Boris Nemtsov

Last updated

Boris Yefimovich Nemtsov
Бори́с Ефи́мович Немцо́в
Boris Nemtsov 2014.jpg
Nemtsov in March 2014
Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
In office
28 April 1998 28 August 1998
President Boris Yeltsin
Prime Minister Sergey Kirienko
Viktor Chernomyrdin (acting)
First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
In office
17 March 1997 28 April 1998
Servingwith Anatoly Chubais
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin
Preceded by Alexei Bolshakov
Viktor Ilyushin
Vladimir Potanin
Succeeded by Sergey Kiriyenko
1st Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
In office
30 November 1991 17 March 1997
Preceded byoffice established
Succeeded by Ivan Petrovich Sklyarov
Personal details
Born(1959-10-09)9 October 1959
Sochi, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Died27 February 2015(2015-02-27) (aged 55)
Moscow, Russia
Cause of death Assassination
Political party Union of Right Forces (1999–2008)
Solidarnost (2008–2010)
People's Freedom (2010–2012)
RPR-PARNAS (2012–2015)
Awards Medal of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" (second degree, 1995);
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (Fifth degree, 2006, Ukraine); [1]
Order of Liberty (Ukraine, posthumously); [2]
IRI Freedom Award (the US, posthumously). [3]

Boris Yefimovich Nemtsov (Russian :Бори́с Ефи́мович Немцо́в,IPA:  [bɐˈrʲis jɪˈfʲiməvʲɪtɕ nʲɪmˈtsof] ; 9 October 1959 27 February 2015) was a Russian physicist and liberal politician. Nemtsov was one of the most important figures in the introduction of capitalism into the Russian post-Soviet economy. [4] He had a successful political career in the 1990s under President Boris Yeltsin. From 2000 until his death, he was an outspoken critic of Vladimir Putin. Nemtsov was assassinated on 27 February 2015, beside his Ukrainian partner Anna Duritskaya, on a bridge near the Kremlin in Moscow, [5] [6] with four shots fired from the back. [7] In the weeks before his death, Nemtsov expressed fear that Putin would have him killed. [8] [9] In late June 2017, five Chechen men were found guilty by a jury in a Moscow court for agreeing to kill Nemtsov in exchange for 15 million rubles (US$253,000); neither the identity nor whereabouts of the person who hired them is known. [10]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Within Russian political parties, liberal parties advocate the expansion of political and civil freedoms and mostly oppose Vladimir Putin. In Russia, the term "liberal" can refer to wide range of politicians –( for reference check NCERT class 9 chapter socialism and Russian revolution )simultaneously to Thatcherism/Reaganomics-related pro-capitalism conservative politicians, to centre-right liberal politicians and to left-liberal politicians. The term "liberal democrats" is often used for members of the far-right nationalist part, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. There are Russian opposition and pro-government liberal political parties in Russia. Pro-government liberal politicians support Putin's liberal policy in economics.

Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system and competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investments are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.


Nemtsov criticized Putin's government as an increasingly authoritarian, undemocratic regime, highlighting widespread embezzlement and profiteering ahead of the Sochi Olympics, and Russian political interference and military involvement in Ukraine. [11] [12] After 2008, Nemtsov published in-depth reports detailing the corruption under Putin, which he connected directly with the President. As part of the same political struggle, Nemtsov was an active organizer of and participant in Dissenters' Marches, Strategy-31 civil actions and rallies "For Fair Elections".

Russia under Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin has served three terms and is currently in a fourth as President of Russia and was Acting President from 1999 to 2000, succeeding Boris Yeltsin after Yeltsin's resignation. Putin was also Prime Minister for three months in 1999 and served a full term from 2008 to 2012. During Putin's presidency, he has been a member of the Unity party and the United Russia party. He is also affiliated with the People’s Front, a group of supporters that Putin organized in 2011 to help improve the public's perception of United Russia. His political ideology, priorities and policies are sometimes referred to as Putinism.

Dissenters March series of Russian opposition protests that took place on 2006 and 2007 in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk

The Dissenters' March was a series of Russian opposition protests that took place on December 16, 2006 in Moscow, on March 3, 2007 in Saint Petersburg, on March 24 in Nizhny Novgorod, on April 14 for the second time in Moscow, on April 15 again in Saint Petersburg, on May 18 in Samara, and on May 19 in Chelyabinsk. Some of them were featured in various media outlets.

Strategy-31 civic movement in support of the right to peaceful assembly in Russia

Strategy-31 is a series of civic protests in support of the right to peaceful assembly in Russia guaranteed by Article 31 of the Russian constitution. Since July 31, 2009, the protests were held in Moscow on Triumfalnaya Square on the 31st of every month with 31 days.

At the time of the assassination, Nemtsov was in Moscow helping to organize a rally against the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the Russian financial crisis. At the same time, Nemtsov was working on a report demonstrating that Russian troops were fighting alongside pro-Russian rebels in eastern Ukraine, which the Kremlin had been denying, and was unpopular externally but also in Russia. [13]

Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present) Russian military intervention in Ukraine

The Russian military intervention in Ukraine, sometimes called the Russo-Ukrainian War, is a series of military actions that started in February 2014 and continues into 2019, including in the Crimean peninsula, the Donbas region in eastern Ukraine, and related activities in other locations.

Nemtsov was the first governor of the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (1991–97). Later he worked in the government of Russia as Minister of Fuel and Energy (1997), Vice Premier of Russia and Security Council member from 1997 to 1998. In 1998, he founded the Young Russia movement. In 1998, he co-founded the coalition group Right Cause and in 1999, he co-formed Union of Right Forces, an electoral bloc and subsequently a political party. He was elected several times as a member of the Russian parliament. Nemtsov was also a member of the Congress of People's Deputies (1990), Federation Council (1993–97) and State Duma (1999–2003).

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, also known as Nizhegorod Oblast, is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod. It has a population of 3,310,597 as of the 2010 Census. From 1932 to 1990 it was known as Gorky Oblast.

Government of Russia highest federal executive body in the Russian Federation, headed by the Prime Minister

The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government the Russian Federation".

Ministry of Energy (Russia) Russian Ministry

The Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation is, since 2008, the Russian federal ministry responsible for energy policy.

He also served as Vice Speaker of the State Duma and the leader of parliamentary group Union of Right Forces. After a 2008 split in the Union of Right Forces, he co-founded Solidarnost. In 2010, he co-formed the coalition "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption", which was refused registration as a party. Beginning in 2012, Nemtsov was co-chair of the Republican Party of Russia – People's Freedom Party (RPR-PARNAS), a registered political party. [14] [15]

Union of Right Forces former political party in Russia

The Union of Right Forces political party, or SPS, is a Russia political public organization and former party, initially founded as an electoral bloc in 1999 and associated with free market reforms, privatization, and the legacy of the "young reformers" of the 1990s: Anatoly Chubais, Boris Nemtsov, and Yegor Gaidar. The party was officially self-dissolved in 2008. Nikita Belykh was the party's last leader from 2005 to 2008.

