Bolu Province

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Bolu Province

Bolu ili
Bolu in Turkey.svg
Location of Bolu Province in Turkey
Country Turkey
Region East Marmara
Subregion Kocaeli
Government
   Electoral district Bolu
Area
  Total7,410 km2 (2,860 sq mi)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total311,810
  Density42/km2 (110/sq mi)
Area code(s) 0374
Vehicle registration 14

Bolu Province (Turkish : Bolu ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey. It is an important midpoint between the capital, Ankara and the largest city in the country, Istanbul. It covers an area of 7,410 km², and the population is 271,208.[ citation needed ]

Contents

This is an attractive forested mountain district centered on the city of Bolu, which has a long history.

There is plenty of forest but little agricultural land. There is some garden produce and dairy production including good cheeses and cream, most of this is consumed or sold locally, especially as Bolu has a large passing trade: Bolu Mountain is the major topographical obstacle on the Istanbul-Ankara highway, and until 2007, when the Bolu Mountain Tunnel is being opened, most travelers stopped here for food and refreshment. Bolu has a long tradition of high quality cuisine. Annual cookery competitions are held in Mengen.

Geography

The province is drained by the Bolu River (Boli Su) and the Koca River.

The forests, lakes and mountains are rich in wildlife including three deer species and very popular weekend and holiday retreats for walkers and climbers.

Parts of the province are vulnerable to earthquakes.

History

It is not definitely known when Bolu was first founded. There are some archaeological findings dating back about 100,000[ citation needed ] years that suggest the region was inhabited then.

The area now in Bolu Province was in eastern Bithynia and southwestern Paphlagonia. The town of Bithynium from which the area takes its name is the modern Bolu. The area was called Bithynia during the Hellenistic period, the Romans named it Claudio Polis, and it was called Bolu by the Turks. [2] By about 375 BCE, Bithynia had gained its independence from Persia, and King Bas subsequently defeated Alexander's attempt to take it. [3] The Bithynian region with parts of Paphlagonia remained its own kingdom until 88 BCE when it briefly came under Mithridates VI and the Kingdom of Pontus. With Roman help the last Bithynian king, Nicomedes IV regained his throne, but on his death bequeathed the kingdom to Rome. This led to the Third Mithridatic War and the fall of Pontus, the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a single province joining Paphlagonia with Bithynia. Under the falling Byzantine Empire the Bolu area was divided from western Bithynia at the Sakarya River, with western Bithynia keeping the name. The Sakarya is still the southern and western boundary of the province.

The Byzantine Empire briefly lost the Bolu area to the Seljuk Turks after the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, but recovered it under the Komnenian restoration. After the end of the Komnenos dynasty, the Turks gradually took the Bolu area back.

About 1240 the Seljuk Turks took the eastern part of the Bolu area (i.e. the Paphlagonian part) from the Byzantine Empire and incorporated it into the Sultanate of Rum. Due to their assistance in taking it and Sinop, the Chobanids were given that territory and adjacent areas to the north and east to rule. The Chobanids were relatively independent of the Sultan. That eastern area fell under the Isfendiyarids between 1292 and 1461. In 1461 it was incorporated into the rest of the Ottoman Empire.

By 1265, the western part of the Bolu area was again acquired by the Seljuk Turks, but it fell to the arms of Orhan I and the Ottoman Empire in the early to mid-1300s. The two areas were reunited in 1461, under Mehmed II. In the 1864 Ottoman Empire administrative reorganization, Bolu was created as an independent sanjak, [4] although it was geographically part of the Kastamonu Vilayet.

Administrative divisions

Bolu province is divided into nine districts, four sub-districts, thirteen municipalities and 491 villages.

Districts

Main sights

Attractive towns include:

See also

Related Research Articles

Bithynia Region in Anatolia

Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus, and the Black Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor.

Paphlagonia

Paphlagonia was an ancient region on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river. The name Paphlagonia is derived in the legends from Paphlagon, a son of Phineus.

