Bopomofo

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Bopomofo
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols
Zhuyin
注音符號
注音符号
(ㄅㄆㄇㄈ)
Zhuyinbaike.svg
ㄅㄞˇ ㄎㄜ ㄑㄩㄢˊ ㄕㄨ百科全書百科全书 (encyclopedia) in Bopomofo
Script type (letters for onsets and rhymes; diacritics for tones)
Creator Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation
Introduced by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China
Time period
1918 [1] to 1958 in mainland China (used supplement Hanyu Pinyin in all editions of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian from 1960 to present 2016 edition);
1945 to the present in Taiwan
Directionleft-to-right  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Related scripts
Parent systems
Oracle Bone Script
Child systems
Cantonese Bopomofo, Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols, Suzhou Phonetic Symbols, Hmu Phonetic Symbols, Matsu Fuchounese Bopomofo  [ zh ]
Sister systems
Simplified Chinese, Kanji, Hanja, Chữ Nôm, Khitan script
ISO 15924
ISO 15924 Bopo(285),Bopomofo
Unicode
Unicode alias
Bopomofo
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Mandarin Phonetic Symbol
Traditional Chinese 注音符號
Simplified Chinese 注音符号

Bopomofo (Chinese :注音符號; pinyin :zhùyīn fúhào; Wade–Giles :chu⁴yin¹ fu²hao⁴), or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols, also named Zhuyin (Chinese : 注音 ; pinyin :zhùyīn), is a Chinese transliteration system for Mandarin Chinese and other related languages and dialects. More commonly used in Taiwanese Mandarin, it may also be used to transcribe other varieties of Chinese, particularly other varieties of Mandarin Chinese dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien. Consisting of 37 characters and five tone marks, it transcribes all possible sounds in Mandarin.

Contents

Bopomofo was first introduced in China by the Republican government in the 1910s and was used alongside the Wade–Giles system for romanization purposes, which used a modified Latin alphabet. Today, Bopomofo is now more common in Taiwan than on the Chinese mainland, and is after Hanyu Pinyin used as a secondary electronic input method for writing Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan as well as in dictionaries or other non-official documents.

Etymology

Bopomofo is the name used by the ISO and Unicode. Zhuyin (注音) literally means phonetic notation. The original formal name of the system was 國音 字母 ; Guóyīn Zìmǔ; ' National Language Phonetic Alphabet' and 註音 字母 ; Zhùyīn Zìmǔ; 'Phonetic Alphabet or Annotated Phonetic Letters'. [2] It was later renamed 注音符號 ; Zhùyīn Fúhào; 'phonetic symbols'. In official documents, Bopomofo is occasionally called "Mandarin Phonetic Symbols I" (國語注音符號第一式), abbreviated as "MPS I" (注音一式). The system is often also called either Chu-in or the Mandarin Phonetic Symbols. [2] [3] A romanized phonetic system was released in 1984 as Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (MPS II).

The name Bopomofo comes from the first four letters of the system: ㄅ, ㄆ, ㄇ and ㄈ. [4] Similar to the way that the word "alphabet" is ultimately derived from the names of the first two letters of the alphabet (alpha and beta), the name "Bopomofo" is derived from the first four syllables in the conventional ordering of available syllables in Mandarin Chinese. The four Bopomofo characters (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) that correspond to these syllables are usually placed first in a list of these characters. The same sequence is sometimes used by other speakers of Chinese to refer to other phonetic systems.[ citation needed ]

History

Origins

The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Wu Zhihui from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Zhuyin Zimu, [2] which was based on Zhang Binglin's shorthand. It was used as the official phonetic script to annotate the sounds of the characters in accordance with the pronunciation system called "Old National Pronunciation" (Laoguoyin). [5] A draft was released on July 11, 1913, by the Republic of China National Ministry of Education, but it was not officially proclaimed until November 23, 1928. [2] It was later renamed first Guoyin Zimu and then, in April 1930, Zhuyin Fuhao. The last renaming addressed fears that the alphabetic system might independently replace Chinese characters. [6]

Modern use

Bopomofo is the predominant phonetic system in teaching, reading and writing in elementary school in Taiwan. It is also the most popular way for Taiwanese to enter Chinese characters into computers and smartphones and to look up characters in a dictionary.

