Bodrum

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Bodrum
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Clockwise from top left: 1st: View of Bodrum from castle of St. Peter, 2nd: Port Atami, 3rd: A view of Bodrum, 4th: Seaside at Bodrum , 5th: Marina in Bodrum, 6th: Bodrum Castle.
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Bodrum
Coordinates: 37°02′00″N27°26′00″E / 37.03333°N 27.43333°E / 37.03333; 27.43333 Coordinates: 37°02′00″N27°26′00″E / 37.03333°N 27.43333°E / 37.03333; 27.43333
CountryFlag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Province Muğla
Government
  MayorMehmet Kocadon (CHP)
   Kaymakam Feridun Cemal Özdemir
Area
[1]
  District656.06 km2 (253.31 sq mi)
Population
 (2013)
   Urban
36,401 [2]
Website www.bodrum.bel.tr

Bodrum (Turkish pronunciation:  [ˈbodɾum] ) is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus (ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός) of Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Built by the Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century, Bodrum Castle overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle includes a museum of underwater archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The city had a population of 36,317 in 2012. It takes 50 minutes via boat to reach Kos from Bodrum, with services running multiple times a day by at least three operators.

Muğla Province Province of Turkey in Aegean

Muğla Province is a province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about 20 km (12 mi) inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz, Marmaris and Fethiye, are on the coast in Muğla.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Gulf of Gökova bay

Gulf of Gökova or Gulf of Kerme, is a long (100 km), narrow gulf of the Aegean Sea between Bodrum Peninsula and Datça Peninsula in south-west Turkey.

Contents

Geography

Etymology

In classical antiquity Bodrum was known as Halicarnassus (ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνασσός, [3] Turkish : Halikarnas), a major city in ancient Caria. The modern name Bodrum derives from the town's medieval name Petronium, which has its roots in the Hospitaller Castle of St. Peter (see history).

Classical antiquity Age of the ancient Greeks and Romans

Classical antiquity is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Western Asia.

Halicarnassus Ancient Greek city, present day Bodrum in Turkey

Halicarnassus was an ancient Greek city at what is now Bodrum in Turkey. It was located in southwest Caria on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf. The city was famous for the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, also known simply as the Tomb of Mausolus, whose name provided the origin of the word "mausoleum". The mausoleum, built from 353 to 350 BC, ranked as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Climate

Bodrum has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate classification). Winter average is around 15 °C (59 °F) and in the summer 34 °C (93 °F), with very sunny spells. Summers are hot and mostly sunny and winters are mild and humid.

Mediterranean climate Type of climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends northwards during the summer and migrates south during the winter due to greater temperature differences.

Köppen climate classification climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Climate data for Bodrum
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)25.3
(77.5)
27.2
(81.0)
30.1
(86.2)
36.2
(97.2)
40.0
(104.0)
46.6
(115.9)
50.8
(123.4)
48.6
(119.5)
45.1
(113.2)
34.9
(94.8)
30.6
(87.1)
28.4
(83.1)
50.8
(123.4)
Average high °C (°F)15.1
(59.2)
15.2
(59.4)
17.6
(63.7)
21.1
(70.0)
26.0
(78.8)
31.2
(88.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.0
(93.2)
30.3
(86.5)
25.6
(78.1)
20.3
(68.5)
16.5
(61.7)
23.9
(75.1)
Average low °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
8.0
(46.4)
9.7
(49.5)
12.7
(54.9)
16.5
(61.7)
20.8
(69.4)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.8
(62.2)
12.8
(55.0)
9.8
(49.6)
15.2
(59.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)134.1
(5.28)
107.9
(4.25)
74.0
(2.91)
39.1
(1.54)
18.4
(0.72)
7.5
(0.30)
1.3
(0.05)
8.5
(0.33)
20.8
(0.82)
40.5
(1.59)
97.7
(3.85)
156.2
(6.15)
706
(27.79)
Average rainy days12.311.28.56.93.72.11.51.02.85.38.813.277.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 148.8151.2198.4225285.2318337.9322.4273223.2168139.52,790.6
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [4]
Average Sea & Swimming Pool temperatures for Bodrum
Month Sea Temp (°C)Swimming Pool Temp (°C)
Jan
17
12
Feb
16
13
Mar
16
14
Apr
17
18
May
19
22
Jun
22
26
July
24
28
Aug
26
28
Sep
25
25
Oct
23
21
Nov
20
17
Dec
18
15

"Average swimming pool and sea temperatures for Bodrum". BodrumBulletin. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.

