Bonaire

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Coordinates: 12°11′N68°15′W / 12.183°N 68.250°W / 12.183; -68.250

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Bonaire

Boneiru  (Papiamento)
Public Body of Bonaire [1]
Bonaire 1.jpg
Anthem: " Tera di Solo y suave biento "
Bonaire in its region.svg
Location of Bonaire (circled in red)

in the Caribbean

Coordinates: 12°9′N68°16′W / 12.150°N 68.267°W / 12.150; -68.267
Country Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Overseas regionFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Caribbean Netherlands
Incorporated into the Netherlands10 October 2010 (dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles)
Capital
(and largest city)
Kralendijk
Government
   Lt. Governor Edison Rijna
Area
[2]
  Total294 km2 (114 sq mi)
Population
 (1 January 2019) [3]
  Total20,104
  Density69/km2 (180/sq mi)
Languages
  Official Dutch
  Recognised regional Papiamento [4]
Time zone UTC−4 (AST)
Calling code +599-7
ISO 3166 code BQ-BO, NL-BQ1
CurrencyUS dollar ($) (USD)
Internet TLD

Bonaire (pronounced /bɔːˈnɛər/ or /bɒnˈɛər/ ; [7] Dutch : Bonaire, pronounced [boːˈnɛːr(ə)] ; [8] Papiamento: Boneiru, pronounced  [buˈneiru] ) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. Its capital is Kralendijk, near the ocean on the lee side of the island. Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao form the ABC islands, 80 km (50 miles) off the coast of Venezuela. [9] Unlike much of the Caribbean region, the ABC islands lie outside Hurricane Alley. The islands have an arid climate that attracts visitors seeking warm, sunny weather all year round. Bonaire is a popular snorkeling and scuba diving destination because of its multiple shore diving sites and easy access to the island's fringing reefs.

As of 1 January 2019, the island's population totaled 20,104 permanent residents [10] , an increase of about 1,200 since 2015. The island's total land area is 288 square kilometres (111 sq mi) [11] ; it is 38.6 kilometres (24.0 mi) long from north to south, and ranges from 4.8–8 kilometres (3.0–5.0 mi) wide from east to west. A short 0.80 kilometres (0.50 mi) west of Bonaire across the sea is the uninhabited islet Klein Bonaire with a total land area of 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). Klein Bonaire has low growing vegetation including cactus (Papiamento: kadushi), with few palm trees near the water and is bordered by white sandy beaches and a fringing reef. The reefs, beaches and on-island reserves located on both Bonaire and Klein Bonaire are under the protection of the Bonaire National Marine Park, and managed by Stichting Nationale Parken Bonaire (STINAPA). [12]

Bonaire was part of the Netherlands Antilles until the country's dissolution in 2010, [13] when the island became a special municipality (officially, a "public body") within the country of the Netherlands. [14] It is one of the three BES islands in the Caribbean, along with Sint Eustatius and Saba. [14] [15] An 80% majority of Bonaire's population are Dutch nationals, and nearly 60% of its residents were born in the former Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. [16]

Etymology

The name 'Bonaire' is thought to be derived from the Caquetio word 'Bonay', meaning 'low country'. The early Spanish and Dutch modified its spelling to Bojnaj and also Bonaire. French influence, while present at various times, was never strong enough to make the assumption that the name means 'good air'. [17]

History

Traditional old houses with cactus fences, preserved in the outdoor museum of Rincon, Bonaire RINCON OPEN AIR MUSEUM, BONAIRE.jpg
Traditional old houses with cactus fences, preserved in the outdoor museum of Rincon, Bonaire

Original inhabitants

Bonaire's earliest known inhabitants were the Arkaiko Indians, whose presence on Bonaire can be traced back to 2,500 BC. [18] The Caquetio, a branch of the Arawak came by canoe from Venezuela in about 1000 AD [ citation needed ]. Archeological remains of Caquetio culture have been found at certain sites northeast of Kralendijk and near Lac Bay. Caquetio rock paintings and petroglyphs have been preserved in caves at Spelonk, Onima, Ceru Pungi and Ceru Crita-Cabai [ citation needed ]. The Caquetios were apparently a very tall people, for the Spanish name for the ABC islands was 'las Islas de los Gigantes' or 'the islands of the giants'. [19]


European arrival

Fort Oranje in Kralendijk, built in 1639 OLD FORT ORANJE, KRALENDIJK.jpg
Fort Oranje in Kralendijk, built in 1639
Slave huts Bonaire Red Slave Huts.jpg
Slave huts
Cargill Salt, Bonaire Salt City Bonaire (339352494).jpg
Cargill Salt, Bonaire