In elementary school, particularly in the lower years, Chinese characters in textbooks are often annotated with Bopomofo as ruby characters as an aid to learning. Additionally, one children's newspaper in Taiwan, the Mandarin Daily News , annotates all articles with Bopomofo ruby characters.

In teaching Mandarin, Taiwan institutions and some overseas communities such as Filipino Chinese use Bopomofo.

Bopomofo is shown in a secondary position to Hanyu Pinyin in all editions of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian from the 1960 edition to the current 2016 edition (7th edition).

Symbols

Table showing Bopomofo in Gwoyeu Romatzyh Bopomofo.gif
Table showing Bopomofo in Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Bopomofo in Regular, Handwritten Regular & Cursive formats Bopomofo in Regular, Handwritten Regular & Cursive formats.jpg
Bopomofo in Regular, Handwritten Regular & Cursive formats

The Bopomofo characters were created by Zhang Binglin, taken mainly from "regularized" forms of ancient Chinese characters, the modern readings of which contain the sound that each letter represents. The consonants are listed in order of place of articulation, from the front of the mouth to the back, /b/, /p/, /m/, /f/, /d/, /t/, /n/, /l/ etc.

Origin of bopomofo symbols
Consonants
BopomofoOrigin [7] IPA Pinyin WG Example
From , the ancient form and current top portion of bāo, "to wrap up; package" p bp bāo
ㄅㄠ
From , a variant form of , "to knock lightly". p
ㄆㄨ
From , the archaic character and current "cover" radical mì. m mm
ㄇㄧˊ
From "right open box" radical fāng. f ff匪 fěi
ㄈㄟˇ
From 𠚣 , archaic form of dāo. Compare the Shuowen seal Dao -seal.svg . t dt
ㄉㄧˋ
From , an upside-down form of and an ancient form of ( Shuowen Seal Radical 528.svg and Shuowen Seal Radical 525.svg in seal script) [8] [9] t
ㄊㄧˊ
From Nai -seal.svg / 𠄎 , ancient form of nǎi (be) n nn
ㄋㄧˇ
From 𠠲 , archaic form of l ll
ㄌㄧˋ
From the obsolete character guì/kuài "river" k gk gào
ㄍㄠˋ
From the archaic character, now "breath" or "sigh" component kǎo k kǎo
ㄎㄠˇ
From the archaic character and current radical hǎn x hh hǎo
ㄏㄠˇ
From the archaic character jiū jch jiào
ㄐㄧㄠˋ
From the archaic character 𡿨 quǎn, graphic root of the character chuān (modern ) tɕʰ qchʻ qiǎo
ㄑㄧㄠˇ
From , an ancient form of xià. ɕ xhs xiǎo
ㄒㄧㄠˇ
From Zhi -seal.svg / 𡳿 , archaic form of zhī. ʈʂ zhi, zh-ch zhī
;
zhǔ
ㄓㄨˇ
From the character and radical chì ʈʂʰ chi, ch-chʻ chī
;
chū
ㄔㄨ
From 𡰣 , an ancient form of shī ʂ shi, sh-sh shì
ㄕˋ;
shù
ㄕㄨˋ
Modified from the seal script Ri -seal.svg form of (day/sun) ɻ ~ ʐ ri, r-j
ㄖˋ;

