Bonsai

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Pomegranate (Punica granatum), Moyogi style, about 50 years old, at the Bonsai museum in Pescia, Italy. Pescia, museo del bonsai, punica granatum, stile moyogi (eretto informale), con frutti.jpg
Pomegranate (Punica granatum), Moyogi style, about 50 years old, at the Bonsai museum in Pescia, Italy.
13 of the way up the entire height of the tree. The branches and leaves form a ball-shaped crown. [89]
  • Windswept (吹き流し, fukinagashi) is a style describing a tree that appears to be affected by strong winds blowing continuously from one direction, as might shape a tree atop a mountain ridge or on an exposed shoreline. [90]
  • Bonsai artists

    This is a list of some notable bonsai artists. It is by no means exhaustive.

    Bonsai
    Bonsai (Chinese characters).svg
    "Bonsai" in kanji
    NameYear of birthYear of deathNationality
    Bjorn Bjorholm 1986American
    Marco Invernizzi 1975Italian
    Masahiko Kimura 1940Japanese
    Kunio Kobayashi 1948Japanese
    John Naka 19142004American
    Frank Okamura 19112006Japanese-American
    Walter Pall 1944Austrian-German
    William N. Valavanis 1951Greek-American
    Yuji Yoshimura 19211997Japanese

    Size classifications

    Japanese bonsai exhibitions and catalogs frequently refer to the size of individual bonsai specimens by assigning them to size classes (see table below). Not all sources agree on the exact sizes or names for these size ranges, but the concept of the ranges is well-established and useful to both the cultivation and the aesthetic understanding of the trees. A photograph of a bonsai may not give the viewer an accurate impression of the tree's real size, so printed documents may complement a photograph by naming the bonsai's size class. The size class implies the height and weight of the tree in its container.

    In the very largest size ranges, a recognized Japanese practice is to name the trees "two-handed", "four-handed", and so on, based on the number of men required to move the tree and pot. These trees will have dozens of branches and can closely simulate a full-size tree. The very largest size, called "imperial", is named after the enormous potted trees of Japan's Imperial Palace. [91]

    At the other end of the size spectrum, there are a number of specific techniques and styles associated solely with the smallest common sizes, mame and shito. These techniques take advantage of the bonsai's minute dimensions and compensate for the limited number of branches and leaves that can appear on a tree this small.

    Common names for bonsai size classes [92]
    Large bonsai
    Common nameSize classTree Height
    Imperial bonsaiEight-handed152–203 cm (60–80 in)
    Hachi-uyeSix-handed102–152 cm (40–60 in)
    DaiFour-handed76–122 cm (30–48 in)
    OmonoFour-handed76–122 cm (30–48 in)
    Medium-size bonsai
    Common nameSize classTree Height
    ChiuTwo-handed41–91 cm (16–36 in)
    ChumonoTwo-handed41–91 cm (16–36 in)
    Katade-mochiOne-handed25–46 cm (10–18 in)
    Miniature bonsai
    Common nameSize classTree Height
    KomonoOne-handed15–25 cm (6–10 in)
    ShohinOne-handed13–20 cm (5–8 in)
    MamePalm size5–15 cm (2–6 in)
    ShitoFingertip size5–10 cm (2–4 in)
    KeshitsuboPoppy-seed size3–8 cm (1–3 in)

    Indoor bonsai

    The Japanese tradition of bonsai does not include indoor bonsai, and bonsai appearing at Japanese exhibitions or in catalogs have been grown outdoors for their entire lives. In less-traditional settings, including climates more severe than Japan's, indoor bonsai may appear in the form of potted trees cultivated for the indoor environment. [93]

    Traditionally, bonsai are temperate climate trees grown outdoors in containers. [94] Kept in the artificial environment of a home, these trees weaken and die. However, a number of tropical and sub-tropical tree species will survive and grow indoors.

    See also

    Related Research Articles

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    A bonkei is a temporary or permanent three-dimensional depiction of a landscape in miniature, portrayed using mainly dry materials like rock, papier-mâché or cement mixtures, and sand in a shallow tray. A bonkei contains no living material, in contrast with related Japanese art forms bonsai and saikei: bonsai contain living trees, and saikei contain living trees and other vegetation.

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    <i>Saikei</i>

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    Bonsai aesthetics

    Bonsai aesthetics are the aesthetic goals and characteristics of the Japanese tradition of the art of bonsai, the growing of a miniature tree in a container. Many Japanese cultural characteristics, particularly the influence of Zen Buddhism and the expression wabi-sabi inform the bonsai tradition in that culture. A lengthy catalog of conventional tree shapes and styles also helps provide cohesion to the Japanese styling tradition. A number of other cultures around the world have adopted the Japanese approach to bonsai, and while some variations have begun to appear, most hew closely to the rules and design philosophies of the Japanese tradition.

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    History of bonsai

    Bonsai is a Japanese art form using trees grown in containers. Similar practices exist in other cultures, including the Chinese tradition of penjing from which the art originated, and the miniature living landscapes of Vietnamese hòn non bộ. The term "bonsai" itself is a Japanese pronunciation of the earlier Chinese term penzai. The word bonsai is often used in English as an umbrella term for all miniature trees in containers or pots. This article focuses on the history of bonsai in Japan and, in modern times, worldwide.

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