Solidarnost Russian liberal democratic political movement

Solidarnost is a Russian liberal democratic political movement founded on 13 December 2008 by a number of well-known members of the liberal democratic opposition, including Garry Kasparov, Boris Nemtsov and others from the Yabloko and Union of Right Forces parties, leaders of the Dissenters March events, the Committee 2008, the People's Democratic Union, the United Civil Front, The Other Russia and other politicians and political groups.

People's Freedom Party "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption" was a Russian liberal democratic political party founded on 13 December 2010 by opposition politicians Vladimir Ryzhkov, Boris Nemtsov, Mikhail Kasyanov and Vladimir Milov and de facto dissolved on 16 June 2012. The name is a reference to the original liberal democratic Party of Popular Freedom.

At the time of his death, Nemtsov was one of the leaders of the Solidarnost ("Solidarity") opposition movement, an elected member of the regional parliament of Yaroslavl Oblast, and co-chair of the RPR-PARNAS, which is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats, a Pan-European political party.

Regional parliaments of Russia

Regional parliaments of Russia are the legislative/parliamentary bodies of power in the regions of Russia, which have different names, often collectively referred to in the media as regional parliaments.

Yaroslavl Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Yaroslavl Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, which is located in the Central Federal District, surrounded by Tver, Moscow, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Vologda Oblasts. This geographic location affords the oblast the advantages of proximity to Moscow and St. Petersburg. Additionally, the administrative center of the oblast—the city of Yaroslavl—is an intersection of major highways, railroads, and waterways. Population: 1,272,468.

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party European political party

The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party is a European political party composed of 60 national-level liberal parties from across Europe, mainly active in the European Union. On 26 March 1976, it was founded in Stuttgart as a confederation of national political parties under the name Federation of Liberal and Democrat Parties in Europe and renamed European Liberals and Democrats (ELD) in 1977 and European Liberal Democrats and Reformists (ELDR) in 1986. On 30 April 2004, the ELDR was reformed as an official European party, the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party. The ALDE Party is affiliated with the Liberal International and a recognised European political party, incorporated as a non-profit association under Belgian law.

After Nemtsov's murder, Serge Schmemann of The New York Times paid tribute to him in an article headlined "A Reformer Who Never Backed Down." Schmemann wrote: "Tall, handsome, witty and irreverent, Mr. Nemtsov was one of the brilliant young men who burst onto the Russian stage at that exciting moment when Communist rule collapsed and a new era seemed imminent." [16] Julia Ioffe of The New York Times described Nemtsov after his death as "a powerful, vigorous critic of Vladimir Putin", who was "a deeply intelligent, witty, kind and ubiquitous man" who "seemed to genuinely be everyone's friend". [17]

Early life

Boris Yefimovich Nemtsov was born in Sochi in 1959 to Yefim Davidovich Nemtsov and Dina Yakovlevna Eidman. [18] [19] His mother, a physician, is Jewish. [18]

His parents divorced when he was five years old. [18] In his autobiography, Nemtsov recounts that his Russian Orthodox paternal grandmother had him baptized as an infant, and that he became[ when? ] a practicing Orthodox Christian. [18] He found out about his baptism many years later. [20]

Studies and academic career

From 1976 to 1981, Nemtsov studied physics at N. I. Lobachevsky State University in the city of Gorky, receiving a degree in 1981. [21]

Aged 25 in 1985, he defended his dissertation for a PhD in Physics and Mathematics from the State University of Gorky. [22] Until 1990, he worked as a research fellow at the Radiophysical Research Institute, [23] and produced more than 60 academic publications related to quantum physics, thermodynamics and acoustics. [24]

He proposed a theoretical model for an acoustic laser [25] [26] and a novel design of antennas for space probes. [1] [27]

Political career, 1986–2004

Anti-Nemtsov and anti-Chubais protest in 1998. The posters say "Send Chubais and Nemtsov to justice!", "Make soap out of Zionists" Pn-picketing-1998-sept-people.jpg
Anti-Nemtsov and anti-Chubais protest in 1998. The posters say "Send Chubais and Nemtsov to justice!", "Make soap out of Zionists"
Boris Nemtsov, leader of the Union of Right Forces parliamentary party, with President Vladimir Putin, July 2000 Vladimir Putin with Boris Nemtsov-1.jpg
Boris Nemtsov, leader of the Union of Right Forces parliamentary party, with President Vladimir Putin, July 2000
Nemtsov at the World Economic Forum, 2 October 2003, Moscow Boris Nemtsov 2003 RussiaMeeting.JPG
Nemtsov at the World Economic Forum, 2 October 2003, Moscow
Barack Obama and Russian political leaders, namely liberals Leonid Gozman, Boris Nemtsov, communist Gennady Zyuganov, social democrat Yelena Mizulina and social liberal Sergey Mitrokhin Obama, Gozman, Nemtsov, Zyuganov, Mizulina, Mitrokhin.jpg
Barack Obama and Russian political leaders, namely liberals Leonid Gozman, Boris Nemtsov, communist Gennady Zyuganov, social democrat Yelena Mizulina and social liberal Sergey Mitrokhin

In the wake of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, Nemtsov organized a protest movement in his hometown which effectively prevented construction of a new nuclear power plant in the region. [23]

In 1989, Nemtsov unsuccessfully ran for the Soviet Congress of People's Deputies on a reform platform which for the time was quite radical, promoting ideas such as multiparty democracy and private enterprise. [23]

In Russia's first free elections of 1990, he ran for the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Republic representing Gorky, later renamed Nizhny Novgorod. Nemtsov was elected, the only non-communist candidate. He defeated twelve others. [28] Once in Parliament he joined the "Reform Coalition" and "Centre-Left" political groups. [23]

In the Russian parliament, Nemtsov was on the legislative committee, [23] working on agricultural reform and the liberalization of foreign trade. In this position he met Boris Yeltsin, who was impressed with his work. [28] During the October 1991 attack on the government by Yeltsin opponents, Nemtsov vehemently supported the president and stood by him during the entire clash. After those events, Yeltsin rewarded Nemtsov's loyalty with the position of presidential representative[ clarification needed ] in his home region of Nizhny Novgorod. [28]

In November 1991, Yeltsin appointed him Governor of the Nizhny Novgorod region. He was re-elected to that position by popular vote in December 1995. His tenure was marked by a wide-ranging, chaotic free market reform program nicknamed "Laboratory of Reform" for Nizhny Novgorod and resulted in significant economic growth for the region. Nemtsov's reforms won praise from former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who visited Nizhny Novgorod in 1993. [28]

From the very outset of Nemtsov's tenure as governor, according to Serge Schmemann, Nemtsov "embarked on a whirlwind campaign to transform the region, drawing enthusiastic support from a host of Western agencies." Although the province was closed to foreigners for years and "there wasn't even enough paper money for the privatization program", he was optimistic about Moscow's future and consequently "pushed ahead on his own, even issuing his own money—chits, to be eventually exchanged for rubles that came to be known as 'Nemtsovki.'" Nemtsov very openly looked to the West as a model for Russia's future. Schmemann noted that Nemtsov adopted the westernized title "Governor" rather than the Russian "Head of Administration". [16]

After Nemtsov's death, Leonid Bershidsky recalled meeting him in 1992 during his tenure as governor. "A brilliant young physicist", recounted Bershidsky, "he was trying to practice liberal economics in a gloomy Soviet-era industrial city that had long been off-limits to foreigners." Bershidsky described his eloquence and demeanor as that of "a Hollywood movie politician transplanted into the Russian hinterland." [29]

In December 1993, Nemtsov was elected to the Federation Council, the upper house of the Russian Parliament. During the election campaign he was backed by Russia's Choice and Yabloko, which were then the principal liberal parties in the country.[ citation needed ]

In 1996, Nemtsov brought Yeltsin a petition with one million signatures against the first war in Chechnya, which he had signed himself. [30]

In March 1997, Nemtsov was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, with special responsibility for reform of the energy sector. He was tasked with restructuring the monopolies and reforming the housing and social sectors. [31] He became widely popular with the public and appeared favoured to become President of Russia in 2000. Boris Yeltsin introduced him to Bill Clinton as his chosen successor. [32] In the summer of 1997, opinion polls gave Nemtsov over 50% support as a potential presidential candidate. [30] His political career, however, suffered a blow in August 1998 following the crash of the Russian stock-market and the ensuing economic crisis.