In 1499, Alonso de Ojeda arrived in Curaçao and a neighbouring island that was almost certainly Bonaire [ citation needed ]. Ojeda was accompanied by Amerigo Vespucci and Juan de la Cosa [ citation needed ]. De La Cosa's Mappa Mundi of 1500 shows Bonaire and calls it Isla do Palo Brasil or "Island of Brazilwood"[ citation needed ]. The Spanish conquerors decided that the three ABC Islands were useless, and in 1515 the natives were forcibly deported to work as slaves in the copper mines of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola. [19]

Spanish period

In 1526, Juan de Ampies was appointed Spanish commander of the ABC Islands [ citation needed ]. He brought back some of the original Caquetio Indian inhabitants to Bonaire and Curaçao. Ampies also imported domesticated animals from Spain, including cows, donkeys, goats, horses, pigs and sheep. The Spaniards thought that Bonaire could be used as a cattle plantation worked by natives. The cattle were raised for hides rather than meat. The Spanish inhabitants lived mostly in the inland town of Rincon which was safe from pirate attack. [19]

Dutch period

The Dutch West India Company was founded in 1621. Starting in 1623, ships of the West India Company called at Bonaire to obtain meat, water and wood. The Dutch also abandoned some Spanish and Portuguese prisoners there, and these people founded the town of Antriol, which is a contraction of Spanish al interior (English: inside). The Dutch and the Spanish fought from 1568 to 1648 in what is now known as the Eighty Years War. In 1633, the Dutch  having lost the island of St. Maarten to the Spanish  retaliated by attacking Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba. Bonaire was conquered in March 1636. The Dutch built Fort Oranje in 1639. [20]

While Curaçao emerged as a centre of the slave trade, Bonaire became a plantation of the Dutch West India Company. A small number of African slaves were put to work alongside Indians and convicts, cultivating dyewood and maize and harvesting solar salt around Blue Pan. Slave quarters, built entirely of stone and too short for a man to stand upright in, still stand in the area around Rincon and along the salt pans. Historically, Dutch was not widely spoken on the island outside of colonial administration; its use increased in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [21] Students on Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire were taught predominantly in Spanish until the late 18th century when the British took Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire; the teaching of Spanish was restored when Dutch rule resumed in 1815.

British period

During the Napoleonic Wars, the Netherlands lost control of Bonaire twice, once from 1800 to 1803[ citation needed ] and again from 1807 to 1816. [22] During these intervals, the British had control of the neighbouring island of Curaçao and of Bonaire. The ABC islands were returned to the Netherlands under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. During the period of British rule, a large number of white traders settled on Bonaire, and they built the settlement of Playa (Kralendijk) in 1810.

Emancipation

From 1816 until 1868, Bonaire remained a government plantation. In 1825, there were about 300 government-owned slaves on the island. Gradually many of the slaves were freed and became freemen with an obligation to render some services to the government. The remaining slaves were freed on 30 September 1862 under the Emancipation Regulation. A total of 607 government slaves and 151 private slaves were freed at that time. [19]

World War II

During the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II, Bonaire was a protectorate of Britain and the United States. The American army built the Flamingo Airport as an air force base. After Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, many German and Austrian citizens were interned in a camp on Bonaire for the war's duration. [23] [24] In 1944, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands and Eleanor Roosevelt visited the troops on Bonaire. [19]

Post-war

After the war, the economy of Bonaire continued to develop. The airport was converted to civilian use and the former internment camp was converted to become the first hotel on Bonaire. [25] The Dutchman Pierre Schunck started a clothing factory known as Schunck's Kledingindustrie Bonaire, a partial solution for the large female surplus on the island. In 1964, Trans World Radio began broadcasting from Bonaire. Radio Netherlands Worldwide built two shortwave transmitters on Bonaire in 1969. The second major hotel (Bonaire Beach Hotel) [26] was completed in 1962. Salt production resumed in 1966 when the salt pans were expanded and modernized by the Antilles International Salt Company, a subsidiary of the International Salt Company. Part of the facilities extend into the Caribbean Sea and form the popular dive site known as Salt Pier. [27] The Bonaire Petroleum Corporation (BOPEC) oil terminal was opened in 1975 for trans-shipping oil. [28] Politically Bonaire formed part of the Netherlands Antilles from 1954 to 2010; it is now a special municipality within the Netherlands. [14] In 2011 the island officially adopted the US dollar as its currency. [29]

Geography

Satellite image of Bonaire and the small island of Klein Bonaire Bonaire highres.jpg
Satellite image of Bonaire and the small island of Klein Bonaire
Map of Bonaire, 1914-1917 Bonaire - Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indie-Antilles part 1, left.gif
Map of Bonaire, 1914–1917
Coast of Klein Bonaire Klein Bonaire Strand (34769026072).jpg
Coast of Klein Bonaire

Bonaire lies about 50 miles (80 km) off the coast of Venezuela on the continental shelf of South America, and is thus geologically considered a part of the continent.

