Bohai Sea

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Coordinates: 38°42′N119°54′E / 38.7°N 119.9°E / 38.7; 119.9

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Bohai Sea
Bohaiseamap2.png
Chinese name
Chinese 渤海
Korean name
Hangul 보하이해
Hanja 渤海
The location of the Bo Hai. Locatie Bohaizee.PNG
The location of the Bo Hai.

The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay (Chinese :渤海; lit. 'Bo Sea'), is a marginal sea approximately 78,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) in area on the east coast of mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it connects to the east via the Bohai Strait.

A medium-sized gulf, the Bohai Sea is enclosed by four provinces from three different regions of ChinaLiaoning (of Northeast China), Hebei and the Tianjin municipality (of North China), and Shandong (of East China). The whole of the Bohai Sea is considered part of both the internal waters of the People's Republic of China and the center of the Bohai Economic Rim. Its proximity to the Chinese capital of Beijing makes it one of the busiest seaways in the world.

History

Until the early 20th century, Bo Hai was often called the Gulf of Chihli (Chinese:直隸海灣; pinyin:Zhílì Hǎiwān) or the Gulf of Pechihli or Pechili (北直隸海灣; Běizhílì Hǎiwān). Chihli and Pechihli (North Chihli) were historic provinces in the area surrounding Beijing.

Geography

There are three major bays inside the Bohai Gulf: Laizhou Bay to the south, Bohai Bay to the west, and Liaodong Bay to the north. The provincial-level administrative divisions that have a coastline to the Bohai Sea are, from the south going clockwise: Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin (Tientsin), Hebei again, and Liaoning. Some of the major rivers draining into the gulf include the Yellow River, Xiaoqing River, Hai River, Luan River, Dai River, Daling River, Xiaoling River, Liao River and Daliao River. There are a few important oil reserves in the vicinity of the gulf, including the Shengli Field. Important islands or island groups in the gulf include the Changshan Archipelago (长山列岛; 長山列島), Juehua Island (觉华岛; 覺華島), Bijia Mountain (笔架山; 筆架山), Changxing Island (长兴岛; 長興島), Xizhong Island (西中岛; 西中島), the East/West Mayi Islands (蚂蚁岛), Zhu Island (猪岛; 豬島) and She Island (蛇岛; 蛇島).

Bohai Strait

The opening of the Bohai Gulf is bounded by Changshan Archipelago between Dalian's Lüshunkou District on the southern tip of Liaodong Peninsula, and the Cape of Penglai on the northernmost protrusion of Shandong Peninsula. Due to its proximity to the capital city Beijing and the population of its surrounding provinces exceeding 210 million, the exit of the Bohai Gulf to the Yellow Sea, the Bohai Strait (渤海海峡; 渤海海峽), has become one of busiest sea routes in recent times. Due to the Changshan Island Chain traversing the southern half of the strait, the Bohai Strait is subdivided into several channels:

(From north to south, the most commonly used ones in bold)

Major ports

There are five major ports along the Bohai Sea rim, with throughputs over 100 million tons, though the port of Tangshan is further subdivided into Jingtang and Caofeidian:

China MSA's Seaways Plan for the Bohai Sea. Planned routes follow closely the seaways currently in use Seaways Plan for the Bohai Sea.svg
China MSA's Seaways Plan for the Bohai Sea. Planned routes follow closely the seaways currently in use

Caofeidian and Jingtang are usually treated as one port for statistical purposes. The ports of Dalian and Yantai are also traditionally considered part of the Bohai rim, even though strictly speaking they lie outside the limits of the sea. The Port of Longkou reached 70 million tons of cargo in 2013, and is expected to reach the 100 million ton landmark in the near future. [1]

Major cities along the Bohai Sea coast

Rocky shore in Dalian, Liaoning Province Rocky shore in Dalian.jpg
Rocky shore in Dalian, Liaoning Province

Hydrocarbon resources

The Bohai Bay contains significant oil and gas reserves, which provide much of China's offshore production. The main field in the region, named Shengli, has been exploited since the 1960s. It still produces about half a million barrels a day, but is declining. [2] Production is dominated by Chinese majors (China National Offshore Oil Corporation was mostly created for this region) but foreign companies including ConocoPhillips, [3] Roc Oil Company, [4] are present. The Gudao Field, located in the Zhanhua sedimentary basin, was discovered in 1968, based on gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys conducted between 1963–1964. [5] The reservoir includes the Guantao (Miocene) and Minghuazhen (Pliocene) geologic formations within the dome-like anticline. [5] The Suizhong 36-1 Oil Field was discovered in 1987, and produces from Oligocene fluvial-deltaic and lacustrine sandstones. [6] Oil spills have been reported frequently in this region: three spills occurred in a two-month timeframe in 2011. [7]

Tunnel crossing

In February 2011, the PRC announced that it would build a road and rail tunnel across the Bohai Strait to connect the Liaodong and Shandong peninsulas. When completed, the tunnel would be 106 kilometers (66 mi) long. [8] This plan seems to have been superseded as of July 2013, with a modified plan involving a 123-kilometer (76 mi)-long tunnel between Dalian, Liaoning and Yantai, Shandong. [9] The overall concept had its origins in a 1994 plan, which had been intended for completion by 2010 at a cost of $10 billion.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Yantai Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Yantai, alternately known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a coastal prefecture-level city on the Shandong Peninsula in northeastern Shandong province of People's Republic of China. Lying on the southern coast of the Bohai Strait, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east, with sea access to both the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. It is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan and Laishan.

