Boris Spassky at the Thessaloniki Olympiad, 1984
|Full name||Boris Vasilievich Spassky|
|Country||Soviet Union (until 1978)|
Russia (since 2012)
|Born||January 30, 1937|
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|FIDE rating||2548 (July 2019) [inactive]|
|Peak rating||2690 (January 1971)|
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Russian : Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster. He was the tenth World Chess Champion, holding the title from 1969 to 1972. Spassky played three world championship matches: he lost to Tigran Petrosian in 1966; defeated Petrosian in 1969 to become world champion; then lost to Bobby Fischer in a famous match in 1972.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga sometime before the 7th century. Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi, janggi, and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the modern rules were standardized in the 19th century.
Grandmaster (GM) is a title awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain.
Spassky won the Soviet Chess Championship twice outright (1961, 1973), and twice lost in playoffs (1956, 1963), after tying for first place during the event proper. He was a World Chess Championship candidate on seven occasions (1956, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1977, 1980, and 1985). In addition to his candidates wins in 1965 and 1968, he reached the semi-final stage in 1974 and the final stage in 1977.
The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess's international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship. The winner of the Candidates earns the right to a match for the World Championship against the incumbent World Champion. The most recent FIDE World Chess Candidates tournament took place in Berlin from 10–28 March 2018.
The 1975 World Chess Championship was not played due to a dispute over the match format. Champion Bobby Fischer was to play Anatoly Karpov in Manila, commencing June 1, 1975. Fischer refused to play the then-standard "Best of 24 games" match, and after FIDE was unable to work out a compromise, forfeited his title instead. Karpov was named World Champion by default on April 3, 1975.
The 1978 World Chess Championship was played between Anatoly Karpov and Viktor Korchnoi in Baguio City, Philippines from July 18 to October 18, 1978. Karpov won, thereby retaining the title.
Spassky emigrated to France in 1976, becoming a French citizen in 1978. He continued to compete in tournaments but was no longer a major contender for the world title. He lost an unofficial rematch against Fischer in 1992. In 2012 he left France and returned to Russia. He is the oldest living former world champion.
The 1992 match between former World Chess Champions Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky was billed as a World Chess Championship, but was unofficial. It was a rematch of the 1972 World Championship match. The match started in Sveti Stefan near Budva, an island off the coast of Montenegro. The match rules required a player to win ten games, with no . After a player had won five games, the match would take a 10-day recess and continue in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. Both places were at the time part of the same country, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was under UN sports sanctions because of the Breakup of Yugoslavia. Fischer's participation led to a conflict with the US government, which warned Fischer that his participation in the match would violate an executive order imposing US sanctions on Yugoslavia. The US government ultimately issued a warrant for his arrest. After that, Fischer lived his life as an émigré.
Spassky was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) to Russian parents. His father Vasili Vladimirovich Spassky served in military.He came from the family of Vladimir Alexandrovich Spassky, a prominent Russian Orthodox priest of the Kursk Governorate, later a protoiereus of the Russian Church (since 1916), as well as a State Duma deputy (1912–1917) and an active member of the Union of the Russian People. Boris' mother Ekaterina Petrovna Spasskaya (nee Petrova) was a school teacher. She was born in the Ryadnevo village of the Gdov district (now Pskov Oblast) as an illegitimate daughter of Daria Ivanovna Ivanova (who belonged to local peasants) and Andrei Kupriyanovich Kupriyanov, a landlord who owned houses in Saint Petersburg and Pskov. After some time Daria Ivanovna fled to Petersburg, leaving her daughter with Petr Vasiliev, a relative of hers, who raised Ekaterina under the surname of Petrova. She joined her mother later on.
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.
Russians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe, the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The majority of ethnic Russians live in the Russian Federation, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Brazil, and Canada. The culture of the ethnic Russian people has a long tradition and it is a foundation for the modern culture of the whole of Russia. The Russian language originally was the language of ethnic Russians. They are historically Orthodox Christians by religion.
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'. The ROC, as well as the primate thereof, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, which was finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019.