Geologists believe that Bonaire was formed relatively recently. As the nearby continental shelf (now located near Montserrat, and the cause of the volcanic activity on that island) moved through the area, it forced a large mass of rock to the ocean surface and created the islands of the Lesser and Greater Antilles, including Bonaire. As the seabed rose a vast coral reef grew on what is now dry land. These corals were eventually exposed to air and perished, becoming surface limestone deposits over the millennia. [30]

Vast amounts of coral skeletons may be seen along the shoreline and across the interior of Bonaire. The island is essentially a coral reef that has been geologically pushed up and out of the sea. This also resulted in the natural fringing reef system seen today, in which the coral formations start at the shoreline. Tidal variations are only about 1.8–2.0 feet (55–61 cm), so the corals start at the low tide line and continue on, following the underwater topology of the island's base. Bonaire's tides are more affected by a combination of wind and low/ high-pressure systems than by the moon. [30]

The northern end of the island is relatively mountainous, although its highest peak (Brandaris) is only 240 metres (790 feet). The southern part of the island is nearly flat and barely rises above sea level. A significant portion of this southern region is covered with sea water in process of evaporation for salt production. This area also contains Lac Bay with its large mangrove forest. The shoreline of Bonaire is dotted with lagoons and inlets, the largest of which is Goto Lake in the north. These lagoons and wetlands provide an excellent habitat for a wide variety of shorebirds. [30]

Bonaire has a warm, dry (though humid) and windy climate. The average temperature is 81.5 °F (27.5 °C) with a 2.5 °F (1.4 °C) seasonal variation and 10 °F (5.6 °C) daily variation. The ocean temperature around the island fluctuates between 78 and 86 °F (26 and 30 °C). The highest recorded temperature is 96.4 °F (35.8 °C) and the lowest, 67.6 °F (19.8 °C). Nearly constant winds blow from the east with an average speed of 12 knots (22 km/h). [31]

The humidity is very constant, averaging 76% and fluctuating between 85% and 66% on a daily basis. Average annual rainfall is 20.5 inches (520 mm), most of which occurs in October through January. [31] Bonaire lies outside the hurricane belt, though its weather and oceanic conditions are occasionally affected by hurricanes and tropical storms. This semi-arid climate is conducive to a variety of cacti and other desert plants.

Klein Bonaire, the small island in the sheltered lee of Bonaire, has the same geological history. While Bonaire has some hills and variations in altitude, Klein Bonaire's surface is quite level and just a few feet above high tide. Because the island is as-yet undeveloped, the fringing reef system surrounding Klein Bonaire is truly pristine. The smaller island is entirely ringed with dive sites. [30]

Bonaire has a land area of 288 square kilometres (111 sq mi), while Klein Bonaire is an additional 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi).

Washington Slagbaai National Park is an ecological preserve on the north side of the island. The highest point of Bonaire, Mount Brandaris, 240 m (790 ft) high is located within this preserve and has a complete view of the island.

Ecology

American flamingos at the sanctuary at the southern end of Bonaire BONAIRE FLAMINGO SANCTUARY.jpg
American flamingos at the sanctuary at the southern end of Bonaire

Bonaire is fringed by a coral reef which is accessible to divers from the shore along the lee side of the island (facing west-southwest). The entire coastline of the island was designated a marine sanctuary in 1979, an effort to preserve and protect the delicate coral reef and the marine life that depends on it. There are more than 350 species of fish [32] and sixty species of coral living in Bonaire's reef. [33] Boulder Star Coral ( Montastraea annularis ) is the most common coral, according to a 2011 survey. [34] In 2011, biologists discovered a new species of jellyfish in Bonaire, the highly venomous Bonaire banded box jellyfish, tamoya oboya.

A donkey colony Wild Donkeys Bonaire (339370349).jpg
A donkey colony

Bonaire is also famed for its flamingo populations and its donkey sanctuary. Flamingos are drawn to the brackish water of the island's lagoons, which harbors the shrimp upon which they feed. Bonaire is home to one of only four nesting grounds for the Caribbean flamingo. Located in the Pekelmeer in the southern part of the island, no human entry is permitted in this sanctuary. [35] In the 16th century, Europeans introduced sheep, goats, pigs, horses and donkeys on Bonaire, and the descendants of the donkeys, goats and pigs roam the island today.

Bonaire is also home to the ecologically vulnerable yellow-shouldered amazon parrot, Amazona barbadensis[ citation needed ].

