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|Boris Vladimirovich Morukov|
|Born|| 1 October 1950|
Moscow, Soviet Russia, USSR
|Died||1 January 2015 64)(aged|
Time in space
|11d 19h 12m|
Boris Vladimirovich Morukov (Russian : Бори́с Влади́мирович Моруков; 1 October 1950 – 1 January 2015) was a Russian physician at the State Research Center RF-Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP). He trained with the Russian Federal Space Agency as a research-cosmonaut and flew aboard NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-106 as a mission specialist.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Morukov graduated from high school in 1967 and received his M.D. from the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute (now Russian State Medical University) in 1973. He joined the professorate in space, aviation and naval medicine at the Institute for Biomedical Problems in 1978 and received a Ph.D in these disciplines in 1979. As a cosmonaut-physician, Morukov completed medical training in cardiology, gastroenterology, otolaryngology, stomatology, ophthalmology, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 1989-91. In 1995, he took an advanced course in emergency medical care. In 1996, he completed a medical training course in endocrinology and hematology. [ citation needed ]
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, Canada and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional degree is typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS).
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and outside of any astronomical object. Outer space is not completely empty—it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays. The baseline temperature, as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang, is 2.7 kelvins. The plasma between galaxies accounts for about half of the baryonic (ordinary) matter in the universe; it has a number density of less than one hydrogen atom per cubic metre and a temperature of millions of kelvins; local concentrations of this plasma have condensed into stars and galaxies. Studies indicate that 90% of the mass in most galaxies is in an unknown form, called dark matter, which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces. Observations suggest that the majority of the mass-energy in the observable universe is a poorly understood vacuum energy of space, which astronomers label dark energy. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships.
From October 1990 to February 1992, Morukov attended a basic space-training course at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. For more than two decades he was involved in providing medical operations support for manned space flights. From 1979-80 he provided medical support for the prolonged space missions on the space station "Salyut 6" as a member of the staff in Mission Control Center. From 1982-87, Morukov coordinated scientific projects dedicated to the development of countermeasures to the negative metabolic changes that occur during hypokinesia and microgravity. His specific scientific interest in this area is calcium metabolism correction. He organized a series of experiments with prolonged head-down tilt, including a 370-day experiment dedicated to the experimental testing of a countermeasure complex for prolonged space flights. He participated in a joint American-Russian medical experiment on STS-60, Mir 18/STS-71 and all other Mir-NASA Project Missions. From 1995-98 he served as the Human Life-Sciences Experiments Coordinator for the NASA-Mir scientific program. He published more than 100 scientific papers and has patents for four inventions. [ citation needed ]
Salyut 6, DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme. Launched on 29 September 1977 by a Proton rocket, the station was the first of the "second-generation" type of space station. Salyut 6 possessed several revolutionary advances over the earlier Soviet space stations, which it nevertheless resembled in overall design. These included the addition of a second docking port, a new main propulsion system and the station's primary scientific instrument, the BST-1M multispectral telescope. The addition of the second docking port made crew handovers and station resupply by unmanned Progress freighters possible for the first time. The early Salyut stations had no means of resupply or removing accumulated garbage, nor could the propulsion system be refueled once it exhausted its propellant supply. Consequently, once the consumables launched with the station were used up, its mission had to be concluded, and as a result, manned missions had a maximal duration of three months. Progress spacecraft could now bring fresh supplies and propellant and also be used to dispose of waste, which was then destroyed once the spacecraft was deorbited.
Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement. One of the two categories of movement disorders, hypokinesia is characterized by a partial or complete loss of muscle movement due to a disruption in the basal ganglia. Patients with hypokinetic disorders like Parkinson's disease experience muscle rigidity and an inability to produce movement. It is also associated with mental health disorders and prolonged inactivity due to illness, amongst other diseases.
STS-60 was the first mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, which carried Sergei K. Krikalev, the first Russian cosmonaut to fly aboard a Space Shuttle. The mission used Space Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from Launch Pad 39A on 3 February 1994 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The mission carried the Wake Shield Facility experiment and a SPACEHAB module into orbit, and carried out a live bi-directional audio and downlink link-up with the cosmonauts aboard the Russian space station Mir.
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Morukov was first selected for medical-cosmonaut service in 1976. Based on his qualifications, he was continually offered medical-cosmonaut selection and was chosen as a cosmonaut-researcher in 1989. Upon completion of his basic cosmonaut-training in 1992, he became a cosmonaut-researcher in the Institute for Biomedical Problems. From January to July 1993, Morukov completed a technical, medical and scientific training course as a cosmonaut-researcher of the cosmonaut-physician flight on-board Mir Station Project (during Mir 15-17 Missions). From November 1997 to February 1998, he completed a regularly scheduled technical training course, which included ISS Russian-segment systems. From August 1998 to January 1999, Morukov attended the Flight-Surgeon Training Course at Johnson Space Center.
Mir was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. It had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station (ISS) after Mir's orbit decayed. The station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted. It was built and leased to NASA by Joseph L. Smith & Associates, Inc. It was renamed in honor of the late U.S. president and Texas native, Lyndon B. Johnson, by an act of the United States Senate on February 19, 1973.
Morukov served on the crew of STS-106 (8–20, 2000). The STS-106 crew successfully prepared the International Space Station for the arrival of the first permanent crew. The five astronauts and two cosmonauts delivered more than 6,600 pounds of supplies and installed batteries, power converters, a toilet and a treadmill on the Space Station. Two crew members performed a space walk in order to connect power, data and communications cables to the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module and the Space Station. Morukov logged 11 days, 19 hours, and 10 minutes in space.
STS-106 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Atlantis.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component was launched into orbit in 1998, with the first long-term residents arriving in November 2000. It has been inhabited continuously since that date. The last pressurised module was fitted in 2011, and an experimental inflatable space habitat was added in 2016. The station is expected to operate until 2030. Development and assembly of the station continues, with several new elements scheduled for launch in 2019. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, solar arrays, radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and American Space Shuttles.
Morukov died on 1 January 2015, aged 64, from undisclosed causes.He is survived by his wife, Nina, son Ivan, daughter Olga, and mother, Lidia F. Khromova.
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