Nemtsov had only worked in Moscow's "White House" for a year and a half, although he stated he had some success. He ended the corrupt act of stashing budget funds in commercial banks. He also managed to introduce an anti-corruption law for all state purchases in the government. He also helped to end the illegal export of raw materials and made oil sales more transparent. "And, most importantly, while I was the minister responsible for fuel and energy, oil was at barely 10 US dollars per barrel, and still we managed to save Russia. Things were difficult, what with social unrest, strikes, the war in Chechnya, the 'default', and still – let me repeat – we did save Russia." [33]

As part of Chubais' economic team, Nemtsov was forced to resign his position of Deputy Prime Minister. [34] After the dismissal of Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin in 1998,[ clarification needed ] Nemtsov was reappointed Deputy Prime Minister, but resigned shortly afterwards when Yeltsin dissolved the government. According to The Economist, Nemtsov, unlike many other top government figures, "emerged from the troubled 1990s with his reputation intact." [35]

As early as 1998, Nemtsov had a personal web site on RuNet. sought to provide information to its users that was not available elsewhere and also was one of the first attempts by a politician to establish two-way communication with an audience. [36]

In August 1999, Nemtsov became one of the co-founders of the Union of Right Forces, a then new liberal-democratic coalition which received nearly 6 million votes, or 8.6% of the vote, in the parliamentary elections in December 1999. Nemtsov himself was elected to the State Duma, or lower house of Parliament, and became its Deputy Speaker in February 2000. In May 2000, Sergei Kiriyenko resigned and Nemtsov was elected leader of the party and its parliamentary group.[ who? ] Over 70% of delegates at the Union of Rightist Forces congress in May 2001 confirmed him as party leader. According to Nemtsov, the Union "always consisted of two factions, a Nemtsov faction and a Chubais faction", with the former "based on principles and ideology whereas the Chubais faction was pragmatic, existing by the rules of realpolitik." [33]

In 2002, his name appeared on a list of several individuals the hostage-takers during the Moscow theater hostage crisis were willing to speak to directly. Nemtsov did not take part in the negotiations and later said that Putin had ordered him not to go. [37]

Between 2000 and 2003, Nemtsov was in a difficult political position – while he vehemently believed President Vladimir Putin's policies were rolling back democracy and civic freedoms in Russia, he needed to collaborate with the powerful co-chairman of the Union of Rightist Forces, Anatoly Chubais, who favoured a conciliatory line towards the Kremlin. In the parliamentary elections of December 2003, the Union of Rightist Forces platform headed by both Nemtsov and Chubais received just 2.4 million votes, 4% of the total, and thus fell short of the 5% threshold necessary to enter Parliament and as a result lost its seats. In January 2004, Nemtsov resigned from the party leadership. He became Chairman of the Council of Directors of Neftianoi, an oil company, and also a political advisor to Ukrainian president Viktor Yuschenko. [38]

Later career, 2004–2015

Rally of the "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption" coalition, 2010
Rally of the "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption" coalition, 2011

In January 2004, Nemtsov co-authored with his longtime adviser and party colleague Vladimir V. Kara-Murza an article in Nezavisimaya Gazeta entitled "Appeal to the Putinist Majority", in which he warned of the danger of an impending Putin dictatorship. Later the same month, he co-founded "Committee 2008", an umbrella group of the Russian opposition which also included Garry Kasparov, Vladimir Bukovsky and other prominent liberals. [39]

In February 2004, Nemtsov was appointed as a director of the Neftyanoi Bank, and as Chairman of Neftyanoi Concern, an oil firm and the bank's parent company. In December 2005, however, prosecutors announced an investigation of the bank following allegations of money laundering and fraud. Nemtsov subsequently stepped down from both his positions, saying that he wanted to minimize political fallout for the bank from his continuing involvement in Russian politics. Nemtsov also alleged that his bank perhaps was targeted because of his friendship and support of former Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov, who had stated his intention to run for president in 2008. [40]

During the 2004 Ukrainian presidential elections, Nemtsov came out as a strong supporter of the eventual winner Viktor Yushchenko, while the Russian government backed his opponent, Viktor Yanukovych. Shortly after the Orange Revolution, as the elections and series of protests in Ukraine came to be called, Yushchenko appointed Nemtsov as an economic adviser. [38] [41] Nemtsov's main goal was to improve business ties between Ukraine and Russia, damaged after the Putin government strongly supported Yushchenko's opponent in the presidential election. Yushchenko's selection of Nemtsov was controversial owing to Nemtsov's vocal criticism of Putin. [42]

The relationship between Nemtsov and the Ukrainian government became unstable in the middle of 2005 following accusations that Nemtsov had criticized Ukrainian cabinet decisions, and a group of legislators called for Yushchenko to fire Nemtsov. [41] Despite the criticism, he remained as an economic adviser to Yushchenko until October 2006, when the office of the Ukrainian president announced that Nemtsov had been "relieved of his duties as a free lance presidential adviser". [43]

Moscow rally, Yakimanka Street, Bolotnaya Square, February 2012 Moscow rally 4 February 2012, Yakimanka Street, Bolotnaya Square 24.JPG
Moscow rally, Yakimanka Street, Bolotnaya Square, February 2012

Nemtsov was briefly a candidate for the presidency of Russia in the 2008 election. On 26 December 2007, Nemtsov withdrew his candidacy for the 2008 election, saying that he did not want to draw votes away from the other candidate of the "democratic opposition", Mikhail Kasyanov. [44] Nemtsov also had declared that he would no longer run, in part, due to his belief that the government had predetermined the election's winner. [45]

On 13 December 2008, Nemtsov and Garry Kasparov co-founded the political opposition movement Solidarnost (Solidarity). [46] The organization hoped to unite the opposition forces in Russia. Nemtsov said in February 2011 that Solidarity had "done everything it could to resolve" conflicts within the opposition and that those "who are trying to create a rift among the opposition, whether consciously or unconsciously, are helping Putin stay in power." [33]

At a Solidarnost meeting on 12 March 2009, Nemtsov announced that he would run for mayor of Sochi in the city's 26 April election. [47] As a Sochi native, he had criticized plans to hold the 2014 Winter Olympics in the town. He believed it was this criticism which led Nashi members to attack him with ammonium chloride on 23 March 2009. [48]

