the established order in Australia, it did have significant influence on the trade unions, social movements, and the national culture.
He obtained copies of Khruschev's speech detailing the crimes of Stalin, and distributed them to members of the Communist Party and left-wing members of the Labor Party.
Gould then made contact with Australian Trotskyists, who had opposed Joseph Stalin and Stalinism from the beginning. This group included the ironworkers union activist Nick Origlass, who worked in the Balmain shipyards and had led an important strike there in 1945.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Premier (1941–1953). Initially presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, by the 1930s he was the country's de facto dictator. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin formalised these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies are known as Stalinism.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from 1927 to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953). Stalinist policies and ideas that were developed in the Soviet Union included rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a totalitarian state, collectivization of agriculture, a cult of personality and subordination of the interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, deemed by Stalinism to be the leading vanguard party of communist revolution at the time.
Nick Origlass was an Australian Trotskyist who served as mayor of Leichhardt in Sydney, New South Wales.
Gould at this time was also in contact with Helen Palmer, who organised a leftist magazine, Outlook, which served as a focus for anti-Stalinist leftists who had left the Communist Party because of the 1956 events.
Gould remained a self-described anti-Stalinist Marxist for the rest of his life.
As a bookseller, Gould was a Sydney 'character' who opened twelve bookshops and closed eleven since opening his first shop, the Third World Bookshop, in 1967.His bookshops were notable for being fertile hunting grounds of underground comics and posters as well as an eclectic range of books including leftist tracts. He also stocked (especially at his Leichhardt, New South Wales store), a large range of Betamax video cassettes for many years after the format was considered to be defunct.
Gould's shops pushed the boundaries of Australia's strict censorship laws at the time, and he was often raided by the NSW police vice squad. — posters of nineteenth century artist Aubrey Beardsley including Lysistrata and Cinesius Pursuing Myrhenia. The magistrate, Mr S.M. Lewer, characterised the illustrations as “lewd”, although the defence argued that such stylised nudity as found in the illustrations would not offend the 'average man' of the times. Gould was found guilty and fined.In 1969, Gould, then 32 and proprietor of the Third World Bookshop at Woollahra, was charged (along with Ronald James, 20, of Little Lonsdale St, Melbourne) with publishing obscene articles
He and his bookshop featured in the 1999 movie Erskineville Kings .
An article on Gould's business appeared in The Sydney Morning Herald just two months before his death.
Gould died on Sunday, 22 May 2011 from injuries sustained in a fall while sorting books at his store. He was 74. Over 500 people attended his funeral on 26 May 2011 at Macquarie Park, the service being extended by thirty minutes to provide for all of the eulogies.
Federal politicians Andrew Leigh and Daryl Melhampaid tribute to Gould in the Australian parliament. New South Wales Opposition Leader John Robertson and government minister Brad Hazzard eulogised Gould in the Parliament of New South Wales.
Paul John Keating is an Australian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Australia and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1991 to 1996. He had previously served as Treasurer in the Hawke Government from 1983 to 1991.
The Democratic Labour Party (DLP) is a political party in Australia that espouses social conservatism and favours distributism. The first DLP Senator in decades, John Madigan was elected for a six-year term to the Australian Senate with 2.3 per cent of the primary vote in Victoria at the 2010 federal election, serving from July 2011 until the July 2016 double dissolution election. In September 2014, Madigan resigned from the party and served the rest of his term as an independent, citing long-term internal party tensions.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, and owned by Nine. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and has become a national online-news brand. The print version of the newspaper is published six days a week.
Antony Harold Curties Windsor is a former Australian politician. Windsor was an independent member for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly seat of Tamworth from 1991 to 2001 − supporting the incumbent Greiner Liberal/National Coalition minority government at the 1991 election.
Joseph Benedict Hockey is the Ambassador of Australia to the United States. He is a former Australian politician, the Member of Parliament for North Sydney from 1996 until 2015. He was the Treasurer of Australia in the Abbott Government from 18 September 2013 until September 2015 when he resigned from Cabinet, having refused an alternative offer from the incoming Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull. He previously served as the Minister for Human Services and Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations in the Howard Government.