ㄖㄨˋ
From the archaic character and current radical jié, dialectically zié ([tsjě]; tsieh² in Wade–Giles) ts zi, z-ts
ㄗˋ;
zài
ㄗㄞˋ
From 𠀁 , archaic form of , dialectically ciī ([tsʰí]; tsʻi¹ in Wade–Giles). Compare semi-cursive form Qi1 seven semicursive.png and seal-script Qi -seal.svg . tsʰ ci, c-tsʻ
ㄘˊ;
cái
ㄘㄞˊ
From the archaic character , which was later replaced by its compound . s si, s-s
ㄙˋ;
sāi
ㄙㄞ
Rhymes and medials
BopomofoOrigin IPA Pinyin WG Example
From a aa
ㄉㄚˋ
From the obsolete character 𠀀, inhalation, the reverse of kǎo, which is preserved as a phonetic in the compound . [10] o oo duō
ㄉㄨㄛ
Derived from its allophone in Standard Chinese, o ɤ eo/ê
ㄉㄜˊ
From (also). Compare the Warring States bamboo form Ye3 also chu3jian3 warring state of chu3 small.png e -ie/êeh diē
ㄉㄧㄝ
From 𠀅hài, archaic form of .aiaiai shài
ㄕㄞˋ
From , an obsolete character meaning "to move".eieiei shéi
ㄕㄟˊ
From yāoauaoao shǎo
ㄕㄠˇ
From yòuououou shōu
ㄕㄡ
From the archaic character 𢎘hàn "to bloom", preserved as a phonetic in the compound fànananan shān
ㄕㄢ
From 𠃉, archaic variant of or [11] ( is yǐn according to other sources [12] )ənenên shēn
ㄕㄣ
From wāngangang shàng
ㄕㄤˋ
From 𠃋 , archaic form of gōng [13] əŋengêng shēng
ㄕㄥ
From , the bottom portion of ér used as a cursive and simplified formerêrh ér
ㄦˊ
From (one) i yi, -ii
ㄧˇ;

ㄋㄧˋ
From , ancient form of (five). Compare the transitory form 𠄡. u w, wu, -uu/w
ㄋㄨˇ;

ㄨㄛˇ
From the ancient character , which remains as a radical y yu, -üü/yü
ㄩˇ;

ㄋㄩˇ

MoeKai Bopomofo U+312D.svg
From the character . It represents the fricative vowel of ㄓ,ㄔ,ㄕ,ㄖ,ㄗ,ㄘ,ㄙ, though it is not used after them in transcription. [14] ɻ̩ ~ ʐ̩ , ɹ̩ ~ -iih/ŭ
;
zhī
;

ㄙˇ

Writing

Stroke order

Bopomofo is written in the same stroke order rule as Chinese characters. Note that is written with three strokes, unlike the character from which it is derived (Chinese :; pinyin :), which has four strokes.

can be written as a vertical line ( Bpmf-i2.svg ) or a horizontal line ( Bpmf-i.svg ); both are accepted forms. Traditionally, it should be written as a horizontal line in vertical writing, and a vertical line in horizontal writing. The People's Republic of China almost exclusively uses horizontal writing, so the vertical form (in the rare occasion that Bopomofo is used) has become the standard form there. Language education in Taiwan generally uses vertical writing, so most people learn it as a horizontal line, and use a horizontal form even in horizontal writing. In 2008, the Taiwanese Ministry of Education decided that the primary form should always be the horizontal form, but that the vertical form is accepted alternative. [15] Unicode 8.0.0 published an errata in 2014 that updates the representative glyph to be the horizontal form. [16] Computer fonts may only display one form or the other, or may be able to display both if the font is aware of changes needed for vertical writing.

Tonal marks

As shown in the following table, tone marks for the second, third, and fourth tones are shared between bopomofo and pinyin. In bopomofo, the mark for first tone is usually omitted but can be included, [17] [18] while a dot above indicates the fifth tone (also known as the neutral tone). In pinyin, a macron (overbar) indicates the first tone, and the lack of a marker usually indicates the fifth (light) tone.

Tone Bopomofo Pinyin
Tone Marker Unicode NameTone MarkerUnicode Name
1ˉModifier Letter Macron
(usually omitted) [17] [18]
◌̄Combining Macron
2ˊModifier Letter Acute Accent◌́Combining Acute Accent
3ˇCaron◌̌Combining Caron
4ˋModifier Letter Grave Accent◌̀Combining Grave Accent
5˙Dot Above [19] ·Middle Dot
(usually omitted) [20]

Unlike Hanyu Pinyin, Bopomofo aligns well with the Chinese characters in books whose texts are printed vertically, making Bopomofo better suited for annotating the pronunciation of vertically oriented Chinese text.

When used in conjunction with Chinese characters, Bopomofo is typically placed to the right of the Chinese character vertically in both vertical print [21] [22] and horizontal print [23] or to the top of the Chinese character in a horizontal print (see Ruby characters).