Spassky learned to play chess at the age of 5 on a train evacuating from Leningrad during the siege of Leningrad in World War II. He first drew wide attention in 1947 at age 10, when he defeated Soviet champion Mikhail Botvinnik in a simultaneous exhibition in Leningrad.Spassky's early coach was Vladimir Zak, a respected master and trainer. During his youth, from the age of 10, Spassky often worked on chess for several hours a day with master-level coaches. He set records as the youngest Soviet player to achieve first category rank (age 10), candidate master rank (age 11), and Soviet Master rank (age 15). In 1952, at 15, Spassky scored 50 percent in the Soviet Championship semi-final at Riga, and placed second in the Leningrad Championship that same year, being highly praised by Botvinnik.
The Siege of Leningrad was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany against the Soviet city of Leningrad on the Eastern Front in World War II. The Finnish army invaded from the north, co-operating with the Germans until they had recaptured territory lost in the recent Winter War, but refused to make further approaches to the city.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963. Working as an electrical engineer and computer scientist at the same time, he was one of the very few players who achieved distinction in another career while playing top-class competitive chess. He was also a pioneer of computer chess.
As a statistic encompassing all of the games of his career, Spassky's most-played openings with both the White and Black pieces were the Sicilian Defence and the Ruy Lopez.
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves:
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves:
Spassky has beaten six undisputed World Champions at least twice (not necessarily while they were reigning): Vasily Smyslov, Mikhail Tal, Tigran Petrosian, Bobby Fischer, Anatoly Karpov, and Garry Kasparov.
Spassky made his international debut in 1953, aged 16, in Bucharest, Romania, finishing tied for fourth placewith Laszlo Szabo on 12/19, an event won by his trainer, Alexander Tolush. At Bucharest he defeated Vasily Smyslov, who challenged for the World Championship the following year. He was awarded the title of International Master by FIDE. In his first attempt at the Soviet Championship final, the 22nd in the series, held in Moscow 1955, Spassky tied for third place with 11½/19, after Smyslov and Efim Geller, which was sufficient to qualify him for the Gothenburg Interzonal later that year.
The same year, he won the World Junior Chess Championship held at Antwerp, Belgium, scoring 6/7 to qualify for the final,then 8/9 in the final to win by a full point over Edmar Mednis. Spassky competed for the Lokomotiv Voluntary Sports Society.
By sharing seventh place with 11/20 at Gothenburg,Spassky qualified for the 1956 Candidates' Tournament, held in Amsterdam, automatically gaining the grandmaster title, and was then the youngest to hold the title. At Amsterdam, he tied for third place with four others in the ten-player field, scoring 9½/18. At the 23rd Soviet final, held in Leningrad in January–February 1956, Spassky shared first place on 11½/19, with Mark Taimanov and Yuri Averbakh, but Taimanov won the subsequent playoff to become champion, defeating Spassky in both their games. Spassky then tied for first in a semifinal for the 24th Soviet championship, thereby qualifying.
Spassky then went into a slump in world championship qualifying events, failing to advance to the next two Interzonals (1958 and 1962), a prerequisite to earn the right to play for the world championship. This crisis coincided with the hard three final years of his first marriage before his divorce in 1961,the same year that he broke with his trainer Tolush.
In the 24th Soviet final, played at Moscow in January–February 1957, Spassky shared fourth place with Tolush,as both scored 13/21, while Mikhail Tal won the first of his six Soviet titles, which began his ascent to the world title in 1960.
Spassky's failure to qualify for the Portoroz Interzonal came after a last-round defeat at the hands of Tal, in a nervy game in the 1958 Soviet championship,held at Riga. Spassky had the advantage for much of the game, but missed a difficult win after adjournment, then declined a draw. A win would have qualified Spassky for the Interzonal, and a draw would have ensured a share of fourth place with Yuri Averbakh, with qualification possible via a playoff.
Spassky tied for first place at Moscow 1959 on 7/11, with Smyslov and David Bronstein.He shared second place in the 26th Soviet final with Tal, at Tbilisi 1959, finishing a point behind champion Tigran Petrosian, on 12½/19. Soon after Spassky notched a victory at Riga 1959, with 11½/13, one-half point in front of Vladas Mikėnas. Spassky finished in a tie for ninth at the 27th Soviet final in Leningrad, with 10/19, as fellow Leningrader Viktor Korchnoi scored his first of four Soviet titles. Spassky travelled to Argentina, where he shared first place with Bobby Fischer, two points ahead of Bronstein, at Mar del Plata 1960 on 13½/15, defeating Fischer in their first career meeting. Spassky played on board one for the USSR at the 7th Student Olympiad in Leningrad, where he won the silver, but lost the gold to William Lombardy, also losing their individual encounter.