Environmental initiatives

The island of Bonaire has long been a leader in nature conservation and ecological responsibility. The national park foundation, Stichting Nationale Parken (STINAPA), was founded in 1962 for the purpose of actively protecting nature on the island. In 1969 STINAPA succeeded in establishing both the flamingo nesting sanctuary and Washington National Park, the first such nature preserves in the Caribbean. In 1979, the Slagbaai plantation was added to the park, now known as Washington Slagbaai National Park (WSNP). The Bonaire National Marine Park (BNMP) was also established in 1979. [36] The Marine Park consists of the whole coastline of Bonaire from the high-water mark down to a depth of 200 feet (61 m) and includes a large mangrove forest in Lac Bay. [37] Lac Bay, Klein Bonaire, Pekelmeer, Slagbaii and Gotomeer are recognized as wetlands of international significance under the Ramsar Convention. [38]

Due to a public-private sector partnership, programs are being developed to advance the local awareness and attitudes toward conservation and habitat preservation in order to proactively protect Bonaire's ecosystem. A new sewage treatment plant will contribute to protecting the reefs and the seawater quality. In March 2013 Selibon NV, [39] the national garbage-processing plant, opened an environmental court where the general public can bring glass, cans, paper, scrap metal, cardboard, batteries, motor oil, cooking oil, electronics, mobile phones and textiles.

BonRecycling BV [40] is committed to recycling waste products in Bonaire and to create awareness among the people of Bonaire about the importance and benefits of recycling. Dive Friends Bonaire [41] started a Debris Free Bonaire program that emphasises collecting debris washed ashore and delivering it to the dive shop for separation in preparation for handling by BonRecycling.

Bonaire gets a significant amount of its electricity from an array of twelve wind generators along its northeastern coastline which began operating in 2010. This renewable source now fills 40-45% of the island's electricity needs. Work continues in developing additional renewable sources of energy, including bio-diesel and solar, with the goal of becoming 100% reliant on renewables. [42] [43]

Government

The local parliament and Council House in Kralendijk GOVERNMENT HOUSE, KRALENDIJK, BONAIRE.jpg
The local parliament and Council House in Kralendijk

2010 referendum

Prior to the 2010 referendum, the Netherlands Antilles (comprising the islands of Curaçao, Bonaire, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten and Saba) were governed as a parliamentary democracy based on the Dutch system of government with free elections held every four years. Dissension about their political future resulted in four of the five islands advocating for separation from the Netherlands Antilles. Some of the island residents wanted autonomy while others wanted more integration. [44]

In 2005 a conference was held by the governments of the Netherlands, Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles to discuss future constitutional reform and the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. In 2006, Saint Maarten and Curaçao chose autonomy, and Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba opted for a closer relationship with the Netherlands. Constitutional referendums and dismantlement of the Netherlands Antilles was scheduled to take place in 2010. [45] [46]

Bonaire's announced referendum scheduled for 26 March 2010 was canceled in February 2010. The Governor of the Dutch Antilles, Frits Goedgedrag, decided to cancel it because it probably contravened international law since part of the population was barred from voting. European Dutch nationals were only allowed to vote if they arrived on the island before 1 January 2007. [47] [48] The referendum was postponed to September and then October 2010. [49] Eventually the referendum was held on 17 December 2010, with 84% voting in favor of becoming part of the Netherlands. However, as the 35% voter turnout rate was below the required 51%, the results of the referendum were declared invalid. [50]

Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles

On 10 October 2010, the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. As a result, the government of the Netherlands assumed the task of public administration of the Caribbean Netherlands or BES Islands comprising Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba. The three islands acquired new status as "special municipalities" (bijzondere gemeenten), making them part of the Netherlands itself, a form of "public body" (openbaar lichaam) as outlined in article 134 of the Dutch Constitution. Special municipalities do not constitute part of a province.

As a special municipality, Bonaire is very much like ordinary Dutch municipalities in that it has a mayor, aldermen and a municipal council, and is governed according to most Dutch laws. Antillean legislation remained in force after 10 October 2010, with the exception of those cases where Antillean law was replaced by Bonaire's municipal law. It was believed best for the island to not introduce the entire body of Dutch legislation at one time as it would cause confusion. Therefore, Dutch legislation is being introduced in stages. Bonaire retained its own unique culture while residents enjoy the same rights as Dutch citizens, including the right to vote in Dutch parliamentary elections in the Netherlands. Residents also have access to new or improved facilities and government benefits including, but not limited to, universal health care; improved health care facilities; better educational facilities with additional training for teachers, new teaching methods and new school buildings; social housing for low-income individuals and families; a centrally dispatched single police force, fire department and ambulance service. [51] While the three islands are considered to be land of the Netherlands, they are not a part of the European Union, therefore not subject to European Union Law. They are considered to be an overseas country and territory. [52]