Example

Below is an example for the word "bottle" (pinyin :píngzi):



ㄥˊ
˙
,


ㄥˊ
˙
or
ㄆㄧㄥˊ˙ㄗ

Erhua transcription

Words rhotacized as a result of erhua are spelled with attached to the syllable (like 歌兒ㄍㄜㄦgēr). In case the syllable uses other tones than the 1st tone, the tone mark is attached to the penultimate letter standing for syllable nucleus, but not to (e.g. 哪兒ㄋㄚˇㄦ nǎr ; 點兒ㄉㄧㄢˇㄦ yīdiǎnr ; ㄏㄠˇ玩兒ㄨㄢˊㄦ hǎowánr ). [24]

Comparison

Pinyin

Bopomofo and pinyin are based on the same Mandarin pronunciations; hence there is a one-to-one correspondence between the two systems:

IPA and pinyin counterparts of Bopomofo finals
Rhyme
Medial[ɨ]
() 1

-i
[a]

a
-a
[o]
3
o
-o 3
[ɤ]

e
-e
[ɛ]

ê
 
[ai̯]

ai
-ai
[ei̯]

ei
-ei
[ɑu̯]

ao
-ao
[ou̯]

ou
-ou
[an]

an
-an
[ən]

en
-en
[ɑŋ]

ang
-ang
[ɤŋ]

eng
-eng
[aɚ]

er
 
[i]

yi
-i
[i̯a]
ㄧㄚ
ya
-ia
[i̯o]
ㄧㄛ
yo
 
[i̯ɛ]
ㄧㄝ
ye
-ie
[i̯ai̯]
ㄧㄞ
yai
 
[i̯ɑu̯]
ㄧㄠ
yao
-iao
[i̯ou̯]
ㄧㄡ
you
-iu
[i̯ɛn]
ㄧㄢ
yan
-ian
[in]
ㄧㄣ
yin
-in
[i̯ɑŋ]
ㄧㄤ
yang
-iang
[iŋ]
ㄧㄥ
ying
-ing
[u]

wu
-u
[u̯a]
ㄨㄚ
wa
-ua
[u̯o]
ㄨㄛ3
wo
-uo 3
[u̯ai̯]
ㄨㄞ
wai
-uai
[u̯ei̯]
ㄨㄟ
wei
-ui
[u̯an]
ㄨㄢ
wan
-uan
[u̯ən]
ㄨㄣ
wen
-un
[u̯ɑŋ]
ㄨㄤ
wang
-uang
[u̯ɤŋ], [ʊŋ]
ㄨㄥ
weng
-ong 4
[y]

yu
2
[y̯ɛ]
ㄩㄝ
yue
-üe 2
[y̯ɛn]
ㄩㄢ
yuan
-üan 2
[yn]
ㄩㄣ
yun
-ün 2
[i̯ʊŋ]
ㄩㄥ
yong
-iong

1 Not written.

2ü is written as u after j, q, x, or y.

3ㄨㄛ/-uo is written as /-o after /b-, /p-, /m-, /f-.

4weng is pronounced [ʊŋ] (written as -ong) when it follows an initial.