Another disappointment for Spassky came at the qualifier for the next Interzonal, the Soviet final, played in Moscow 1961,where he again lost a crucial last-round game, this to Leonid Stein, who thus qualified, as Spassky finished equal fifth with 11/19, while Petrosian won.
Spassky decided upon a switch in trainers, from the volatile attacker Alexander Tolush to the calmer strategist Igor Bondarevsky. This proved the key to his resurgence. He won his first of two USSR titles in the 29th Soviet championship at Baku 1961, with a score of 14½/20, one-half point ahead of Lev Polugaevsky.Spassky shared second with Polugaevsky at Havana 1962 with 16/21, behind winner Miguel Najdorf. He placed joint fifth, with Leonid Stein at the 30th Soviet championship held in Yerevan 1962, with 11½/19. At Leningrad 1963, the site of the 31st Soviet final, Spassky tied for first with Stein and Ratmir Kholmov, with Stein winning the playoff, which was held in 1964. Spassky won at Belgrade 1964 with an undefeated 13/17, as Korchnoi and Borislav Ivkov shared second place with 11½. He finished fourth at Sochi 1964 with 9½/15, as Nikolai Krogius won.
In the 1964 Soviet Zonal at Moscow, a seven-player double round-robin event, Spassky won with 7/12, overcoming a start of one draw and two losses, to advance to the Amsterdam Interzonal the same year.At Amsterdam, he tied for first place, along with Mikhail Tal, Vasily Smyslov and Bent Larsen on 17/23, with all four, along with Borislav Ivkov and Lajos Portisch thus qualifying for the newly created Candidates' Matches the next year. With Bondarevsky, Spassky's style broadened and deepened, with poor results mostly banished, yet his fighting spirit was even enhanced. He added psychology and surprise to his quiver, and this proved enough to eventually propel him to the top.
Spassky was considered an all-rounder on the chess board, and his adaptable "universal style" was a distinct advantage in beating many top grandmasters. In the 1965 cycle, he beat Paul Keres in the quarterfinal round at Riga 1965 with careful strategy, triumphing in the last game to win 6–4 (+4−2=4).Also at Riga, he defeated Efim Geller with mating attacks, winning by 5½–2½ (+3−0=5). Then, in his Candidates' Final match against Mikhail Tal at Tbilisi 1965, Spassky often managed to steer play into quieter positions, either avoiding former champion Tal's tactical strength, or extracting too high a price for complications. Though losing the first game, he won by 7–4 (+4−1=6).
Spassky won two tournaments in the run-up to the final. He shared first at the third Chigorin Memorial in Sochi, in 1965 with Wolfgang Unzicker on 10½/15,then tied for first at Hastings 1965–66 with Wolfgang Uhlmann on 7½/9.
Spassky lost a keenly fought match to Petrosian in Moscow, with three wins against Petrosian's four, with seventeen draws,though the last of his three victories came only in the twenty-third game, after Petrosian had ensured his retention of the title, the first outright match victory for a reigning champion since the latter of Alekhine's successful defences against Bogoljubov in 1934. Spassky's first event after the title match was the fourth Chigorin Memorial, where he finished tied for fifth with Anatoly Lein as Korchnoi won. Spassky then finished ahead of Petrosian and a super-class field at Santa Monica 1966 (the Piatigorsky Cup), with 11½/18, half a point ahead of Bobby Fischer, as he overcame the American grandmaster's challenge after Fischer had scored 3½/9 in the first cycle of the event. Spassky also won at Beverwijk 1967 with 11/15, one-half point ahead of Anatoly Lutikov, and shared first place at Sochi 1967 on 10/15 with Krogius, Alexander Zaitsev, Leonid Shamkovich, and Vladimir Simagin.