Bonaire's non-governmental organization, Nos Ke Boneiru Bèk ("We Want Bonaire Back"), is against the current constitutional relationship with the Netherlands. With reference to Bonaire's 2004 referendum, the organization is of the opinion that such an arrangement was never the choice of the people. The Dutch Minister of Home Affairs and Kingdom Relations, Ronald Plasterk, replied to the organization confirming that only the "Island Councils in the Caribbean Netherlands have the authority to decide on holding a constitutional referendum, not the Dutch government." In response, the organization gathered more than 3,500 signatures in 2013 favouring a new referendum. In a letter to minister Plasterk, James Finies, chairman of Nos Ke Boneiru Bèk, requested a "new referendum under the right of self-determination". Plasterk responded by advising Finies that preparations for the evaluation of the public entity structure had begun for 2015, but a "possible change of the constitutional relations is not part of that evaluation". [53] The new referendum took place on 18 December 2015. [54] 65% of the turnout voted that they were not happy with the current relationship between Bonaire and the Netherlands. [55] [56]

Currency

In 2011 the BES Islands replaced their currency, the Netherlands Antillean guilder (ISO 4217: ANG, symbol: ƒ), with the US dollar rather than replacing it with the euro which is used in the European Netherlands. The decision was based primarily on the needs for tourism and trade. Most countries and territories in the Caribbean use the dollar as their currency or have a currency linked to the dollar as legal tender. The guilder was pegged to the US dollar for decades with an exchange rate of ƒ1.79 = US$1.00. Adopting the dollar put an end to the dual-currency payment system and foreign exchange charges. [57] The guilder remained in use in Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

Taxes

The separate tax regimes for Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba present a greater risk of double taxation or double exemption from taxes. In an effort to remove the risk, two plans were introduced. One plan prevents double taxation between the Netherlands (Europe) and the BES Islands while the other prevents double taxation between the BES Islands and third countries. The new regime will generate a total annual tax revenue estimated at $52 million which is equal to the current tax revenues on the three islands. The combined population of the three Islands is approximately 20,000 with about half that many being income-taxpayers. [51]

Economy

Tourism

Bonaire's economy is mainly based on tourism, taking advantage of its warm, dry climate and natural environment. The island caters to scuba divers and snorkelers, as the surrounding coral reefs are well preserved and easily accessible from the shore. Bonaire has been widely recognized for many years in the diving community as one of the world's best shore diving destinations. [58]

Bonaire's Marine Park offers a total of 86 named dive sites and is home to over 57 species of soft and stony coral and more than 350 recorded fish species. [59] Most resorts and hotels have an on-site dive shop, and other accommodations are affiliated with a dive operation. The license plates carry the logo Diver's Paradise (in English). [60]

Lac Bay, in the southeastern part of the island, attracts wind surfers from around the world to Bonaire. The shallow Bay is on the windward side of the island, so trade winds are strong and constant. A barrier reef across the mouth of the bay allows windsurfers of all skill levels to select wave conditions they like. Lac Bay is one of the stops in the PWA Windsurfing Freestyle World Cup and has hosted the Prokids IFCA Championship. Five of the PWA's ten highest ranked freestyle windsurfers are from Bonaire: Kiri Thode, Amado Vrieswijk, Bjorn Saragoza, Tonky Frans and Taty Frans. [61] In the northern end of Lac Bay is one of the best preserved mangrove forests in the Caribbean, which is popular for kayaking and snorkelling. [62]

Bonaire is also a port of call for more than fifteen cruise lines who make more than eighty calls per season at the island. The total passenger capacity for cruise ships in Bonaire is about 185,000. [63]

Tourism infrastructure in Bonaire is contemporary and offers a variety of types of accommodations including hotels, full-service resorts, a few small bed and breakfasts and self-catering vacation rentals of all kinds. Other tourist activities include kite-boarding, windsurfing, mountain-biking, hiking, sailing, charter fishing, boating and bird-watching. [64] All-in-all tourist expenditures in Bonaire are estimated at $125 million per year. [65]

Other industry

Salt production – Utilizing the naturally low-lying geography and traditional Dutch dike design, much of Bonaire's southern half has been made into a giant system of ponds and pools which evaporate seawater to produce salt. Presently operated by Cargill, Bonaire's solar salt works produces 400,000 tons of industrial grade salt per year. After collection, the salt is then washed and stored in pyramid-shaped piles roughly 50 feet in height, each containing approximately 10,000 metric tons of 99.6 percent pure salt. [66] The salt facility operates its own pier where ships are loaded with salt destined for North American, European and Western Pacific markets. Bonaire's salt is used mostly in industrial roles. [67]

The large condensing ponds which ring the crystallizer basins, called the Pekelmeer, are a natural habitat for numerous species of brine shrimp which in turn feed flocks of hundreds of pink flamingoes and other migratory birds. This is the location of Bonaire's flamingo sanctuary.