History

Theatre of Halicarnassus in Bodrum, with the Bodrum Castle seen in the background. Halicarnassus Theatre.jpg
Theatre of Halicarnassus in Bodrum, with the Bodrum Castle seen in the background.

Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek : Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός, romanized: Halikarnassós or ἈλικαρνασσόςAlikarnassós; Turkish : Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city at the site of modern Bodrum in Turkey. Halicarnassus was founded by Dorian Greeks, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena or Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen and Argos. [5] The inhabitants appear to have accepted Anthes, a son of Poseidon, as their legendary founder, as mentioned by Strabo, and were proud of the title of Antheadae. The Carian name for Halicarnassus has been tentatively identified with Alosδkarnosδ in inscriptions.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Ancient Greece Civilization belonging to an early period of Greek history

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.

Dorians ethnic group

The Dorians were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes of Classical Greece considered themselves divided. They are almost always referred to as just "the Dorians", as they are called in the earliest literary mention of them in the Odyssey, where they already can be found inhabiting the island of Crete.

At an early period Halicarnassus was a member of the Doric Hexapolis, which included Kos, Cnidus, Lindos, Kameiros and Ialysus; but it was expelled from the league when one of its citizens, Agasicles, took home the prize tripod which he had won in the Triopian games, instead of dedicating it according to custom to the Triopian Apollo. In the early 5th century Halicarnassus was under the sway of Artemisia I of Caria (also known as Artemesia of Halicarnassus [6] ), who made herself famous as a naval commander at the battle of Salamis. Of Pisindalis, her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis, the tyrant of Halicarnussus, who next attained power, is notorious for having put to death the poet Panyasis and causing Herodotus, possibly the best known Halicarnassian, to leave his native city (c. 457 BC). [7]

Doric Hexapolis federation

The Doric or Dorian Hexapolis was a federation of six cities of Dorian foundation in southwest Asia Minor and adjacent islands, largely coextensive with the region known as Doris or Doris in Asia, and included:

Kos Place in Greece

Kos or Cos is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese by area, after Rhodes and Karpathos; it has a population of 33,388, making it the second most populous of the Dodecanese, after Rhodes. The island measures 40 by 8 kilometres, and is 4 km from the coast of the ancient region of Caria in Turkey. Administratively, Kos constitutes a municipality within the Kos regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Kos Town.

Lindos Place in Greece

Lindos is an archaeological site, a fishing village and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 178.9 km2. It lies on the east coast of the island. It is about 50 km south of the town of Rhodes and its fine beaches make it a popular tourist and holiday destination. Lindos is situated in a large bay and faces the fishing village and small resort of Charaki.

The city later fell under Persian rule. Under the Persians, it was the capital city of the satrapy of Caria, the region that had since long constituted its hinterland and of which it was the principal port. Its strategic location ensured that the city enjoyed considerable autonomy. Archaeological evidence from the period such as the recently discovered Salmakis (Kaplankalesi) Inscription, now in Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, attest to the particular pride its inhabitants had developed. [8]

Alexander the Great laid siege to the city after his arrival in Carian lands and, together with his ally, the queen Ada of Caria, captured it after fighting in 334 BCE.

Mausolus

Surviving substructures and ruins of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, in Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum.) Halicarnassus Mausoleum.jpg
Surviving substructures and ruins of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, in Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum.)

Mausolus ruled Caria from here, nominally on behalf of the Persians and independently in practical terms, for much of his reign from 377 to 353 BC. When he died in 353 BC, Artemisia II of Caria, who was both his sister and his widow, employed the ancient Greek architects Satyros and Pythis, and the four sculptors Bryaxis, Scopas, Leochares and Timotheus to build a monument, as well as a tomb, for him. The word "mausoleum" derives from the structure of this tomb. It was a temple-like structure decorated with reliefs and statuary on a massive base. Today only the foundations and a few pieces of sculpture remain.

Petronium

The Castle of St. Peter was built by the Knights Hospitaller. Bodrum castle 3.JPG
The Castle of St. Peter was built by the Knights Hospitaller.

Crusader Knights arrived in 1402 and used the remains of the Mausoleum as a quarry to build the still impressively standing Bodrum Castle (Castle of Saint Peter), which is a well-preserved example of the late Crusader architecture in the east Mediterranean. The Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) were given permission to build it by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed I, after Tamerlane had destroyed their previous fortress located in İzmir's inner bay. The castle and its town became known as Petronium, whence the modern name Bodrum derives.[ citation needed ]

In 1522, Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the Crusader knights on the island of Rhodes, who then relocated first briefly to Sicily and later permanently to Malta, leaving the Castle of Saint Peter and Bodrum to the Ottoman Empire.