Bolu Municipality in Turkey

Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province. The population is 131,264.

Sakarya River River in Turkey

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Doğankent Place in Giresun, Turkey

Doğankent is a town and a district of Giresun Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

Dörtdivan Place in Bolu, Turkey

Dörtdivan is a town and a district in the Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It covers an area of 284 km², and the population (2000) is 9,528 of which 3,300 live in the town of Dörtdivan. The mayor is Sefer Akman (AKP).

Göynük Place in Bolu, Turkey

Göynük is a town and a district of Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It covers an area of 1,436 km², and the population (2000) is 18,589 of which 4,894 live in the town of Göynük. The mayor is Kemal Kazan (AKP). Its neighbours are Mudurnu from north-east, Nallıhan from south-east, Sarıcakaya from south, Yenipazar from south-west, Taraklı from west and Akyazı from north-west.

Mudurnu Place in Bolu, Turkey

Mudurnu is a small town and a district of Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 52 km south-west of the city of Bolu. It covers an area of 1,349 km², and the population (2011) is 20,528 of which 4,936 live in the town of Mudurnu. As of 2010, the mayor was Mehmet İnegöl (CHP).

Seben Place in Bolu, Turkey

Seben is a town and a district of Bolu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 56 km south of the town of Bolu. It covers an area of 682 km², and the population (2000) is 8,871 of which 4,334 live in the town of Seben. The mayor is Süleyman Özbağ (AKP).

Kale, Denizli Place in Denizli, Turkey

Kale is an attractive rural district of Denizli Province of Turkey near the town of Tavas. Kale is a 45-minute drive from Denizli on the road from the city of Denizli to the Aegean city of Muğla. The mayor is İsmail Yarımca (MHP).

Kıbrıscık Place in Bolu, Turkey

Kıbrıscık is a small town and district in Bolu Province of the Black Sea region of northwestern Turkey. It covers an area of 641 km², and the population (2000) is 5,354 of which 1,524 live in the town of Kıbrıscık. The mayor is Kemal Aktaş (AKP)

Yedigöller National Park

The Yedigöller National Park also known as Seven Lakes National Park is located in the northern part of Bolu Province in Turkey. The park is categorized under IUCN II and was established in 1965. The park is best known for the seven lakes formed by landslides and for its profusion of plant life.

Kastamonu Vilayet

The Vilayet of Kastamonu was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1867 and abolished in 1922. At the beginning of the 20th century, the vilayet reportedly had an area of 19,300 square miles (50,000 km2), while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 gave the population as 1,009,460. The accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered.

Arifiye District in Sakarya Province, Turkey

Arifiye is a district center of Sakarya Province, Turkey. It is also included in Greater Sakarya Proper.

Gökçesu Town in Black Sea, Turkey

Gökçesu is a belde (town) in Mengen district of Bolu Province, Turkey. It is situated at 40°54′N31°57′E in the forest between two mountain ranges. The distance to Mengen is 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) and to Bolu is 50 kilometres (31 mi). The population of Gökçesu is 2,272 as of 2013. Up to 73 BC, the area around the town was a part of Bithynia Kingdom. Then it became a part of the Roman and the Byzantine Empires. In 1359 it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. In 1991 it was declared a seat of township.

Pazarköy, Bolu Town in Black Sea, Turkey

Pazarköy (literally "market village" in Turkish), is a small belde (town) in Bolu Province, Turkey.

Bolu Museum

Bolu Museum is a museum in Bolu, Turkey. Bolu was a leading city of the Bithynia kingdom of the antiquity.

References

  1. "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. All About Turkey - Bolu
  3. Memnon, History of Heracleia, 12
  4. Naval staff, Intelligence Department (Royal Navy) (1919). A handbook of Asia Minor. 1. London. p.  226.

Coordinates: 40°40′45″N31°33′30″E / 40.67917°N 31.55833°E / 40.67917; 31.55833