As losing finalist in 1966, Spassky was automatically seeded into the next Candidates' cycle. In 1968, he faced Geller again, this time at Sukhumi, and won by the same margin as in 1965 (5½–2½, +3−0=5).He next met Bent Larsen at Malmö, and again won by the score of 5½–2½ after winning the first three games. The final was against his Leningrad rival Korchnoi at Kiev, and Spassky triumphed (+4−1=5), which earned him another match with Petrosian. Spassky's final tournament appearance before the match came at Palma, where he shared second place (+10−1=6) with Larsen, a point behind Korchnoi. Spassky's flexibility of style was the key to victory over Petrosian, by 12½–10½, with the site again being Moscow.
In Spassky's first appearance after winning the crown, he placed first at San Juan in October 1969 with 11½/15, one and one-half points clear of second.He then played the annual event at Palma, where he finished fifth with 10/17. While Spassky was undefeated and handed tournament victor Larsen one of his three losses, his fourteen draws kept him from seriously contending for first prize, as he came two points behind Larsen. In March–April 1970, Spassky played first board for the Soviet side in the celebrated USSR vs World event at Belgrade, where he scored +1−1=1 in the first three rounds against Larsen before Stein replaced him for the final match, as the Soviets won by the odd point, 20½–19½. He won a quadrangular event at Leiden 1970 with 7/12, a point ahead of Jan Hein Donner, who was followed by Larsen and Botvinnik, the latter of whom was making his final appearance in serious play. Spassky shared first at the annual IBM event held in Amsterdam 1970 with Polugaevsky on 11½/15. He was third at Gothenburg 1971 with 8/11, behind winners Vlastimil Hort and Ulf Andersson. He shared first with Hans Ree at the 1971 Canadian Open in Vancouver. In November and December, Spassky finished the year by tying for sixth with Tal, scoring +4−2=11, at the Alekhine Memorial in Moscow, which was won by Stein and Anatoly Karpov, the latter's first top-class success.
Spassky's reign as world champion lasted for three years, as he lost to Fischer of the United States in 1972 in the World Chess Championship 1972,popularly known as the Match of the Century. The contest took place in Reykjavík, Iceland, at the height of the Cold War, and consequently was seen as symbolic of the political confrontation between the two superpowers. Spassky accommodated many demands by Fischer, including moving the third game into a side room. The Fischer vs Spassky World championship was the most widely covered chess match in history, as mainstream media throughout the world covered the match. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger spoke with Fischer urging him to play the match, and chess was at its apex.
Going into the match, Fischer had never won a game from Spassky in five attempts, losing three. 1⁄2/81⁄2 (+7−3=11), with one of the three losses by default.In addition, Spassky had secured Geller as his coach, who also had a plus score against Fischer. However, Fischer won the title match 12
The match could be divided into halves, the first won convincingly by Fischer, and the second a close battle. Before Spassky, Mark Taimanov, Bent Larsen, and Tigran Petrosian, had lost to Fischer, but Spassky maintained his composure and competitiveness. It has been suggested that Spassky's preparation was largely bypassed by Fischer, since Spassky and his team wrongly expected Fischer to always play 1. e4 openings as White.
In February–March 1973, Spassky finished equal third at Tallinn with 9/15, three points behind Tal;he tied for first at Dortmund on 9½/15 (+5−1=9) with Hans-Joachim Hecht and Ulf Andersson. Spassky finished in fourth place at the annual IBM tournament held in Amsterdam, one point behind winners Petrosian and Albin Planinc. In September, Spassky went 10/15 to finish second to Tal in the Chigorin Memorial at Sochi by a point. In the 41st Soviet Championship at Moscow, Spassky scored 11½/17 to win by a full point in a field which included all the top Soviet grandmasters of the time.
In the 1974 Candidates' matches, Spassky first defeated American Robert Byrne in San Juan, Puerto Rico by 4½–1½ (+3−0=3);he then lost the semifinal match to Anatoly Karpov in Leningrad, despite winning the first game, (+1−4=6). In Spassky's only tournament action of 1974, he played at Solingen, finishing with 8½/14 (+4−1=9), thus sharing third with Bojan Kurajica, behind joint winners Lubomir Kavalek and Polugaevsky, who scored 10.
During 1975, Spassky played two events, the first being the annual tournament at Tallinn, where he finished equal second with Fridrik Olafsson, scoring 9½/15 (+5−1=9), one point behind Keres,the last international event won by the latter before his sudden death in June 1975. In October–November, Spassky finished second to Geller at the Alekhine Memorial in Moscow with a score of 10 points from fifteen games (+6−1=8).