Lüshunkou District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Lüshunkou District is a district of Dalian, Liaoning province, China. Also formerly called Lüshun City or literally Lüshun Port, it was formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun. The district's area is 512.15 square kilometres (197.74 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 324,773.

Fujian Province, Republic of China Province in Republic of China

Fujian or Fukien Province is a nominal province of the Republic of China without formal administrative function. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County.

Dalian Bay

Dalian Bay, known historically as Talienwan, Talien-wan and Talien-hwan, is a bay on the southeast side of the Liaodong Peninsula of Northeast China, open to the Korea Bay in the Yellow Sea in the east. Downtown Dalian lies along the southern shore of the bay. Its significance is that it is ice-free year-round, while Jinzhou Bay on the other, northwest side of the peninsula is part of the Bohai Sea (渤海), and is shallow and closed by ice for four months of the winter.

Port of Tianjin Largest port in Northern China

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang", which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The port is on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centred on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km southeast of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

Changdao County County in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

The Changdao County simplified Chinese: 长岛县; traditional Chinese: 長島縣; pinyin: Chángdǎo Xiàn; lit. 'long island county') is a county in Yantai, a prefectural area of Shandong in the People's Republic of China. It consists of the Changshan Islands within the Bohai Strait, directly north of Penglai. They are known for their sandy beaches and picturesque limestone cliffs. The total land area is only 56 square kilometers (22 sq mi), but the coastline is 146 km (91 mi) long.

China’s coastline covers approximately 14,500 km from the Bohai gulf in the north to the Gulf of Tonkin in the south. Most of the northern half is low lying, although some of the mountains and hills of Northeast China and the Shandong Peninsula extend to the coast. The southern half is more irregular. In Zhejiang and Fujian provinces, for example, much of the coast is rocky and steep. South of this area the coast becomes less rugged: Low mountains and hills extend more gradually to the coast, and small river deltas are common.

The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim (BBER) is the economic region surrounding Tianjin (Tientsin). It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of North China, rivaling both the Pearl River Delta in southern China and the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China.

Caofeidian

Caofeidian is a land reclamation-converted economic development zone in Bohai Bay located in the eponymous district of Tangshan, Hebei Province, China.

Changshan (长衫) is a type of traditional Chinese dress.

Bohai Train Ferry

Bohai Train Ferry is a train ferry service connecting Dalian, Liaoning and Yantai, Shandong in China over the Bohai Sea, which is the northern part of the Yellow Sea. The vessels used are 182.6 metres (599 ft) long and have been in operation since 2007.

Layout of the Port of Tianjin

The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction.

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang"(Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; lit. 'Tianjin New Port'), which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The Port is located on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centered on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km south east of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

Bohai Strait tunnel

The Bohai Strait Tunnel or Dalian-Yantai Tunnel is a proposed undersea tunnel construction project across the Bohai Strait to connect Dalian on the Liaodong Peninsula with Yantai on the Shandong Peninsula. The official name for the project is Bohai Strait Cross-Sea Traffic Way.

The Port of Tangshan (唐山港) is an artificial deep-water international seaport on the coast of Tangshan Municipality, Hebei, in Northern China. It is the 9th largest port in China and is composed of three separate port areas: Jingtang, Caofeidian and Fennan, administered separately but considered to be the same port for statistical purposes. The Port of Tangshan is one of the fastest growing ports in the world and is counted among the ten largest ports of China.

The Port of Jingtang (京唐港) is an artificial deep-water international seaport on the coast of Tangshan Municipality, Hebei, in Northern China. It is part of the Tangshan port complex, which consists of Jingtang, Caofedian and Fengnan ports. Combined, they constitute the 9th largest port in China.

Bohai may refer to:

Gaodeng Island Islet west of Taiwan.

Gaodeng Island is an island in the East China Sea, part of Beigan Township, Lienchiang County, Fujian Province, Republic of China (Taiwan). The island is closed to the public. Gaodeng is located 9.25 kilometres (5.75 mi) away from the Beijiao Peninsula (北茭半岛) in Lianjiang County, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (PRC). The island can be seen from the nearby Beigan Island and Daqiu Island.

References

  1. http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2013/12-23/5652663.shtml
  2. China. Background. US Energy Information Administration
  3. Asia Pacific & Middle East. ConocoPhillips
  4. Roc Oil begins Bohai Bay oil production Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Bairdmaritime. 14 May 2009
  5. 1 2 Sizhong, C., and Ping, W., 1980, Geology of Gudao Oil Field and Surrounding Areas, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968-1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN   0891813063, Pp. 471-486
  6. Gustavson, J.B., and Gang, X.S., 1992, The Suizhong 36-1 Oil Field, Bohai Gulf, Offshore China, In Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade, 1978-1988, AAPG Memoir 54, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN   0891813330
  7. China: Third Oil Spill in Bohai Sea in Less than Two Months. Offshore Energy Today (12 July 2011). Retrieved on 2011-08-03.
  8. Asahi Shimbun , "China To Build Undersea Tunnel Crossing Bohai Strait", 18 February 2011.
  9. "'China plans world's longest sea tunnel at $42 billion -report". Reuters . 11 July 2013.