Daryl Melham is a former Australian politician. He was a Labor member of the Australian House of Representatives representing the Division of Banks in New South Wales from March 1990 until September 2013.
Brendan John Nelson is a former Australian politician who served as the federal Leader of the Opposition from 2007 to 2008. He was a member of the House of Representatives from 1996 to 2009, as the Liberal member for the Division of Bradfield in North Sydney.
Kristina Kerscher Keneally is an Australian politician who has been a Senator for New South Wales since February 2018, representing the Labor Party. Since 2019, she has served as Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Senate, Shadow Minister for Home Affairs, and Shadow Minister for Immigration and Citizenship. She previously served as Premier of New South Wales from 2009 to 2011, the first woman to hold the position.
John Hatzistergos is a judge of the District Court of New South Wales. He is a former Australian politician who was a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council representing the Labor Party between 1999 and 2011, and a minister in various Labor Governments.
Anthony Bernard Kelly is an Australian former politician, who was a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council representing the Labor Party from 1997 until 2011.
Wilfred George Petersen was an Australian politician, affiliated with the Labor Party and elected as a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly.
Mark Victor Arbib is a former Australian politician and trade unionist, who was an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian Senate from 1 July 2008 to 5 March 2012, representing the state of New South Wales. He was the ALP State Secretary of the New South Wales branch from 2004-07.
The 2010 Australian federal election was held on Saturday, 21 August 2010 to elect members of the 43rd Parliament of Australia. The incumbent centre-left Australian Labor Party led by Prime Minister Julia Gillard won a second term against the opposition centre-right Liberal Party of Australia led by Opposition Leader Tony Abbott and Coalition partner the National Party of Australia, led by Warren Truss, after Labor formed a minority government with the support of three independent MPs and one Australian Greens MP. As of 2019 this remains the last federal election victory for the Labor party.
Mark Christopher Butler is an Australian politician and a member of the Australian Labor Party, representing the electoral division of Hindmarsh in the Australian House of Representatives since 2019, and previously the Port Adelaide from 2007 to 2019.
Q&A is an Australian television panel discussion program, broadcast on ABC hosted by news journalist Tony Jones. The show usually broadcasts on Monday nights at 9:35, and has run since 2008. Its format is similar to Question Time on the BBC and Questions and Answers on RTÉ.
Elections to the 55th Parliament of New South Wales were held on Saturday, 26 March 2011. The 16-year-incumbent Labor Party government led by Premier Kristina Keneally was defeated in a landslide by the Liberal–National Coalition opposition led by Barry O'Farrell. Labor suffered a two-party swing of 16.4 points, the largest against a sitting government at any level in Australia since World War II. From 48 seats at dissolution, Labor was knocked down to 20 seats—the worst defeat of a sitting government in New South Wales history, and one of the worst of a state government in Australia since federation. The Coalition picked up a 34-seat swing to win a strong majority, with 69 seats–the largest majority government, in terms of percentage of seats controlled, in NSW history. It is only the third time since 1941 that a NSW Labor government has been defeated.
The Rudd Government (2007–2010) was the former government of Australia formed by the Australian Labor Party and led by former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. The Rudd Government commenced on 3 December 2007, when Rudd was sworn in along with his ministry. This took place nine days after the defeat of the Howard Government, which was a Coalition of members of the Liberal and National parties at the 2007 federal election. The Rudd Government concluded on 24 June 2010 when Rudd, under pressure from an impending leadership caucus ballot, stepped down from the leadership of the Australian Labor Party and was succeeded by his deputy, Julia Gillard. Rudd was re-elected leader of the Labor Party in 2013 and served a second term as prime minister.
Sydney University Labor Club is the oldest political society in Australia. It is one of the most influential Australian university political societies. Many of the club's alumni have gone on to prominent political careers. The club has traditionally been associated with a radical left-wing political agenda rather than the Australian Labor Party as its name would suggest.
James Robert Tyrrell, often referred to as Jim Tyrrell, was an Australian bookseller, art dealer, publisher and author. He enjoyed a career of seven decades in the booktrade and was esteemed in his era as the "doyen of Sydney booksellers". He wrote a standard history of early bookselling in Australia entitled Old Books, Old Friends, Old Sydney.