Oil storage and shipment – The Bonaire Petroleum Corporation (BOPEC) is a fuel oil storage and transshipment terminal on Bonaire. BOPEC is wholly owned by Venezuelan oil company PDVSA, and functions primarily as a storage facility for multiple grades of refined and non-refined oils from Venezuela and refineries on Curaçao and Aruba. BOPEC also has mixing and blending capabilities for its stored fuels. BOPEC's #1 pier can receive tankers up to 500,000DWT, [68] which means there are only seven ships in the world that are too big for the BOPEC terminal. [69] A fire at the BOPEC terminal in 2010 is believed to have had a significant impact on Goto Lake and at least one other nearby lagoon. [70]

Transportation

Flamingo Airport Bonaire-Flamingo-airport-2013.JPG
Flamingo Airport

Bonaire's first airport was located near Tra'i Montaña Subi Blanku and crossed the current path of Kralendijk to Rincon and was built in 1936. The airport proved to be too small when American soldiers arrived on Bonaire in the second half of 1943. The commander stated that a new airport had to be built. Construction began in December 1943, with the new "Flamingo Airport" opening in 1945. A small terminal was built that was suitable for the number of passengers at the time. This building was used until mid-1976. The airport had received many extensions of both the runway and the terminal itself.

Today the airport is known as Flamingo International Airport and is served by a variety of both domestic and international airlines. Services from the US include Delta Air Lines, American Airlines and United Airlines. Airlines providing European service include TUI Netherlands and KLM. Consistent air service from Curaçao is available through Divi Divi Air and EZ Air.

The airport is equipped with a fire station, control tower and hangar. Plans are underway for modifications to the current airport facilities, runway and the fire station.

Settlements

St. Louis Bertrand Church in Rincon BONAIRE-rincon-1.jpg
St. Louis Bertrand Church in Rincon
The Old Malmok lighthouse is in Washington Slagbaai National Park. Old Malmok.jpg
The Old Malmök lighthouse is in Washington Slagbaai National Park.

The two towns on the island are Kralendijk (the capital) and Rincon.

Kralendijk has many suburbs/ neighbourhoods, although on an island with such a small population, the distinction is not always clearcut. Kralendijk's suburbs/ neighbourhoods include:

Other smaller settlements include:

Labra, Ishiri, Kokorobi, Jan Doran, Vlijt, Rigot, Porto Spano and Kunchi were several smaller towns that had existed in the national park but were later abandoned.

Religion

Religion in Bonaire is predominantly Roman Catholic (68%) and there are also Protestant minorities. [71] There is an Islamic centre. [72]

Religion in Bonaire (2014): [71]

   Roman Catholic (68%)
   Protestant (16%)
  Other religion (4%)
  No denomination (12%)

Education

Bonaire's educational system is patterned after the Dutch system. Early grades are taught solely in Papiamento, with more and more Dutch being introduced as the grade level progresses.

Scholengemeenschap Bonaire serves as Bonaire's secondary school, for ages 12–18. [73]

Languages

As Bonaire is part of the Netherlands, Dutch is the official language, and the sole language for all administration and legal matters. [74] However, according to the 2001 census, it is the main language of only 8.8% of the population. [75] The most widely spoken language is the creole language of Papiamento, which is the primary language of 74.7% of the populace and is recognized by the government. [4] [75] Spanish is the main language of 11.8% of the people, English is the primary language of 2.8%, and other languages account for 1.8%. [75] Bonaire is a polyglot society, with most of Bonaire's population able to converse in at least two of the languages of Papiamento, Dutch, English and Spanish.

Sports

Bonaire is a popular tourist destination for both recreational diving and shore snorkelling. Bonaire 1000 steps.jpg
Bonaire is a popular tourist destination for both recreational diving and shore snorkelling.

