Grover Hotel in Downtown Cleveland Historic District.
Location within the U.S. state of Mississippi
Mississippi's location within the U.S.
|Named for||Simón Bolívar|
|Seat||Rosedale and Cleveland|
|• Total||906 sq mi (2,350 km2)|
|• Land||877 sq mi (2,270 km2)|
|• Water||29 sq mi (80 km2) 3.2%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||38/sq mi (15/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (Central)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
Bolivar County ( // BOL-i-vər) is a county located on the western border of the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,145. Its county seats are Rosedale and Cleveland. The county is named in honor of Simón Bolívar, early 19th-century leader of the liberation of several South American colonies from Spain.
In the United States, a county is an administrative or political subdivision of a state that consists of a geographic region with specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs, respectively.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.
The Cleveland, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Bolivar County. It is located in the Mississippi Delta, or Yazoo Basin, of Mississippi. This area was first developed for cotton plantations. Large industrial-scale agricultural operations have reduced the number of farm workers needed, and the population is half of its peak in 1930. Today soybeans are also a commodity crop. The county had 14 documented lynchings in the period from 1877 to 1950.
The Mississippi Delta, also known as the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi which lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. The region has been called "The Most Southern Place on Earth", because of its unique racial, cultural, and economic history. It is 200 miles (320 km) long and 87 miles (140 km) across at its widest point, encompassing about 4,415,000 acres (17,870 km2), or, almost 7,000 square miles of alluvial floodplain. Originally covered in hardwood forest across the bottomlands, it was developed as one of the richest cotton-growing areas in the nation before the American Civil War (1861–1865). The region attracted many speculators who developed land along the riverfronts for cotton plantations; they became wealthy planters dependent on the labor of black slaves, who comprised the vast majority of the population in these counties well before the Civil War, often twice the number of whites.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 906 square miles (2,350 km2), of which 877 square miles (2,270 km2) is land and 29 square miles (75 km2) (3.2%) is water. It is the second-largest county in Mississippi by land area and fourth-largest by total area.
U.S. Route 61 or U.S. Highway 61 (US 61) is a major United States highway which extends 1,400 miles (2,300 km) between New Orleans, Louisiana and the city of Wyoming, Minnesota. The highway generally follows the course of the Mississippi River, and is designated the Great River Road for much of its route. As of 2004, the highway's northern terminus in Wyoming, Minnesota, is at an intersection with Interstate 35 (I-35). Until 1991, the highway extended north on what is now Minnesota State Highway 61 through Duluth and across the Canada–U.S. border, near Grand Portage. Its southern terminus in New Orleans is at an intersection with U.S. Route 90. The highway is often called the Blues Highway because it connects Saint Paul, Minnesota; St. Louis, Missouri; Memphis, Tennessee; the Mississippi Delta, and New Orleans. The route was an important south-north connection in the days before the interstate highway system. Many southerners traveled north along US 61 while going to St. Louis and Saint Paul. The highway has a long musical history, being the supposed location where singer-songwriter Robert Johnson made a deal with the Devil for his successes. The road later gave its name to Minnesota native Bob Dylan's album Highway 61 Revisited and to the song of the same name, which imagines all sorts of fantastical events occurring alongside it. Other notable songs named for the highway include a blues song recorded in 1957 by Sunnyland Slim; one in 1962 by Johnny Young; and a 1981 song, "61 Highway", by bluesman James "Son" Thomas.
Mississippi Highway 1 runs south from U.S. Highway 49 near Lula to U.S. Highway 61 south of Cary, roughly paralleling the Mississippi River. It travels approximately 148 miles (238 km), serving Sharkey, Issaquena, Washington, Bolivar, and Coahoma Counties. The entire route is part of the Great River Road.
Mississippi Highway 8 runs east–west from U.S. Highway 278 northeast of Aberdeen, to MS 1 in Rosedale.
Coahoma County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,151. Its county seat is Clarksdale.
Sunflower County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,450. Its largest city and county seat is Indianola.
Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 51,137. Its county seat is Greenville. The county is named in honor of the first President of the United States, George Washington.
|U.S. Decennial Census |
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,145 people residing in the county. 64.5% were Black or African American, 33.5% White, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 0.9% of some other race and 0.6% of two or more races. 1.9% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million people as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States. More than 570 federally recognized tribes live within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives, while "Native Americans" are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians or Chamorro, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".
Hispanic Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain or Spanish America. More generally, it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, and who self-identify as Hispanic, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Cuban, Colombian, Peruvian, Puerto Rican, Dominican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Bolivian, Spanish American, Chilean, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Uruguayan, and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latin American groups, and non-Spanish speaking Latin American groups in the United States are solely defined as "Latino" by some U.S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably.