In a March 2010 interview, Nemtsov criticized the decision to hold a Winter Olympics in Sochi, saying that Putin had "found one of the only places in Russia where there is no snow in the winter. ... Sochi is subtropical. There is no tradition of skating or hockey there. In Sochi, we prefer football, and volleyball, and swimming. Other parts of Russia need ice palaces—we don't." The construction at the Olympics site was "disastrous" for the local economy, he added, saying that about 5,000 citizens had been removed from their homes to build Olympic facilities. He also added that "thanks to the corruption and incompetence of authorities, [these people have] not yet been adequately compensated for their property or been given equivalent housing elsewhere, as they were promised. Billions of dollars have simply disappeared." [49]

On 27 April 2009, it was announced that the acting Sochi mayor and United Russia candidate Anatoly Pakhomov had won the election with 77% of the vote. [50] Nemtsov, who came second with around 14% of the vote, contested the fairness of the election, alleging that he was denied media access and that government workers had been pressured to vote for Pakhomov.[ citation needed ]

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev with Nemtsov and Vladimir Ryzhkov, February 2012 Vstrecha Medvedeva s rukovoditeliami nezaregistrirovannykh partii 1.jpg
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev with Nemtsov and Vladimir Ryzhkov, February 2012

Nemtsov was among the 34 original signatories of the online anti-Putin manifesto "Putin must go", published on 10 March 2010.[ citation needed ] Six months later, in September 2010, together with Vladimir Ryzhkov, Mikhail Kasyanov and Vladimir Milov, Nemtsov formed the "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption" party, which, three months later was transformed into the People's Freedom Party. [51] In May 2011, the party submitted an application for registration to the Ministry of Justice, but one month later it was denied.[ citation needed ]

In response to the question "Nemtsov, Milov and Ryzhkov and others, what do they really want?" in a live television broadcast on 16 December 2010, Putin stated that during the 1990s "they dragged a lot of billions along with Berezovsky and those who are now in prison... They have been pulled away from the manger, they had been spending heavily, and now they want to go back and fill their pockets". [52] In January 2011, Nemtsov, Milov and Ryzhkov brought suit over Putin's statement before the Moscow City Court, but the following month the suit was dismissed. According to the judge, Tatiana Adamova, the names of Nemtsov, Milov and Ryzhkov were used merely as common names to refer to a certain class of politicians. [53]

In a May 2013 report, Nemtsov stated that up to $30 billion had been stolen from funds allocated for the Sochi Olympics. He accused the Putin administration of cronyism and embezzlement of funds on a level so grand it posed a threat to Russian national security. He suggested "establishing a civic committee in charge of the investigation of the crimes committed around the Olympic project." [54]

Nemtsov about Winter Olympics in the subtropics, 2014

Arrests in 2007, 2010, and 2011

Nemtsov was arrested on 25 November 2007 during an unauthorized protest against President Putin near the State Hermitage Museum. Nemtsov and other opposition figures had complained of official harassment, and the police force had been used a number of times to break up what was then known as Dissenters' Marches. Nemtsov was released later that day. [55]

On 31 December 2010, he was arrested with other opposition leaders during a rally against government restrictions on public protests. He was sentenced on 2 January 2011 to 15 days in jail. [56] The arrests were condemned by US Senators John McCain and Joe Lieberman, [57] and by Amnesty International, which described him as a prisoner of conscience. [58] [59] The Economist called his arrest "a new low" in the governance of Russia. "The mistreatment of him seems pointlessly malevolent. ... He poses no threat to the government. The rally was authorized and he was on his way home when the police stopped him. He was charged with disobeying the police and swearing, despite video-footage that showed him asking the police to 'calm down'. A judge would not admit this as evidence. The court disregarded witness statements supporting him and would not let him appeal against his conviction." [35]

In a February 2011 interview, Nemtsov recalled that the cell in which he was imprisoned "was a stone dungeon, about one and a half by three metres, veiled in semi-darkness so it was impossible to read. There was no bed, no pillows or mattresses, just the floor." He stated that his glasses, belt, and shoelaces were confiscated and he was given substandard living quarters. He attributed the decision to detain him to Vladislav Surkov, Deputy Chief of the Russian President's Administration and called it "a political decision." [33] Nemtsov filed a complaint with the European Court of Human Rights, which accepted it and agreed to handle the case through its new urgent procedure. [60] [ needs update? ]

During the 6 December 2011 protests in Moscow, Nemtsov was arrested with at least one hundred other demonstrators. [61]

Political views

March of Peace, slogan "For Russia and Ukraine without Putin!", Moscow, 15 March 2014 Marsh za mir i svobodu (13).jpg
March of Peace, slogan "For Russia and Ukraine without Putin!", Moscow, 15 March 2014

After his dismissal from the government, Nemtsov became an important actor in the political discourse and eventually in the opposition to Putin's government. Nemtsov's political beliefs have caused some to characterize him as a "new liberal". [62]

In February 2011, Nemtsov said: "Everyone is unhappy with Putin, save perhaps his closest friends." He noted that "for three consecutive years capital has been flowing out of the country, with some 40 billion dollars being taken out of the country in 2010 alone." As a result, "even within his party of corrupt thieves there are not so many people willing to follow him until the very end." [33]

Nemtsov said:

[Putin had] used the Moscow theatre siege to impose a regime of total censorship on TV; he went on to destroy NTV, and then TV6. He used the nightmare of Beslan to remove democratic elections of regional governors. In short, he 'drowned' everyone apart from the terrorists." [33]

Nemtsov also stated:

There is a myth spreading about how, in the 1990s, we democrats were pals with oligarchs while Putin was fighting them. It was exactly the other way around. We did not let Berezovsky get a foothold in [the world's largest natural gas company] Gazprom, we did not allow him to take over the Svyazinvest company [Russia's largest telecom holding]. Yet Putin used to go to his birthday parties and bring flowers to his wife. It was Berezovsky who lobbied for Putin to become president and then financed his campaign. [33]

Nemtsov told Newsweek in September 2011 that Putin's decision to run for president again "was predictable, but we were shocked by the hypocrisy and cynicism of the announcement: he declared he was coming back long before the elections. Putin and Medvedev did not even bother to share their decision to swap their chairs with the United Russia party before the congress. Russians had no choice but face his final decision; his usurpation of political power is sickly humiliating." Nemtsov said that all of his "friends in big business" planned "to take their capital out of Russia", while some "prefer to emigrate." [63]

In a March 2012 op-ed for The Wall Street Journal , Nemtsov and Garry Kasparov expressed support for "the repeal of the Jackson-Vanik amendment that impedes American trade relations with Russia". Nemtsov and Kasparov stated that at "opposition meetings following the fraudulent March 4 election", they and their associates "publicly resolved that Mr. Putin is not the legitimate leader of Russia." They explained that they wanted "the U.S. and other leading nations of the Free World [to] cease to provide democratic credentials to Mr. Putin", and asked that the U.S. replace Jackson-Vanik with the Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law Accountability Act and thus improve relations between the United States and the people of Russia all while refusing aid to the Putin regime. [64]

In December 2013, Nemtsov said on behalf of his party:

We support Ukraine's course toward European integration [...] By supporting Ukraine, we also support ourselves. [65]

Nemtsov condemned the shooting down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 in eastern Ukraine:

My condolences to the families of the victims. The bastards, who did this, must be destroyed. The separatists the other day bragged they had the Buk missiles, with which they wanted to take down an AN-26. If those are them, they must get no mercy. [66]

Nemtsov was among the few Russian statesman to vocally criticize the annexation of Crimea by Russia. Nemtsov stated that he viewed Crimea as an integral part of Ukraine, that he considered its annexation by the Russian Federation to be illegal, and that the people of Crimea and not Russian legislators should decide which country they want to live in. [67] In an op-ed published on 1 September 2014 in the Kyiv Post , Nemtsov lamented the "fratricidal war" between Russia and Ukraine.