20th century

Marina of Bodrum Bodrummarina.jpg
Marina of Bodrum

Bodrum was a quiet town of fishermen and sponge divers until the mid-20th century; although, as Mansur points out, the presence of a large community of bilingual Cretan Turks, coupled with the conditions of free trade and access with the islands of the Southern Dodecanese until 1935, made it less provincial. [9] The fact that traditional agriculture was not a very rewarding activity in the rather dry peninsula also prevented the formation of a class of large landowners. Bodrum has no notable history of political or religious extremism either. A first nucleus of intellectuals started to form after the 1950s around the writer Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, who had first come here in exile two decades before and was charmed by the town to the point of adopting the pen name Halikarnas Balıkçısı ('The Fisherman of Halicarnassus'). [10]

Demographics

The population for the town of Bodrum was 35,795 in the 2012 census. The surrounding towns & villages had an additional 100,522, for a total for the province of 136,317. [11]

Government

The district of Bodrum is one of 957 in Turkey. It is in Muğla Province which is part of the Aydin Subregion, which, in turn, is part of the Aegean Region.

The district includes the municipalities of Bodrum, Turgutreis, Ortakent, Göltürkbükü, Yalıkavak, Gümüşlük, Bitez, Konacık, Yalı and Mumcular.[ citation needed ]

Economy

During the 20th century the country's economy was mainly based on fishing and sponge diving. Over the years, tourism became one of the major activities in Bodrum. [12]

Infrastructure

Airports

There are no airports in the city. Two airports serve the city. Milas–Bodrum Airport is located 36 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Bodrum, with both domestic and international flights. [13] Kos Island International Airport, 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the SW, located in Andimachia, Greece, accessible by boats from Bodrum across a 20 kilometres (12 mi) stretch of the Aegean Sea. Aside from year-round flights to Greek destinations, Kos airport's traffic is seasonal.

Bus

There is a main bus stop in the city center with transportation to other locations in Turkey.

Port

The port has ferries to other nearby Turkish and Greek ports and islands. [13] Bodrum has three large marinas and cruise berths. The first marina Milta, located in the center of Bodrum. The second marina is located in Turgutreis, and the third Palmarina in Yalikavak.

Notable people

Bodrum Castle Mosque Turkey Bodrum Castle Mosque.jpg
Bodrum Castle Mosque
Gulet type schooners near Bodrum Turkey.Bodrum023.jpg
Gulet type schooners near Bodrum

Twin towns — sister cities

Bodrum is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

This article concerns the period 359 BC – 350 BC.

Year 350 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Laenas and Scipio. The denomination 350 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus One of the seven wonders of the ancient world

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC in Halicarnassus for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and his sister-wife Artemisia II of Caria. The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene. Its elevated tomb structure is derived from the tombs of neighbouring Lycia, a territory Mausolus had invaded and annexed circa 460 BC, such as the Nereid Monument.

Caria historical region

Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Ionian and Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotus as being of Minoan Greek descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.

Mausolus Satrap of Caria

Mausolus was a ruler of Caria, nominally a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire. He enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position created by his father Hecatomnus who had succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy and founded the hereditary dynasty of the Hecatomnids.

Artemisia I of Caria Queen of Halicarnassus

Artemisia I of Caria was a Greek queen of the ancient Greek city-state of Halicarnassus and of the nearby islands of Kos, Nisyros and Kalymnos, within the Achaemenid satrapy of Caria, in about 480 BC. She fought as an ally of Xerxes I, King of Persia against the independent Greek city states during the second Persian invasion of Greece. She personally commanded her contribution of five ships at the naval battle of Artemisium and in the naval Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. She is mostly known through the writings of Herodotus, himself a native of Halicarnassus, who praises her courage and the respect in which Xerxes held her.

Labraunda human settlement

Labraunda is an ancient archaeological site five kilometers west of Ortaköy, Muğla Province, Turkey, in the mountains near the coast of Caria. In ancient times, it was held sacred by Carians and Mysians alike. The site amid its sacred plane trees was enriched in the Hellenistic style by the Hecatomnid dynasty of Mausolus, satrap of Persian Caria, and also later by his successor and brother Idrieus; Labranda was the dynasty's ancestral sacred shrine. The prosperity of a rapidly hellenised Caria occurred in the during the 4th century BCE. Remains of Hellenistic houses and streets can still be traced, and there are numerous inscriptions. The cult icon here was a local Zeus Labrandeus, a standing Zeus with the tall lotus-tipped scepter upright in his left hand and the double-headed axe, the labrys, over his right shoulder. The cult statue was the gift of the founder of the dynasty, Hecatomnus himself, recorded in a surviving inscription.