Chart

Vowels a, e, o
IPA aɔɛɤaieiauouanənəŋʊŋ
Pinyin aoêeaieiaoouanenangengonger
Tongyong Pinyin e
Wade–Giles ehê/oênêngungêrh
Bopomofo ㄨㄥ
example
Vowels i, u, y
IPA ijejoujɛninjʊŋuwoweiwənwəŋyɥeɥɛnyn
Pinyin yiyeyouyanyinyingyongwuwo/oweiwenwengyuyueyuanyun
Tongyong Pinyin wunwong
Wade–Giles i/yiyehyuyenyungwênwêngyüehyüanyün
Bopomofo ㄧㄝㄧㄡㄧㄢㄧㄣㄧㄥㄩㄥㄨㄛ/ㄛㄨㄟㄨㄣㄨㄥㄩㄝㄩㄢㄩㄣ
example
Non-sibilant consonants
IPA pmfəŋtjoutweitwəntʰɤnylykɤɚkʰɤ
Pinyin bpmfengdiuduiduntegekehe
Tongyong Pinyin fongdioudueinyulyu
Wade–Giles ppʻfêngtiutuituntʻêkokʻoho
Bopomofo ㄈㄥㄉㄧㄡㄉㄨㄟㄉㄨㄣㄊㄜㄋㄩㄌㄩㄍㄜㄎㄜㄏㄜ
example
Sibilant consonants
IPA tɕjɛntɕjʊŋtɕʰinɕɥɛnʈʂɤʈʂɨʈʂʰɤʈʂʰɨʂɤʂɨɻɤɻɨtsɤtswotsɨtsʰɤtsʰɨ
Pinyin jianjiongqinxuanzhezhichechisheshirerizezuozicecisesi
Tongyong Pinyin jyongcinsyuanjhejhihchihshihrihzihcihsih
Wade–Giles chienchiungchʻinhsüanchêchihchʻêchʻihshêshihjihtsêtsotzŭtsʻêtzʻŭssŭ
Bopomofo ㄐㄧㄢㄐㄩㄥㄑㄧㄣㄒㄩㄢㄓㄜㄔㄜㄕㄜㄖㄜㄗㄜㄗㄨㄛㄘㄜㄙㄜ
example
Tones
IPA ma˥˥ma˧˥ma˨˩˦ma˥˩ma
Pinyin ma
Tongyong Pinyin ma
Wade–Giles ma1ma2ma3ma4ma
Bopomofo ㄇㄚㄇㄚˊㄇㄚˇㄇㄚˋ˙ㄇㄚ
example (Chinese characters)

Use outside Standard Mandarin

Bopomofo symbols for non-Mandarin Chinese varieties are added to Unicode in the Bopomofo Extended block.

Taiwanese Hokkien

In Taiwan, Bopomofo is used to teach Taiwanese Hokkien, and is also used to transcribe it phonetically in contexts such as on storefront signs, karaoke lyrics, and film subtitles.

Three letters no longer used for Mandarin are carried over from the 1913 standard:

Bopomofo IPA GR Pinyin
vvv
ŋngng
ɲgnny

23 more letters were added specifically for Taiwanese Hokkien:

Bopomofo IPA BP Derivation
b bbㄅ with voicing circle
g ggㄍ with voicing circle
d͡ʑ zziㄐ with voicing circle
d͡z zzㄗ with voicing circle
a naㄚ with nasal curl
ɔ oofrom ㄛ
ɔ̃ nooㆦ with nasal curl
e efrom ㄝ
neㆤ with nasal curl
ãĩnaiㄞ with nasal curl
ãũnaoㄠ with nasal curl
amamㄚ and ㄇ combined
ɔmomㆦ and ㄇ combined
mㄇ with syllabic stroke
ɔŋong
ŋ̍ngㄫ with syllabic stroke
ㆪ/ㆳ ĩ niㄧ with nasal curl
ɨㄨ and ㄧ combined (?)
ũ nuㄨ with nasal curl
-p̚small ㄅ
-t̚small ㄉ
ㆻ/ㆶ-k̚small ㄍ (and variant small ㄎ)
small ㄏ

Two tone marks were added for the additional tones: ˪, ˫

Cantonese

The following letters are used in Cantonese. [25]

Bopomofo IPA Jyutping
gw
kʷʰkw
ɵeo
ɐa

If a syllable ends with a consonant other than -an or -aan, the consonant's letter is added, followed by a final middle dot.

-ㄞ is used for [aːi] (aai) (e.g. 敗, ㄅㄞ baai6)

-ㄣ is used for [ɐn] (an) (e.g. 跟, ㄍㄣ gan1), and -ㄢ is used for [aːn] (aan) (e.g. 間, ㄍㄢ gaan1). Other vowels that end with -n use -ㄋ· for the final ㄋ. (e.g. 見, ㄍㄧㄋ· gin3)

-ㄡ is used for [ɐu] (au). (e.g. 牛, ㄫㄡ, ngau4) To transcribe [ou] (ou), it is written as ㄛㄨ (e.g. 路, ㄌㄛㄨ lou6)

ㄫ is used for both initial ng- (as in 牛, ㄫㄡ, ngau "cow") and final -ng (as in 用, ㄧㄛㄫ·, yong "use").