This is not our war, this is not your war, this is not the war of 20-year-old paratroopers sent out there. This is Vladimir Putin's war.

He accused Putin of "trying to dissect Ukraine and create in the east of the country a puppet state, Novorossiya, that is fully economically and politically controlled by the Kremlin." Meanwhile, wrote Nemtsov, "Russia itself is sinking into lies, violence, obscurantism and imperial hysteria." He stated that he sometimes thinks Putin is insane, but at other times he recognizes that Putin is driven by one goal: the "preservation of personal power and money at any cost." Ukraine had overthrown "a thieving president," and Putin needed to punish it "to make sure that no Russian would get these thoughts."

Ukraine chose the European way, which implies the rule of law, democracy and change of power. Ukraine's success on this way is a direct threat to Putin's power because he chose the opposite course – a lifetime in power, filled with arbitrariness and corruption. [68]

He criticized Putin in 2014:

I cannot understand what Putin expects when he arms 20,000 Kadyrovites. Putin diligently finances Chechnya by sending there trains loaded with money. The republic receives a minimum of 60 billion rubles a year in grants. Only Allah knows how much money is being siphoned off through different programs, such as Northern Caucasus Resorts. [69]


Nemtsov's fears

Less than three weeks before his murder, on 10 February, Nemtsov had written on Russia's "Sobesednik" news website that his 87-year-old mother was afraid Putin would kill him. He added that his mother is also afraid for former oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny. When asked if he himself was afraid for his life, Nemtsov answered: "Yes, not as strongly as my mother, but still..." [8] [9] [70] In an extended version of the interview, Nemtsov reportedly added: "I am just joking. If I were afraid of Putin, I wouldn't be in this line of work." [71]

Two weeks prior to his assassination, Nemtsov had met "with an old friend", Yevgenia Albats, editor of The New Times magazine, to discuss his research into Putin's role in the Ukraine conflict. Albats said that Nemtsov "was afraid of being killed", adding:

And he was trying to convince himself, and me, they wouldn't touch him because he was a [former] member of the Russian government, a vice premier, and they wouldn't want to create a precedent. Because as he said, one time the power will change hands in Russia again, and those who served Putin wouldn't want to create this precedent. [72]

Assassination of Nemtsov (27 February 2015)

Location of the murder at the Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge People came to the side of Boris Nemtsov's murder (2015-02-28; 44).JPG
Location of the murder at the Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge
Tens of thousands march in Moscow in memory of Nemtsov, 1 March 2015 Boris Nemtsov's March (2).jpg
Tens of thousands march in Moscow in memory of Nemtsov, 1 March 2015

Just before midnight, at 23:31 local time on 27 February 2015, Nemtsov was shot several times from behind. [73] He was crossing the Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge in Moscow, close to the Kremlin walls and Red Square. [lower-alpha 1] He died at the scene. He was murdered less than two days before he was due to take part in a peace rally against Russian involvement in the war in Ukraine and the financial crisis in Russia. [6] [74]

The BBC reported: "In his last tweet, Mr. Nemtsov sent out an appeal for Russia's divided opposition to unite at an anti-war march he was planning for Sunday." The BBC also quoted him as saying: "If you support stopping Russia's war with Ukraine, if you support stopping Putin's aggression, come to the Spring March in Maryino on 1 March." [9]

The night after Nemtsov's murder, his papers, writings and computer hard drives were confiscated in a police search of his apartment on Malaya Ordynka street. [75]

Aftermath, context and accusations

Russian journalist Kseniya Sobchak said that Nemtsov had been preparing a report proving the presence of Russian military in eastern Ukraine despite its heated denial of any involvement there. [11]

Two weeks before his murder, Nemtsov had "met with an old friend to discuss his latest research into what he said was dissembling and misdeeds in the Kremlin." Yevgenia Albats, editor of The New Times magazine, said that Nemtsov worked on a report which he planned to call "Putin and the War", because it focused on Russia's role in the Ukraine conflict. Albats commented on her fear for Nemtsov's life. [72]

According to The New York Times, some sources had accused the security services of responsibility for the crime, while others blamed rogue Russian nationalists. Vladimir Milov, a former deputy minister of energy and fellow opposition figure, said: "There is ever less doubt that the state is behind the murder of Boris Nemtsov" and stated that the objective had been "to sow fear." [72] Opposition activist Maksim Kats held Putin responsible: "If he ordered it, then he's guilty as the orderer. And even if he didn't, then [he is responsible] as the inciter of hatred, hysteria, and anger among the people." [17]

Shortly after Nemtsov's murder, Julia Ioffe, a reporter, wrote that several theories about the crime had begun to circulate. "Yet we can be sure that the investigation will lead precisely nowhere", she stated. "At most, some sad sap, the supposed trigger-puller, will be hauled in front of a judge, the scapegoat for someone far more powerful. More likely, the case will founder for years amid promises that everyone is working hard, and no one will be brought to justice at all." Ioffe said that the Kremlin was already "muddying the waters". [76]

LifeNews , a publication tied to Russia's security agencies, had suggested "three possible theories", namely that the killing was "revenge for forcing Duritskaya to get an abortion", or that it "had something to do with money Nemtsov was receiving from allies abroad", or that it was "an attempt to smear the Kremlin." A statement by the government's Investigative Committee theorized that Nemtsov was "killed by someone from his own opposition movement who wanted to create a martyr" and even suggested "that the assassination was connected to the Charlie Hebdo killings." [17]


March in memory of Nemtsov in Moscow, 26 February 2017 March in memory of Boris Nemtsov in Moscow (2017-02-26) 78.jpg
March in memory of Nemtsov in Moscow, 26 February 2017

Former Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov lamented Nemtsov's death, expressing his shock that such an event could occur in modern Russia. At a memorial rally held in Moscow on 1 March, the date on which Nemtsov had planned to lead an opposition march, mourners carried signs that read: "He was fighting for a free Russia," "Those shots were in each of us," "He died for the future of Russia," and "They were afraid of you, Boris." Several thousand people also marched in St. Petersburg. [77] [78]

Political consultant Gleb Pavlovsky opined that Russia had been overcome by "a Weimar atmosphere" in which there were "no longer any limits." Opposition activist Leonid Volkov maintained that Russians now lived "in a different political reality." [17]

United States President Barack Obama called on Russia's government to launch "a prompt, impartial, and transparent" investigation to ensure that "those responsible for this vicious killing are brought to justice". [79]