Bonaire residents participate in numerous sporting events, including all the popular sports that attract tourists to the island such as scuba diving, sailing, fishing, boating, windsurfing, kite surfing, biking, baseball, association football, volleyball and tennis. There are multiple dive shops on Bonaire, most of which offer scuba instruction and PADI, NAUI, SSI and CMAS certification. [76] The island's dive shops typically offer scuba tank and dive gear rental, boat diving excursions, snorkeling, kayaking, and naturalist classes. Some dive shops have gas blending stations, and offer tec diving instruction and excursions. [77]

Bonaire hosted the PWA Bonaire World Cup 2014 and the 10th Prokids IFCA Championship 2014 at Lac Bay in Sorobon on the east side of the island. [78] It is home to several professional windsurfing champions. [79] The island is also home to the annual Bonaire Sailing Regatta, a national sailing competition and celebration that has been held every October in Playa. [80] The event first began in 1967 when Captain Don Stewart challenged Hubert Domacasse to a race, wagering 27 cases of beer that his fishing boat "Sislin" was faster than Domacasse's fishing boat "Velia". [81] The races are run between the leeward side of the island and Klein Bonaire. [82]

The Bonaire Football Federation is a member of CONCACAF and the Bonaire Volleyball Federation is an associate member of CAZOVA (Caribbean Zonal Volleyball Association) and NORCECA. The Baseball teams play in the Caribbean region of Little league and Pony league. Bonaire was also confirmed as the 218th Table Tennis National association. [83]

Media

Radio

Trans World Radio (TWR) first established its AM broadcasting site on the island of Bonaire in 1964 to broadcast Christian programs into Latin America and the Caribbean. [84] The programs were broadcast in Spanish, Dutch and English. [85] TWR-Bonaire began their operation with three transmitters, including a Brown-Boveri medium wave transmitter (500 kW over 800 kHz) and two shortwave transmitters (200 kW and 50 kW); however, their license to operate the 500 kW transmitter was revoked in 1999 thereby restricting broadcast to 100 kW. The Brown-Boveri medium wave transmitter was sold and removed from the island. It was replaced with another medium wave transmitter (PJB3-AM). [85] In 2012, TWR-Bonaire was permitted to increase its power from 100 kW to 450 kW but in order to do so, they had to raise 38 million euros (US$43,456,610.00). In 2016 they commissioned Kintronic Labs to build a four-mast, 231 metres (758 ft) parallel-array directional antenna system. On January 31, 2018 they acquired a 450 MW Nautel Broadcast medium wave transmitter for US$3.8 million, and the name changed from Trans World Radio to Shine 800 AM. [85]

Radio Netherlands Worldwide operated a shortwave relay station at 12°12′48″N68°19′23″W / 12.21333°N 68.32306°W / 12.21333; -68.32306 (Radio Netherlands Bonaire Radio Relay Station) . Because of widespread availability of internet links providing higher audio quality and more flexibility, shortwave broadcasts by RNW-Bonaire were discontinued [86] and at the end of October 2012, the radio station was closed and installations dismantled.

Bonaire has two island radio stations that broadcast general information: Bon FM and Radiodifucion Boneriano. The language spoken for both is Papiamento. [87]

Internet and newspapers

There are several internet news sources including BES Reporter in English, Bonaire in Papiamento and Dutch, Bonaire Nieuws in Dutch, and Info Bonaire in English. The local newspapers, some of which are also available online, include The Bonaire Reporter in English, Extra and Boneriano in Papiamento, Bonaire Times in English, Spanish and Dutch, [88] and two Dutch newspapers: Amigoe and Antiliaans Dagblad. [87]

Television

Flamingo Television Bonaire B.V. offers cable programming and internet access via cable connection or fiber optics. Local and regional programming is offered in different languages including Papiamento, Spanish, Dutch and Chinese. English channels are made available through the efforts of a unified group of cable companies comprising the Caribbean Cable Cooperative Ltd. [89]

Digital television programs and internet access are offered by Telbo N.V., a communication and media provider with an IP based infrastructure. They are the primary telephone service provider, and also offer various packages of high quality digital television programs with 130+ digital channels. [90]

See also

Notes

  1. .bq is designated, but not in use, for the Caribbean Netherlands. [5] [6] Like the rest of the Netherlands, .nl is primarily in use.

Related Research Articles

Aruba Island in the Caribbean Sea

Aruba is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of the coast of Venezuela. It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba forms a group referred to as the ABC islands. Collectively, Aruba and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are often called the Dutch Caribbean.

Netherlands Antilles Former Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Netherlands Antilles was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The country consisted of several island territories located in the Caribbean Sea. The islands were also informally known as the Dutch Antilles. The country came into being in 1954 as the autonomous successor of the Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies and was dissolved in 2010. The Dutch colony of Surinam, although it was relatively close by on the continent of South America, did not become part of the Netherlands Antilles but became a separate autonomous country in 1954. All the island territories that belonged to the Netherlands Antilles remain part of the kingdom today, although the legal status of each differs. As a group they are still commonly called the Dutch Caribbean, regardless of their legal status.

Saba Special municipality of the Netherlands in Caribbean Netherlands

Saba is a Caribbean island which is the smallest special municipality of the Netherlands. It consists largely of the potentially active volcano Mount Scenery, which at 887 metres (2,910 ft) is the highest point of the entire Kingdom of the Netherlands. The island lies in the northern Leeward Islands portion of the West Indies, southeast of the Virgin Islands. Together with Bonaire and Sint Eustatius it forms the BES islands.

