Bolnisi cross

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Bolnisi cross
Bolnisi inscriptions are second oldest extant samples of the Georgian script. The "Bolnisi cross" appears in the center of the inscriptions. Bolnisi Sioni - Georgian inscription.JPG
Bolnisi inscriptions are second oldest extant samples of the Georgian script. The "Bolnisi cross" appears in the center of the inscriptions.

The Bolnisi cross (Georgian :ბოლნისის ჯვარიbolnisis ǰvari) is a cross symbol, taken from a 5th-century ornament at the Bolnisi Sioni church, which came to be used as a national symbol of Georgia.

Georgian language official language of Georgia

Georgian is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia. Georgian is written in its own writing system, the Georgian script. Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans, Mingrelians and the Laz.

Cross geometrical figure

A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of oblique lines, in the shape of the Latin letter X, is also termed a saltire in heraldic terminology.

Bolnisi Sioni

Bolnisi Sioni or Bolnisi Sioni Cathedral is a Georgian Orthodox basilica in the Bolnisi village of Bolnisi District, Georgia. The cathedral was built in 478–493. It is the oldest extant church building in Georgia. Bishop David was the overseeing church leader for the construction of Bolnisi Sioni.

It is a variant of the Cross pattée popular in Christian symbolism of late antiquity and the early medieval period. The same symbol gave rise to cross variants used during the Crusades, the Maltese cross of the Knights Hospitaller and (via the Jerusalem cross and the Black cross of the Teutonic Order) the Iron cross used by the German military.

Cross pattée type of cross which has arms narrow at the centre, and broader at the perimeter

A cross pattée is a type of Christian cross, which has arms narrow at the centre, and often flared in a curve or straight line shape, to be broader at the perimeter. The form appears very early in medieval art, for example in a metalwork treasure binding given to Monza Cathedral by Queen Theodelinda, and the 8th century lower cover of the Lindau Gospels in the Morgan Library. An early English example from the start of the age of heraldry proper is found in the arms of Baron Berkeley.

Crusades Military campaigns of Western Christians in the Middle Ages against Muslims and others

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most commonly known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns. These were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760.

Maltese cross cross symbol associated with the Knights Hospitaller (the Knights of Malta)

The Maltese cross is a cross symbol, consisting of four "V" or arrowhead shaped concave quadrilaterals converging at a central vertex at right angles, two tips pointing outward symmetrically.

The four small crosses used in the Georgian Flag are officially described as bolnur-kac'xuri (bolnur-katskhuri, ბოლნურ-კაცხური)[ clarification needed ] even though they are only slightly pattée.

Flag of Georgia (country) flag of the country of Georgia

The flag of Georgia, also known as the Five Cross Flag, is one of the national symbols of Georgia. Originally a banner of the medieval Kingdom of Georgia, it was brought back to popular use in the late 20th and early 21st centuries during periods of the Georgian national revival. Prior to obtaining its official status in 2004, the flag was popularized by the United National Movement and served as one of the most recognisable symbols of the Rose Revolution.

See also

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Tsughrughasheni Church

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Bolnisi inscriptions

The Bolnisi inscriptions are the Old Georgian inscriptions written in the Georgian Asomtavruli script on the Bolnisi Sioni Cathedral, a basilica located in Bolnisi, Bolnisi Municipality, Georgia. The inscriptions are dated 494 AD.

The 2015–16 Georgian Cup was the nighteen season overall and the twenty-six since independence of the Georgian annual football tournament. The competition began on 17 August 2015 and finished on 18 May 2016.

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The 2017 Erovnuli Liga was the 29th season of top-tier football in Georgia. Samtredia are the defending champions. The season began on 4 March 2017 and ended on 26 November 2017.

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