In 1976, Spassky was obliged to return to the Interzonal stage, and finished in a tie for tenth place in Manila, [ citation needed ] then the healthy Hort used one of his own rest days, to allow Spassky more time to recover; Spassky eventually won the match.well short of qualifying for the Candidates matches, but was nominated to play after Fischer declined his place. Spassky won an exhibition match with Dutch grandmaster Jan Timman at Amsterdam 1977 by 4–2. He triumphed in extra games in his quarterfinal Candidates' match over Vlastimil Hort at Reykjavík 1977 by 8½–7½. This match saw Spassky fall ill, exhaust all his available rest days while recovering;
Spassky won an exhibition match over Robert Hübner at Solingen, 1977 by 3½–2½,then defeated Lubomir Kavalek, also at Solingen, by 4–2 in another exhibition. His next Candidates' match was against Portisch at Geneva 1977, and Spassky won by 8½–6½, to qualify for the final. At Belgrade 1977–78, Spassky lost to Korchnoi, by (+4−7=7). In this match, Spassky fell behind 2½–7½ after losing the tenth game; however, he then won four consecutive games. After draws in games fifteen and sixteen, Korchnoi won the next two games to clinch the match by the score of 10½–7½.
Spassky, as losing finalist, was seeded into the 1980 Candidates' matches, and faced Portisch again, with this match held in Mexico. After fourteen games, the match was 7–7, but Portisch advanced since he had won more games with the black pieces.Spassky missed qualification from the 1982 Toluca Interzonal with 8/13, finishing half a point short, in third place behind Portisch and Eugenio Torre, both of whom thus qualified. The 1985 Candidates' event was held as a round-robin tournament at Montpellier, France, and Spassky was nominated as an organizer's choice. He scored 8/15 to tie for sixth place with Alexander Beliavsky, behind joint winners Andrei Sokolov, Rafael Vaganian, and Artur Yusupov, and one-half point short of potentially qualifying via a playoff. This was Spassky's last appearance at the Candidates' level.
Spassky played five times for the USSR in Student Olympiads, winning eight medals. He scored 38½/47 (+31−1=15), for 81.91 percent. His complete results are:
Spassky played twice for the USSR in the European Team Championships, winning four gold medals. He scored 8½/12 (+5−0=7), for 70.83 percent. His complete results are:
Spassky played seven times for the Soviet Olympiad team. He won thirteen medals, and scored 69/94 (+45−1=48), for 73.40 percent. His complete results are:
Spassky played board one in the USSR vs Rest of the World match at Belgrade 1970, scoring (+1−1=1) against Larsen.
Spassky then represented France in three Olympiads, on board one in each case. For Thessaloniki 1984, he scored 8/14 (+2−0=12). At Dubai 1986, he scored 9/14 (+4−0=10). Finally at Thessaloniki 1988, he scored 7½/13 (+3−1=9). He also played board one for France at the inaugural World Team Championships, Lucerne 1985, where he scored 5½/9 (+3−1=5).
In his later years, Spassky showed a reluctance to devote himself completely to chess. In 1976, Spassky emigrated to France with his third wife; he became a French citizen in 1978, and has competed for France in the Chess Olympiads. Spassky later lived with his wife in Meudon near Paris.
Spassky did, however, score some notable triumphs in his later years. In his return to tournament play after the loss to Korchnoi, he tied for first at Bugojno 1978 on 10/15 with Karpov,with both players scoring +6-1=8 to finish a point ahead of Timman. He was clear first at Montilla–Moriles 1978 with 6½/9. At Munich 1979, he tied for first place with 8½/13, with Yuri Balashov, Andersson and Robert Hübner. He shared first at Baden in 1980, on 10½/15 with Alexander Beliavsky. He won his preliminary group at Hamburg 1982 with 5½/6, but lost the final playoff match to Anatoly Karpov in extra games. His best result during this period was clear first at Linares 1983 with 6½/10, ahead of Karpov and Ulf Andersson, who shared second. At London Lloyds' Bank Open 1984, he tied for first with John Nunn and Murray Chandler, on 7/9. He won at Reykjavík 1985. At Brussels 1985, he placed second with 10½/13 behind Korchnoi. At Reggio Emilia 1986, he tied for 2nd–5th places with 6/11 behind Zoltán Ribli. He swept Fernand Gobet 4–0 in a match at Fribourg 1987. He finished equal first at the Plaza tournament in the New Zealand International Festival of the Arts at Wellington in 1988, with Chandler and Eduard Gufeld. Spassky's Elo rating was in the world top ten continually throughout the early 1980s until it dropped out in 1983, and intermittently throughout the mid 1980s until it dropped out for the final time in 1987.