German Chancellor Angela Merkel condemned the "cowardly murder". A statement by her office demanded that Putin "assure himself that this assassination is elucidated and that its perpetrators are held accountable". [79]

An editorial in The Observer called Nemtsov's murder "appalling" and reflected that such an event was characteristic of an authoritarian dictatorship. [80] Serge Schmemann of The New York Times wrote that the Moscow rally seemed like "a memorial march for the hopes and dreams that lay alongside Mr. Nemtsov's murdered body in the middle of the night on the bridge to Red Square." [16]

Dmitry Peskov, a spokesman for Russian President Vladimir Putin, told reporters: "Putin noted that this cruel murder has all the hallmarks of a contract hit and is extremely provocative". In a message to the victim's mother, Putin said that "everything will be done so that the organisers and perpetrators of a vile and cynical murder get the punishment they deserve." [79] [81]

Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said: "Boris Nemtsov became one of the most talented politicians in the period of democratic transformations in our country. Up to his very last day, he remained a bright personality, a principled man." [82]

In August 2015, Nemtsov's daughter Zhanna Nemtsova was the recipient of Poland's Democracy Award for her father's work. [83] On 9 October 2015, opposition activists in Moscow erected a monument dedicated to Nemtsov at his tomb at Troyekurovskoye Cemetery, plot 16. The monument, unveiled on what would have been his 56th birthday, shows Nemtsov's name with five bullet holes puncturing it. [84]

In late February 2017, a peaceful protest and commemorative plaque dedication are planned in Veliky Novgorod, in commemoration of his ideology and the freedom of speech that led to his assassination. [8] [9] [85]

On 6 December 2017, the Council of the District of Columbia held a hearing to decide on symbolically renaming a section of Wisconsin Avenue as Boris Nemtsov Plaza. The Embassy of the Russian Federation fronts the section of street proposed for the designation. [86] On 9 January 2018, the Council unanimously approved the "Boris Nemtsov Plaza Designation Act of 2017" which authorized the renaming. The section of the street was renamed. [87] [88]

On 12 March 2019, the House passed a series of bills meant to hold Russian President Vladimir Putin accountable for his country's actions, including a measure condemning the Russian leader and his government for their alleged roles in covering up the 2015 assassination of Putin political opponent Boris Nemtsov [89]


Several suspects have been implicated in the assassination, all of whom are Chechens. The alleged shooter is a former officer in the security force of Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov, who was also accused by opposition leader Ilya Yashin of having murdered Nemtsov. [90]

Five Chechen men were prosecuted for his murder. [91] [92] [93] In late June 2017, these men were found guilty by a jury in a court at Moscow for agreeing to kill Nemtsov in exchange for 15 million rubles (US$253,000); neither the identity nor whereabouts of the person who hired them is known. [94]

Honors and awards

Political publications


Beginning in 2008, Nemtsov and Vladimir Milov published several white papers criticising Putin's government and proposing alternative ways of development for the country:

Documentary films


Related Research Articles

Vladimir Putin Russian politician, 2nd and 4th President of Russia

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008. In between his presidential terms, he was also the Prime Minister of Russia under his close associate Dmitry Medvedev.

Boris Berezovsky (businessman) Russian business oligarch, government official, engineer and mathematician

Boris Abramovich Berezovsky, also known as Platon Elenin, was a Russian business oligarch, government official, engineer and mathematician. He was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Berezovsky was politically opposed to the President of Russia Vladimir Putin since Putin's election in 2000 and remained a vocal critic of Putin for the rest of his life. In late 2000, after the Russian Deputy Prosecutor General demanded that Berezovsky appear for questioning, he did not return from abroad and moved to the UK, which granted him political asylum in 2003. In Russia, he was later convicted in absentia of fraud and embezzlement. The first charges were brought during Primakov's government in 1999. Despite an Interpol Red Notice for Berezovsky's arrest, Russia repeatedly failed to obtain the extradition of Berezovsky from Britain, which became a major point of diplomatic tension between the two countries.

2000 Russian presidential election presidential election in Russia

The 2000 Russian presidential election was held on 26 March 2000. Incumbent Prime Minister and acting President Vladimir Putin, who had succeeded Boris Yeltsin on his resignation on 31 December 1999, was seeking a four-year term in his own right and won the elections in the first round.

Vladimir Vladimirovich Kara-Murza Russian politician and journalist

Vladimir Vladimirovich Kara-Murza is a Russian opposition politician. He serves as vice chairman of Open Russia, a NGO founded by Russian businessman and former oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, which promotes civil society and democracy in Russia. He was elected to the Coordinating Council of the Russian Opposition in 2012, and served as deputy leader of the People's Freedom Party from 2015 to 2016. He is the author of two documentaries, They Chose Freedom and Nemtsov. Kara-Murza holds an M.A. in history from Cambridge University. He currently acts as Senior Fellow to the Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights. He was awarded the Civil Courage Prize in 2018.

Vladislav Surkov Russian politician

Vladislav Yuryevich Surkov is a Russian businessman and politician of Chechen descent. He was First Deputy Chief of the Russian Presidential Administration from 1999 to 2011, during which time he was widely seen as the main ideologist of the Kremlin who proposed and implemented the concept of sovereign democracy in Russia. From December 2011 until May 2013, Surkov served as the Russian Federation's Deputy Prime Minister. After his resignation, Surkov returned to the Presidential Executive Office and became a personal adviser of Vladimir Putin on relationships with Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Ukraine.

Nikita Belykh Russian politician

Nikita Yurevich Belykh is a Russian politician and former leader of the Union of Rightist Forces party. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Perm Krai until 2008, and the governor of Kirov Oblast from January 2009 until his arrest in July 2016.

<i>Putin. Corruption</i>

Putin. Corruption. is an independent report on alleged corruption in Vladimir Putin’s inner circle published by the leaders of opposition liberal democratic People's Freedom Party in Russia. The report was presented by them at the press conference on 28 March 2011. This is the first large-scale project of the People’s Freedom Party.

2011–2013 Russian protests protest

The 2011–2013 Russian protests began in 2011 and continued into 2012 and 2013. The protests were motivated by claims by Russian and foreign journalists, political activists and members of the public that the election process was flawed. The Central Election Commission of Russia stated that only 11.5% of official reports of fraud could be confirmed as true.

Opposition to Vladimir Putin in Russia movement aiming to remove Vladimir Putin from his offices

Opposition to President Vladimir Putin in Russia can be divided between the parliamentary opposition parties in the State Duma and the various non-systemic opposition organizations. While the former are largely viewed as being more or less loyal to the government and Putin, the latter oppose the government and are mostly unrepresented in government bodies. Major political parties considered to be part of the non-systemic opposition include Yabloko and the People's Freedom Party, along with the unregistered Progress Party. Other notable opposition groups included the Russian Opposition Coordination Council (2012–13) and The Other Russia (2006–11), as well as various non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

The political career of Vladimir Putin concerns the career of Vladimir Putin in politics, including his current tenure as President of Russia.