ㄐ is used for [t͡s] (z) (e.g. 煑, ㄐㄩ zyu2) and ㄑ is used for [t͡sʰ] (c) (e.g. 全, ㄑㄩㄋ· cyun4).

During the time when Bopomofo was proposed for Cantonese, tones were not marked.

Computer uses

Input method

An example of a Bopomofo keypad for Taiwan Bopomofo.jpg
An example of a Bopomofo keypad for Taiwan

Bopomofo can be used as an input method for Chinese characters. It is one of the few input methods that can be found on most modern personal computers without the user having to download or install any additional software. It is also one of the few input methods that can be used for inputting Chinese characters on certain cell phones.[ citation needed ]. On the QWERTY keyboard, the symbols are ordered columwise top-down (e.g. 1+Q+A+Z )

A typical keyboard layout for Bopomofo on computers Keyboard layout Zhuyin.svg
A typical keyboard layout for Bopomofo on computers

Unicode

Bopomofo was added to the Unicode Standard in October 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Bopomofo is U+3100U+312F:

Bopomofo [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+310x
U+311x
U+312x
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Additional characters were added in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0.

The Unicode block for these additional characters, called Bopomofo Extended, is U+31A0U+31BF:

Bopomofo Extended [1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+31Ax
U+31Bx
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 14.0

Unicode 3.0 also added the characters U+02EA˪MODIFIER LETTER YIN DEPARTING TONE MARK and U+02EB˫MODIFIER LETTER YANG DEPARTING TONE MARK, in the Spacing Modifier Letters block. These two characters are now (since Unicode 6.0) classified as Bopomofo characters. [26]

Tonal marks for bopomofo
Spacing Modifier Letters
ToneTone MarkerUnicodeNote
1 Yin Ping (Level)ˉU+02C9Usually omitted
2 Yang Ping (Level)ˊU+02CA
3 Shang (Rising)ˇU+02C7
4 Qu (Departing)ˋU+02CB
4a Yin Qu (Departing)˪U+02EAFor Minnan and Hakka languages
4b Yang Qu (Departing)˫U+02EBFor Minnan and Hakka languages
5 Qing (Neutral)˙U+02D9

See also

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Ruby characters or rubi characters are small, annotative glosses that are usually placed above or to the right of logographic characters of languages in the East Asian cultural sphere, such as Chinese hanzi, Japanese kanji, and Korean hanja, to show the logographs' pronunciation; these were formerly also used for Vietnamese hán tự and chữ nôm, and may still occasionally be seen in that context when reading archaic texts. Typically called just ruby or rubi, such annotations are most commonly used as pronunciation guides for characters that are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader.

Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It was created to replace the complex tonal-spelling Gwoyeu Romatzyh, and to co-exist with the popular Wade–Giles (romanization) and Zhuyin (non-romanization). It is sometimes referred to as Gwoyeu Romatzyh 2 or GR2.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Traditional Chinese characters</span> Traditional Chinese characters used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau

Traditional Chinese characters are one type of standard Chinese character sets of the contemporary written Chinese. The traditional characters had taken shapes since the clerical change and mostly remained in the same structure they took at the introduction of the regular script in the 2nd century. Over the following centuries, traditional characters were regarded as the standard form of printed Chinese characters or literary Chinese throughout the Sinosphere until the middle of the 20th century, before different script reforms initiated by countries using Chinese characters as a writing system.

Tongyong Pinyin was the official romanization of Mandarin in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008. The system was unofficially used between 2000 and 2002, when a new romanization system for Taiwan was being evaluated for adoption. Taiwan's Ministry of Education approved the system in 2002, but its use was optional.

The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation was the organization established by the Beiyang government in 1912 to select ancillary phonetic symbols for Mandarin and set the standard Guoyu pronunciation of basic Chinese characters.