However, Spassky's performances in the World Cup events of 1988 and 1989 showed that he could by this stage finish no higher than the middle of the pack against elite fields. He participated in three of the six events of the World Cup. At Belfort, he scored 8/15 for a joint 4th–7th place, as Garry Kasparov won.At Reykjavík, he scored 7/17 for a joint 15th–16th place, with Kasparov again winning. Finally, at Barcelona, Spassky scored 7½/16 for a tied 8th–12th place, as Kasparov shared first with Ljubomir Ljubojević.
Spassky played in the 1990 French Championship at Angers, placing fourth with 10½/15, as Marc Santo Roman won.At Salamanca 1991, he placed 2nd with 7½/11 behind winner Evgeny Vladimirov. Then in the 1991 French Championship at Montpellier, he scored 9½/15 for a tied 4th–5th place, as Santo Roman won again.
In 1992, Bobby Fischer, after a twenty-year hiatus from chess, re-emerged to arrange a "Revenge Match of the 20th century" against Spassky in Montenegro and Belgrade; this was a rematch of the 1972 World Championship. At the time, Spassky was rated 106th in the FIDE rankings, and Fischer did not appear on the list at all, owing to his inactivity. This match was essentially Spassky's last major challenge. Spassky lost the match with a score of +5−10=15. However, Spassky earned $1.65 million for losing the match.Spassky then played the young prodigy Judit Polgár in a 1993 match at Budapest, losing narrowly by 4½–5½.
Spassky continued to play occasional events through much of the 1990s, such as the Veterans vs Women match in Prague, 1995.
On October 1, 2006, Spassky suffered a minor stroke during a chess lecture in San Francisco. In his first major post-stroke play, he drew a six-game rapid match with Hungarian Grandmaster Lajos Portisch in April 2007.
On 27 March 2010, at 73 years old, he became the oldest surviving former World Chess Champion following the death of Vasily Smyslov.
On September 23, 2010, ChessBase reported that Spassky had suffered a more serious stroke that had left him paralyzed on his left side.After that he returned to France for a long rehabilitation programme. On August 16, 2012, Spassky left France to return to Russia under disputed circumstances and now lives in an apartment in Moscow.
On 25 September 2016, he made a public speech at the opening of the Tal Memorial tournament. He said he had "the very brightest memories" of Mikhail Tal and told an anecdote from the 15th Chess Olympiad about Soviet analysis of an adjourned game between Fischer and Botvinnik. He was described by Chess24 as being 'sprightly'.
|This section uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves.|
Spassky's best years were as a youthful prodigy in the mid-1950s, and in the mid to late 1960s. It is generally believed that he began to lose ambition once he became world champion. Some[ who? ] suggest the first match with Fischer took a severe nervous toll, but others disagree, and claim that as he was a sportsman who appreciated his opponent's skill. He applauded Fischer in Game 6 of their 1972 match, and defended Fischer when the latter was detained near Narita Airport in 2004.
Spassky has been described by many as a universal player.Never a true openings expert, at least when compared to contemporaries such as Geller and Fischer, he excelled in the middlegame and in tactics.
Spassky succeeded with a wide variety of openings, including the King's Gambit, 1.e4 e5 2.f4, an aggressive and risky line rarely seen at the top level. The chess game between "Kronsteen" and "McAdams" in the early part of the James Bond movie From Russia With Love is based on a game in that opening played between Spassky and David Bronstein in 1960 in which Spassky ("Kronsteen") was victorious.