Assassination of Boris Nemtsov 2015 murder of a Russian opposition politician

The assassination of Boris Nemtsov, a Russian politician opposed to the government of Vladimir Putin, happened in central Moscow on Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge at 23:31 local time on 27 February 2015. An unknown assailant fired seven or eight shots from a Makarov pistol; four of them hit Boris Nemtsov in the head, heart, liver and stomach, killing him almost instantly. He died hours after appealing to the public to support a march against Russia's war in Ukraine. Nemtsov's Ukrainian partner Anna Duritskaya survived the attack as its sole eyewitness.

"Putin. War" is a report based on materials prepared by the Russian opposition politician Boris Nemtsov about the 2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. Published on the website Putin. Itogi on 12 May 2015, it covers the preparations for the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and the involvement of Russian troops in the war in Donbass. The report includes testimonials of Russian soldiers taken prisoner in Ukraine and photos of Russian military personnel who died in the hostilities.

<i>Confessions of a rebel</i> book by Boris Nemtsov

Confessions of a rebel. Politics without whoring is a book by Russian politician Boris Nemtsov, published in 2007 in Moscow publishing house Partisan, in which he describes some of the political events of the 1990s, the beginning of his political career, presents his views on the problems of Russian society. Nemtsov, in particular, regrets that the SPS support Vladimir Putin's candidacy in the presidential elections in 2000. This is the third in his series of autobiografic books: Provincial (1997), Provincial in Moscow (1999) and Confession of a rebel (2007).

First inauguration of Vladimir Putin

The First Inauguration of Vladimir Putin as the President of Russia took place on Sunday, May 7, 2000. The ceremony was held for the first time in the Grand Kremlin Palace and lasted exactly one hour.

Leonid Martynyuk

Leonid Martynyuk is a Russian opposition author, video producer and journalist.

Nemtsov is a documentary film about Boris Nemtsov, the Russian opposition leader who was assassinated in Moscow on February 27, 2015. It was written, directed, and narrated by Vladimir V. Kara-Murza, a Russian journalist and historian and a longtime friend and colleague of Nemtsov. The executive producer of the film is Renat Davletgildeev, former deputy editor-in-chief of TV Rain.

Anna Duritskaya is a Ukrainian fashion model. She was a finalist for Miss Ukraine Universe in 2018.