There have been Chinese alphabets, that are pre-existing alphabets adapted to write down the Chinese language. However, the standard Chinese writing system uses a non-alphabetic script with an alphabet for supplementary use. There is no original alphabet native to China. China has its Pinyin system though sometimes the term is used anyway to refer to logographic Chinese characters (sinograms). It is more appropriately used, though, for phonemic transcriptions such as pinyin. However, there were attempts to replace the whole Chinese script with alphabets but failed in the end, so the Chinese characters were kept. Simplified Chinese characters replaced Traditional Chinese characters, which the original form is still used today in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. Simplified Chinese is used in mainland China and Singapore.

This Zhuyin table is a complete listing of all Zhuyin (Bopomofo) syllables used in the Republic of China (Taiwan) as auxiliary to Chinese language studies while in Mainland China an adaptation of the Latin alphabet is used to represent Chinese phonemes in the Pinyin system. Each syllable in a cell is composed of an initial (columns) and a final (rows). An empty cell indicates that the corresponding syllable does not exist in Standard Chinese.

The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin or ZWPY, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language for personal names and place names in China. It is based on pronunciation of China National Radio's Tibetan Radio pronunciation, which is the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation except that it does not mark tone. It has been used within China as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script since 1982.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taiwanese kana</span>

Taiwanese kana is a katakana-based writing system that was used to write Taiwanese Hokkien when the island of Taiwan was under Japanese rule. It functioned as a phonetic guide to hanzi, much like furigana in Japanese or Zhuyin fuhao in Chinese. There were similar systems for other languages in Taiwan as well, including Hakka and Formosan languages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romanization of Chinese</span> Writing Chinese in Latin-based scripts

Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane wrote, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys." The dominant international standard for Standard Mandarin since about 1982 has been Hanyu Pinyin, invented by a group of Chinese linguists in the 1950s including Zhou Youguang. Other well-known systems include Wade–Giles (Mandarin) and Yale Romanization.

Chinese punctuation has punctuation marks that are derived from both Chinese and Western sources. Although there was a long native tradition of textual annotation to indicate the boundaries of sentences and clauses, the concept of punctuation marks being a mandatory and integral part of the text was only adapted in the written language during the 20th century due to Western influence. Before that, the concept of punctuation in Chinese literature existed mainly in the form of judou, a system of annotations denoting stops and pauses. However, unlike modern punctuation, judou marks were added into a text by scholars to aid comprehension, and for pedagogical purposes and were not viewed as an integral part of the text. Classical texts were therefore generally transmitted without judou. In most cases, this did not interfere with the interpretation of a text, although there were occasionally ambiguous passages as a result of this practice.

Transliteration of Chinese

The different varieties of Chinese have been transcribed into many other writing systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese vowel diagram</span>

A Chinese vowel diagram or Chinese vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels of the Chinese language, which usually refers to Standard Chinese. The earliest known Chinese vowel diagrams were made public in 1920 by Chinese linguist Yi Tso-lin with the publication of his Lectures on Chinese Phonetics, three years after Daniel Jones published the famous "cardinal vowel diagram" in 1917. Yi Tso-lin refers to those diagrams as "(simple/compound) rhyme composition charts [單/複韻構成圖]", which are diagrams depicting Chinese monophthongs and diphthongs.

There are a number of different writing systems for the Hokkien group of languages, including romanizations, adaptations of Bopomofo, of katakana, and of Chinese characters. Some of the most popular are compared here.

The Yale romanization of Mandarin is a system for transcribing the sounds of Standard Chinese, based on Mandarin Chinese varieties spoken in and around Beijing. It was devised in 1943 by the Yale sinologist George Kennedy for a course teaching Chinese to American soldiers, and popularized by continued development of that course at Yale. The system approximated Chinese sounds using English spelling conventions in order to accelerate acquisition of pronunciation by English speakers.

Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols constitute a system of phonetic notation for the transcription of Taiwanese languages, especially Taiwanese Hokkien. The system was designed by Professor Chu Chao-hsiang, a member of the National Languages Committee in Taiwan, in 1946. The system is derived from Mandarin Phonetic Symbols by creating additional symbols for the sounds that do not appear in Mandarin phonology. It is one of the phonetic notation systems officially promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

The Old National Pronunciation was the system established for the phonology of standard Chinese as decided by the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation from 1913 onwards, and published in the 1919 edition of the Guóyīn Zìdiǎn. Although it was mainly based on the phonology of the Beijing dialect, it was also influenced by historical forms of northern Mandarin as well as other varieties of Mandarin and even some varieties of Wu Chinese.