Bodrum Castle fortification

Bodrum Castle is a historical fortification located in southwest Turkey in the port city of Bodrum, built from 1402 onwards, by the Knights of St John as the Castle of St. Peter or Petronium. A transnational effort, it has four towers known as the English, French, German, and Italian towers, bearing the names of the nations responsible for their construction. The castle was completed in the late 15th century, only to be taken over by the Islamic Ottoman Empire in 1523. The chapel was converted to a mosque, and a minaret was added. The castle remained under the empire for almost 400 years. After remaining empty following World War I, in the early 1960s, the castle became the home for the award-winning Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. In 2016 it was inscribed in the Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey.

Ada of Caria Satrap of Caria

Ada of Caria was a member of the House of Hecatomnus and ruler of Caria during the mid-4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and later as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III of Macedon.

Panyassis ancient Greek poet

Panyassis of Halicarnassus, sometimes known as Panyasis, was a 5th century BC Greek epic poet from Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire.

Idrieus King of Caria

Idrieus, or Hidrieos was a ruler of Caria under the Achaemenid Empire, nominally a Satrap, who enjoyed the status of king or dynast by virtue of the powerful position his predecessors of the House of Hecatomnus created when they succeeded the assassinated Persian Satrap Tissaphernes in the Carian satrapy.

Satyros or Satyrus was a Greek architect in the 4th century BC. Along with Pythius of Priene, he designed and oversaw the construction of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

Myndus ancient Dorian colony of Troezen, on the coast of Caria in Asia Minor

Myndus or Myndos was an ancient Dorian colony of Troezen, on the coast of Caria in Asia Minor, (Turkey), sited on the Bodrum Peninsula, a few miles northwest of Halicarnassus. The site is now occupied by the modern village of Gümüslük.

Turkish Riviera geographic region

The Turkish Riviera, also known popularly as the Turquoise Coast, is an area of southwest Turkey encompassing the provinces of Antalya and Muğla, and to a lesser extent Aydın, southern İzmir and western Mersin. The combination of a favorable climate, warm sea, mountainous scenery, fine beaches along more than a thousand kilometers of shoreline along the Aegean and Mediterranean waters, and abundant natural and archaeological points of interest makes this stretch of Turkey's coastline a popular national and international tourist destination.

Turgutreis Town in Aegean, Turkey

Turgutreis is a town in Turkey about a 60-minute drive from Bodrum International Airport. It is the second largest town on the Bodrum peninsula and is part of that district, in Muğla. The town is a popular holiday destination with 5 kilometres of sandy beaches, waterfront restaurants and bars, and is considered a resort town.

Milas District in Aegean, Turkey

Milas is an ancient city and the seat of the district of the same name in Muğla Province in southwestern Turkey. The city commands a region with an active economy and very rich in history and ancient remains, the territory of Milas containing a remarkable twenty-seven archaeological sites of note. The city was the first capital of ancient Caria and of the Anatolian beylik of Menteşe in mediaeval times. The nearby Mausoleum of Hecatomnus is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Lygdamis II of Halicarnassus

Lygdamis II was a tyrant of Caria during the 5th century BCE, under the Achaemenid Empire. His capital was in Halicarnassus. He was the grandson of Artemisia, and son of Pisindelis, the previous tyrant.

Pisindelis

Pisindelis, ruled c.460–450 BCE, was a tyrant of Caria, from its capital Halicarnassus, under the Achaemenid Empire. He was the son of Artemisia I of Caria, and part of the Lygdamid dynasty.

References

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  2. "Turkey: Registered Population". City Population. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  3. Ἁλικαρνασσός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
  4. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. 1971-11-30. Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
  5. Hogarth, David George (1911). "Halicarnassus"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 837.
  6. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Artemisia (daughter of Lygdamis)"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 665.
  7. "Herodotus". Suda . At the Suda On Line Project.
  8. Signe Isager (1998). "The Pride of Halicarnassus" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 123 p. 1-23.
  9. Fatma Mansur (1972). Bodrum. Brill Publishers. ISBN   90-04-03424-2.
  10. Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2010, pp.62-66
  11. Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012 Archived May 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine /
  12. Bodrum
  13. 1 2 "BODRUM | Place to Visit | Things to Do | Famous For". Very Turkey. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  14. "Eskişehir′in kardeş şehirleri" (in Turkish). Eskişehir Metropolitan Municipality Official Site. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2012.