ABC islands (Leeward Antilles) Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao

The ABC islands are the three western-most islands of the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea that lie north of Falcón State, Venezuela. In order alphabetically they are Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao. All three islands are part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, although they remain outside the European Union. Aruba and Curaçao are autonomous, self-governing constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, while Bonaire is a special municipality of the Netherlands.

Papiamento Creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies

Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch Caribbean. It is the most-widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands, having official status in Aruba and Curaçao. Papiamento is also a recognised language in the Dutch public bodies of Bonaire, Sint-Eustatius and Saba.

SSS islands Group of Dutch Caribbean islands and former colony

The SSS Islands are the three islands in the Lesser Antilles that are part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands:

  1. Saba
  2. Sint Eustatius
  3. Sint Maarten
Kralendijk Town in Bonaire, Netherlands

Kralendijk is the capital city and main port of the island of Bonaire in the Caribbean Netherlands. The language spoken in the town is Papiamentu, but Dutch and English are widely used. As of 2006, the town had a population of 3,061. In Papiamentu, the town is often called Playa or "beach".

Roman Catholic Diocese of Willemstad diocese of the Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Willemstad is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the Caribbean. The diocese encompasses the territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean: the countries Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and the islands Bonaire, St. Eustatius, Saba. The cathedra is in the city of Curaçao. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Port of Spain, and a member of the Antilles Episcopal Conference.

Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles 2010 dissolution of the autonomous Caribbean country of the Netherlands

The Netherlands Antilles was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was dissolved on 10 October 2010.

Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom in Europe and the Caribbean

The Kingdom of the Netherlands, commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small West Indian island territories in the Caribbean.

Index of Netherlands Antilles–related articles Wikipedia list article

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the former nation of the Netherlands Antilles.

Caribbean Netherlands Overseas region of the Netherlands

The Caribbean Netherlands are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea. They consist of the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, although the term "Caribbean Netherlands" is sometimes used to refer to all of the islands in the Dutch Caribbean. In legislation, the three islands are also known as the BES islands. The islands are currently classified as public bodies in the Netherlands and as overseas countries and territories of the European Union; thus, EU law does not automatically apply.

Identity card BES

The Identity card BES is a uniform identity card for residents in the Caribbean Netherlands introduced upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010. The cards are machine-readable and have the size of a credit card. The front contains the words Identiteitskaart followed by the island names Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba. The card also contains the coat of arms of the island of issue.

The three public bodies of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba started issuing postal stamps after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010. The islands form a separate postage region under the name Caribisch Nederland .

Dutch Caribbean Parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean

The Dutch Caribbean are the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

Washington Slagbaai National Park ecological reserve on Bonaire


Washington Slagbaai National Park is a national park and ecological reserve on the northwestern part of the island of Bonaire in the Caribbean Netherlands. The 5,643 hectares (21.79 sq mi) park covering approximately a fifth of the island of Bonaire is managed by STINAPA Bonaire, a non-profit foundation, on behalf of the Bonaire government. Established in 1969, Washington Slagbaai National Park was the first nature reserve to be established in the former Netherlands Antilles.

Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance

The Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance (DCNA) is a regional partnership of conservation organisations, including the national parks on the six islands of the Dutch Caribbean and is intended to support and strengthen the nature on the islands.

Same-sex marriage in Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba

Same-sex marriage in Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba is legal, following the entry into force of a law enabling same-sex couples to marry on 10 October 2012. The change to the Civil Code of the Caribbean Netherlands was proposed by the Dutch House of Representatives rather than the Rutte Government which preferred to negotiate the change with the islands first. The issue was very controversial on the island of Sint Eustatius, with many Christian islanders opposing the principle of the law and because of the perceived "neocolonialism" of the Netherlands imposing such a law on its overseas municipalities.

Bonaire National Marine Park Tentative World Heritage site in Bonaire

The Bonaire National Marine Park or BNMP is the oldest marine reserve in the world. It includes the sea around Bonaire and Klein Bonaire from the high water line to a depth of sixty meters. The park was established in 1979 and covers 2600 hectares coral reef, seagrass - and mangrove vegetation. The lagoon Lac is also part of the underwater park.

COVID-19 pandemic in Bonaire Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Bonaire

The COVID-19 pandemic in Bonaire is part of the ongoing global viral pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was confirmed to have reached the Dutch Caribbean island of Bonaire on 16 April 2020. On 28 April, all cases recovered. On 14 July, two new cases were discovered.

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