Cantonese Bopomofo, or Cantonese Phonetic Symbols is an extended set of Bopomofo characters used to transcribe Yue Chinese and, specifically, its prestige Cantonese dialect. It was first introduced in early 1930s, and then standardized in 1950. It fell into disuse along with the original Bopomofo for Mandarin Chinese in the late 1950s.

References

  1. 中國文字改革委員會 (Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language). 漢語拼音方案(草案) (Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet (Draft)). Beijing. Feb 1956. Page 15. "注音字母是1913年拟定,1918年公布的。"
  2. 1 2 3 4 The Republic of China government, Government Information Office. "Taiwan Yearbook 2006: The People & Languages". Archived from the original on 2007-05-09.|Also available at
  3. Taiwan Headlines. "Taiwan Headlines: Society News: New Taiwanese dictionary unveiled". Government Information Office, Taiwan(ROC). Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  4. "Zhuyin fuhao / Bopomofo (注音符號/ㄅㄆㄇㄈ)" Omniglot
  5. Dong, Hongyuan. A History of the Chinese Language. Fisher. p. 133.
  6. John DeFrancis. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy . Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 1984. p. 242.
  7. 國音學 (8th Edition). (2008). Pages 27-30. Taiwan: 國立臺灣師範大學. 國音敎材編輯委員會.
  8. Wenlin dictionary, entry 𠫓.
  9. KangXi: page 164, character 1http://www.kangxizidian.com/kangxi/0164.gif
  10. "Unihan data for U+20000".
  11. Wenlin dictionary, entry 𠃉.
  12. "Unihan data for U+4E5A".
  13. Wenlin dictionary, entry 𠃋.
  14. Michael Everson, H. W. Ho, Andrew West, "Proposal to encode one Bopomofo character in the UCS", SC2 WG2 N3179.
  15. Unicode document L2/14-189
  16. Unicode Consortium, "Errata Fixed in Unicode 8.0.0"
  17. 1 2 Department of Lifelong Education, Ministry of Education 教育部終身教育司, ed. (January 2017). 國語注音手冊 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Ministry of Education; Digital version: Wanderer Digital Publishing Inc. 汪達數位出版股份有限公司. pp. 2, 7. ISBN   978-986-051-481-0. 韻符「ㄭ」,陰平調號「¯」,注音時省略不標{...}陰平 以一短橫代表高平之聲調,注音時可省略不標。標注在字音最後一個符號右上角。
  18. 1 2 Department of Lifelong Education, Ministry of Education 教育部終身教育司, ed. (January 2017). The Manual of the Phonetic Symbols of Mandarin Chinese (in English and Chinese (Taiwan)). Ministry of Education; Digital version: Wanderer Digital Publishing Inc. 汪達數位出版股份有限公司. pp. 2, 7. ISBN   978-986-051-869-6. the rhyme symbol, "ㄭ", and the mark of Yin-ping tone, "¯", could be left out on Bopomofo notes.{...}This high and level tone is noted as a short dash mark and could be left out in Bopomofo note. If it is noted, it should be put on the upper right corner of the last Bopomofo note.
  19. "A study of neutral-tone syllables in Taiwan Mandarin" (PDF). p. 3.
  20. The middle dot may optionally precede light-tone syllables only in reference books (辞书), see section 7.3 Archived 2016-02-17 at the Wayback Machine of the PRC national standard GB/T 16159-2012 Basic rules of the Chinese phonetic alphabet orthography.
  21. "Bopomofo Extended Name". 12 December 2011.
  22. "Zhuyin and Hanzi location". 22 December 2009.
  23. "Bopomofo on Taiwanese street - with English - Nov 2016 2". 3 August 2016.
  24. "The Zhuyin Alphabet 注音字母 Transcription System (Bo-po-mo-fo) (www.chinaknowledge.de)". www.chinaknowledge.de.
  25. Yang, Ben; Chan, Eiso. "Proposal to encode Cantonese Bopomofo Characters" (PDF).
  26. "Scripts-6.0.0.txt". Unicode Consortium.