  1. 1 2 Борис Немцов (in Russian). Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  2. 1 2 "Петр Порошенко посмертно наградил Бориса Немцова орденом Свободы". Kommersant. 3 March 2015.
  3. 1 2 "Freedom Award Honorees".
  4. Birnbaum, Michael; Branigan, William (28 February 2015). "Putin critic, Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov killed in Moscow". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  5. Zimmerman, Malia (4 March 2015). "Crossing the Kremlin: Nemtsov latest in long line of Putin critics to wind up dead" Archived 7 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine , Fox News.
  6. 1 2 Amos, Howard; Millward, David (27 February 2015). "Leading Putin critic gunned down outside Kremlin". The Telegraph. London.
  7. Kramer, Andew E. (27 February 2015) "Boris Nemtsov, Putin Foe, Is Shot Dead in Shadow of Kremlin", The New York Times.
  8. 1 2 3 "Борис Немцов: Боюсь того, что Путин меня убьет". Sobesednik. 10 February 2015.
  9. 1 2 3 4 "Russia opposition politician Boris Nemtsov shot dead". BBC News. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  10. "Jury passes guilty verdict in Nemtsov murder case". RT. 29 June 2017.
  11. 1 2 3 Собчак: Немцов собирался опубликовать доклад об участии российских военных в войне на Украине (in Russian). RosBalt. 28 February 2015.
  12. Putin Critic Boris Nemtsov Shot Dead,, 27 February 2015.
  13. Birnbaum, Michael; Branigan, William (28 February 2015). "Putin critic, Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov killed in Moscow". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  14. Сопредседатели. Svobodanaroda (in Russian). Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  15. Борис Немцов [Boris Nemtsov]. Svobodanaroda. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  16. 1 2 3 Schmemann, Serge (2 March 2015). "The Brilliant Boris Nemtsov: A Reformer Who Never Backed Down". The New York Times.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Ioffe, Julia (28 February 2015). "After Boris Nemtsov's Assassination, 'There Are No Longer Any Limits'". The New York Times.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Krichevsky, Lev (20 May 2005). "Russian Jewish Elites and Antisemitism (07 of 13)". American Jewish Committee. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009.
  19. Russian Opposition Blames Putin for Murder of Jewish Politician Boris Nemtsov, Jewish Business News, 28 February 2015
  20. Allensworth, Wayne (1998). The Russian Question. Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN   0-8476-9003-2. p. 289
  21. "Немцов Борис (Ефимович)". Финансовый словарь Финам.
  22. "Boris Nemtsov". Moscow Times. 25 March 2011.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 "Profile of Boris Nemtsov: Russia's newest first deputy premier". Jamestown Foundation Prism. 18 April 1997. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  24. Nemtsov, B. SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS),; accessed 30 April 2018.
  25. Nemtsov, Boris (1991). "Coherent mechanism of sound generation during vapor condensation" (PDF). Akusticheskii Zhurnal. 37 (5): 970–977. Bibcode:1991AkZh...37..970N.
  26. Kotyusov, A. N.; Nemtsov, B. (1991). "Acoustic "laser"" (PDF). Akusticheskii Zhurnal. 37 (1): 123–29.
  27. "Борис Немцов: биография убитого оппозиционера". 28 February 2015.
  28. 1 2 3 4 Chinayeva, Elena (1996). "Boris Nemtsov, A Rising Star of the Russian Provinces". Transitions. 2 (4): 36–38.
  29. Leonid Bershidsky (27 February 2015). "The Russia That Died With Boris Nemtsov". Bloomberg.
  30. 1 2 Isabella Kolar (2 March 2015). "Interview mit Boris Nemzow von 2014". Deutschland Radio. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  31. York, Geoffrey (March 1997). "From the archives: Yeltsin recruits top young reformer Nemtsov". The Globe and Mail . Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  32. White, Gregory L. (28 February 2015). "Nemtsov's Career Traces Arc of Russia's Dimmed Hopes for Democracy". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Shakirov, Mumin (2 February 2011). "Who was Mister Putin? An Interview with Boris Nemtsov". Open Democracy. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  34. Yeltsin, Boris N. (2000). Midnight Diaries. translated by Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. p. 99. ISBN   1-56511-413-2.
  35. 1 2 "Frozen Out". The Economist. 6 January 2011.
  36. Peterson, D.J. (2005). Russia and the Information Revolution. Rand Corporation. ISBN   0-8330-4101-0.
  37. "Boris Nemtsov: From reformist wonder boy to disgruntled opposition leader". Russia: RT. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  38. 1 2 Smorodinskaya, ed. (28 October 2013). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Russian. Routledge. p. 420. ISBN   1-136-78786-0.
  39. Danks, Catherine (2014). Politics Russia. Routledge. p. 433. ISBN   978-1317867418.
  40. Pronina, Lyuba (20 December 2005). "Nemtsov resigns from bank post", Moscow Times.
  41. 1 2 "Ukraine President Appoints Former Liberal Russian Lawmaker", Dow Jones International News, 14 February 2005.
  42. "Ukraine Lawmakers Urge Yushchenko To Sack Russian Adviser", Dow Jones International News, 3 June 2005.
  43. RIA Novosti (9 October 2006). "Ukraine President Dismisses Boris Nemtsov from Adviser Post".
  44. "Nemtsov no longer presidential candidate",, 26 December 2007.
  45. "Russia's March 2008 Presidential Election: Outcome and Implications". CSR. 13 March 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  46. "Russian Opposition Founds New Movement". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 December 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  47. "Nemtsov To Run For Mayor of Sochi". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 13 March 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  48. "Kremlin critic in ammonia attack". BBC News. 23 March 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  49. Keating, Joshua (1 March 2010). "Why is a subtropical gangster's paradise hosting the next Winter Olympics?". Foreign Policy.
  50. "Pro-Putin mayor elected in Sochi". BBC News. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
  51. "Kremlin foes create new opposition party". Sputnik. 13 December 2010.
  52. "Путин призвал не допустить во власть тех, кто "поураганил" в 90-е годы". РИА Новости. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  53. Борис Немцов стал именем нарицательным. Kommersant , 24 February 2011
  54. 1 2 "Nemtsov Alleges Billions Embezzled From Sochi Olympics". Radio Free Europe: Radio Liberty. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  55. "Police arrest scores at opposition rally in Russia". The New York Times. 25 November 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  56. Schwirtz, Michael (3 January 2011). "Arrests in Russia Signal Divisions Over Dissent". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  57. Ellen Barry (6 January 2011). "Russians React Badly to U.S. Criticism on Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  58. Russian activists jailed over freedom of assembly protest 4 January 2011
  59. "19 held at Moscow protests of opposition jailing". The Washington Post . Associated Press. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2011.[ dead link ]
  60. Russian opposition leader Nemtsov's 15-day sentence legal – Moscow court decision, Sputnik News. 12 January 2011
  61. Daniel Sandford (6 December 2011). "Russia election: Protesters defy rally ban in Moscow". BBC News. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  62. Shlapentokh, V. (2010). "Social Inequality in Post-communist Russia: The Attitudes of the Political Elite and the Masses (1991-1998)". Europe-Asia Studies. 51 (7): 1167. doi:10.1080/09668139998480.
  63. Anna Nemtsova (26 September 2011). "To the Streets!". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  64. Garry Kasparov; Boris Nemtsov (15 March 2012). "The Right Way to Sanction Russia". Wall Street Journal.
  65. Brian Whitmore (5 December 2013). "The Bolotnaya Maydan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  66. Boris Nemtsov: Downing of Boeing in Donetsk area is terrorist act of 9/11 scale". Charter 97. 18 July 2014[ better source needed ]
  67. Немцов рассказал, при каком условии возможно возвращение Крыма Украине [Nemtsov told under what conditions Crimea may return to Ukraine] (in Russian). Obozrevatel. 21 November 2014.
  68. "Boris Nemtsov: Why does Putin wage war with Ukraine?", Kyiv Post, 1 September 2014. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian)
  69. A Threat to National Security,, February 2016; accessed 30 April 2018.
  70. Calamur, Krishnadev (27 February 2015). "Putin Critic Boris Nemtsov Shot Dead". NPR. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  71. "Полное интервью Немцова "Собеседнику": Если бы я боялся Путина, то..." 27 February 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  72. 1 2 3 Kramer, Andrew (28 February 2015). "Fear Envelops Russia After Killing of Putin Critic Boris Nemtsov". The New York Times.
  73. Vasiliev, Nikita (28 February 2015). "Круглосуточная камера зафиксировала убийство Немцова" [CCTV recorded murder of Nemtsov]. TV Centre Russian: ТВ Центр (in Russian). Moscow. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  74. "Russia opposition politician Boris Nemtsov shot dead". BBC News. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  75. В квартире Немцова проводится обыск [A search is going on in Nemtsov's flat] (in Russian). Russia: RBK. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  76. "After Boris Nemtsov's Assassination, 'There Are No Longer Any Limits'" . Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  77. Tanas, Olga & Jason Corcoran (27 February 2015). "Thousands March for Russia Opposition After Nemtsov Murdered". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  78. "Boris Nemtsov murder: Tens of thousands march in Moscow". BBC. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  79. 1 2 3 "Reaction to death of Boris Nemtsov". BBC News. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  80. "The Observer view on the death of Boris Nemtsov". The Guardian. 28 February 2015.
  81. "Putin vows to punish killers of Kremlin critic, as opposition condemns 'political murder'". The Journal. February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  82. "Boris Nemtsov allies fear killers of Russian politician will escape justice". The Guardian. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  83. "Poland awards daughter of slain Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov". Fox News. 4 August 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
  84. "Russian Activists Dedicate Monument To Slain Boris Nemtsov". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  85. Власти Нижнего Новгорода согласовали марш памяти Бориса Немцова. Радио Свобода (in Russian). Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  86. "Public Hearing Notice" (PDF).
  87. "B22-0539 – Boris Nemtsov Plaza Designation Act of 2017".
  88. CNN, Maegan Vazquez. "DC street in front of Russian embassy renamed to honor Putin critic".
  89. "House passes series of measures hitting Russia, Putin".
  90. "Report blames Chechen leader over killing of Kremlin critic". Yahoo! News. 23 February 2016. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  91. "Russia: Five men stand trial for Boris Nemtsov murder". Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  92. "Nemtsov killer sentenced to 20 yrs. behind bars, accomplices to 11–19 yrs". RT International. 13 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  93. "5 guilty in Nemtsov murder trial, 'mastermind' still at large". RT International. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  94. "Jury passes guilty verdict in Nemtsov murder case". RT. 29 June 2017.
  95. Указ Президента РФ от 10 марта 1995 г. N 260 "О награждении медалью ордена "За заслуги перед Отечеством" II степени"
  96. Депутаты Госдумы получили к празднику медали и погоны (in Russian). 23 February 2001. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  97. "Boris Nemtsov". 5 April 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  98. "Чем запомнился Борис Немцов?". 28 February 2015.
  99. "Валерий Шанцев, Евгений Люлин, Борис Немцов, Евгений Крестьянинов, Владимир Иванов и Дмитрий Бедняков будут награждены почетным знаком Заксобрания Нижегородской области "За заслуги"". 26 March 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  100. "Указ Президента Украины No 698/2006". Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  101. "Żanna Niemcowa: mój ojciec oddał życie za wolną Rosję" (in Polish). TVN24. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  102. "Борису Немцову посмертно присуждена "Премия свободы" в США". BBC. 10 September 2015.
  103. "IRI to Honor Speaker Boehner, Mo Ibrahim & Boris Nemtsov with 2015 Freedom Award". International Republican Institute.
  104. Putin. Results. 10 years. 2010,
  105. Putin: What 10 Years of Putin Have Brought 2010. Translated into English. 0Создание сайта: Павел Елизаров.
  106. "The Nemtsov White Paper, Part V – Putin the Thief". La Russophobe. 3 April 2011.
  107. "Путин. Война – Открытая Россия". Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  108. "Nemtsov Report Details Human and Financial Costs of War in Ukraine", Moscow Times, 12 May 2015.
  109. Kramer, Andrew E. (12 May 2015). "Kremlin Critic's Posthumous Report Links Russian Soldiers to Ukraine". The New York Times.