As of the census mile (7/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 65.11% Black or African American, 33.24% White, 0.10% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, and 0.56% from two or more races. 1.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.of 2000, there were 40,633 people, 13,776 households, and 9,725 families residing in the county. The population density was 46 people per square mile (18/km²). There were 14,939 housing units at an average density of  per square
There were 13,776 households out of which 35.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.20% were married couples living together, 27.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.40% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.36.
In the county, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 14.00% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 19.60% from 45 to 64, and 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 87.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $23,428, and the median income for a family was $27,301. Males had a median income of $27,643 versus $20,774 for females. The per capita income for the county was $12,088. About 27.90% of families and 33.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.90% of those under age 18 and 27.90% of those age 65 or over.
According to the most recent data on U.S. life expectancy, published in 2010 by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, a male in Bolivar County could expect to live 65.0 years, the second shortest for any county in the United States, following McDowell County, West Virginia. The national average is 76.1 years for a male.
Senators Robert F. Kennedy and Joseph S. Clark, Jr. had visited "pockets of poverty" in the Mississippi Delta 40 years earlier. In Cleveland, they observed barefoot, underfed African-American children in tattered clothing, with vacant expressions and distended bellies. Kennedy stated that he thought he had seen the worst poverty in the nation in West Virginia, but it paled in comparison to the poverty he observed in Cleveland.
This section does not cite any sources . (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Bolivar County is governed via a five-member board of supervisors. Each member is elected from a single-member district. The county is led by a county administrator, who is appointed by the board.
The county is within the boundaries of two community college districts: Coahoma Community College and Mississippi Delta Community College.Their main campuses respectfully are in unincorporated Coahoma County and Moorhead in Sunflower County.
As recently as the 1960s the school board of Bolivar County censored what black children were allowed to learn, and mandated that "Neither foreign languages nor civics shall be taught in Negro schools. Nor shall American history from 1860 to 1875 be taught.”
Former school districts:
The five school districts, other than the Cleveland School District, are among the 20 smallest of the 152 school districts in the State of Mississippi.In the State of Mississippi, Bolivar County was the only county that had six school districts. Consolidation was urged to save money and facilitate cooperation. In 2012 the Mississippi Senate Education Committee passed a bill asking the State of Mississippi to consolidate the six school districts in Bolivar County to three or two. The Mississippi Senate passed the bill 37-11.
The Bolivar Commercial is distributed in Bolivar County.
Sharkey County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. Part of the western border is formed by the Yazoo River. According to the 2010 census, the population was 4,916, making it the second-least populous county in Mississippi. Its county seat is Rolling Fork. The county is named after William L. Sharkey, the provisional Governor of Mississippi in 1865.
Issaquena County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,406, making it the least populous county in the United States east of the Mississippi River. Its county seat is Mayersville. With a per-capita income of $18,598, Issaquena County is the poorest county in the United States.
Beulah is a town in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 348 at the 2010 census, down from 473 in 2000.
Duncan is a town in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 423 at the 2010 census, down from 578 in 2000.
Merigold is a town in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 439 at the 2010 census, down from 664 in 2000.
Mound Bayou is a city in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 1,533 at the 2010 census, down from 2,102 in 2000. It is notable for having been founded as an independent black community in 1887 by former slaves led by Isaiah Montgomery.
Pace is a town in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 274 at the 2010 census.
Renova is a town in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 668 at the 2010 census.
Rosedale is a city in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 1,873 at the 2010 census, down from 2,414 in 2000. Located in an agricultural area, the city had a stop on the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad, which carried many migrants north out of the area in the first half of the 20th century.
Shelby is a city in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 2,229 at the 2010 census, down from 2,926 in 2000. The town of Shelby was established in 1853 by Tom Shelby, who had purchased a block of land there from the federal government.
Winstonville is a town in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 191 at the 2010 census, down from 319 in 2000.
Coahoma is a town in Coahoma County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 377 at the 2010 census.
Alligator is a town in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 208 at the 2010 census.
Cleveland is a city in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 12,334 as of the 2010 United States Census.
Jonestown is a town in Coahoma County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 1,298 as of the 2010 census, down from 1,701 at the 2000 census.
The West Bolivar Consolidated School District is a public school district based in Rosedale, Mississippi (USA).
West Bolivar High School is a senior high school in Rosedale, Mississippi, and a part of the West Bolivar Consolidated School District.