His contributions to opening theory extend to reviving the Marshall Attack for Black in the Ruy Lopez (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 0-0 8.c3 d5), developing the Leningrad Variation for White in the Nimzo-Indian Defence (1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.Bg5), the Spassky Variation on the Black side of the Nimzo-Indian, and the Closed Variation of the Sicilian Defence for White (1.e4 c5 2.Nc3). A variation of the B19 Caro-Kann (1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Bf5 5.Ng3 Bg6 6.h4 h6 7.Nf3 Nd7 8.h5) also bears his name, as does a rare line in the King's Indian Attack (1.Nf3 Nf6 2.g3 b5!?).
Spassky was played by Liev Schreiber in the 2014 film, Pawn Sacrifice .
Boris was married three times. His first wife (1959–1961) was Nadezda Konstantinovna Latyntceva. Together they have one daughter, Tatiana (born 1960). His second wife was Larisa Zakharovna Solovyova. They gave birth to a son, Vasili Solovyov-Spassky (born 1967). His third marriage happened in 1975 in France to Marina Yurievna Shcherbachova, granddaughter of the Russian war general and a White movement activist Dmitry Shcherbachev. They have a son, Boris Spassky Jr. (born 1980).
His younger sister Iraida Spasskaya (born November 6, 1944) is a four-times champion of the Soviet Union in Russian draughts and the World vice-champion in international draughts (1974).
Boris Spassky described himself as an Orthodox Christian, a monarchist and a Russian nationalist.
As for my views—I'm a Russian nationalist, and there's nothing scary about it, don't be afraid. Some say that Russian nationalist is a nasty thing, most definitely an antisemite, a racist, a national-Bolshevik. No; for a nationalist God exists and nations that respect each other.
I'm a convinced monarchist, I remained a monarchist during the Soviet years and never tried to hide that. I believe that the greatness of Russia is connected to the activity of the national leaders represented by our tsars.
What really makes me feel happy in modern Russia—churches come back to life.
During his meeting with fans in Kaliningrad in 2005 Spassky stated: "If only I knew what was going to happen to our country, I would've joined the Communist Party."
In 2005 Spassky signed the Letter of 5,000 addressed to the Prosecutor General of Russia, along with Igor Shafarevich, Vyacheslav Klykov, Vasily Belov and other activists. The petition suggested that all religious and national Jewish organizations that functioned on the territory of Russia according to the Shulchan Aruch codes should be shut down for extremism, warning about a "hidden campaign of genocide against the Russian people and their traditional society and values". Spassky later called his signature a mistake.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion. He was the official world champion from 1975 to 1985 when he was defeated by Garry Kasparov. He played three matches against Kasparov for the title from 1986 to 1990, before becoming FIDE World Champion once again after Kasparov broke away from FIDE in 1993. He held the title until 1999, when he resigned his title in protest against FIDE's new world championship rules. For his decades-long standing among the world's elite, many consider Karpov one of the greatest players in history.
Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian was an Armenian-Soviet Grandmaster, and World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969. He was nicknamed "Iron Tigran" due to his almost impenetrable defensive playing style, which emphasised safety above all else.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal was a Soviet chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion.
Leonid Zakharovich Stein was a Soviet chess Grandmaster from Ukraine. He won three USSR Chess Championships in the 1960s, and was among the world's top ten players during that era.
This is a timeline of chess.
Oscar R. Panno is an Argentine chess Grandmaster. Panno was the first top world chess player born in South America.
Robert James Fischer was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion. Many consider him to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Boris Abramovich Gelfand is an Israeli chess player. He was awarded the title Grandmaster by FIDE in 1989.
Igor Zakharovich Bondarevsky was a Soviet Russian chess Grandmaster in both over-the-board and correspondence chess, an International Arbiter, trainer, and chess author. Bondarevsky shared the 1940 Soviet title, and later coached World Champion Boris Spassky.
At the World Chess Championship 1963 Tigran Petrosian narrowly qualified to challenge Mikhail Botvinnik for the World Chess Championship, and then won the match to become the ninth World Chess Champion. The cycle is particularly remembered for the controversy surrounding the Candidates' Tournament at Curaçao in 1962, which resulted in FIDE changing the format of the Candidates Tournament to a series of knockout matches.
The 1966 World Chess Championship was played between Tigran Petrosian and Boris Spassky in Moscow from April 9 to June 9, 1966. Petrosian won.
The 1969 World Chess Championship was played between Tigran Petrosian and Boris Spassky in Moscow from April 14 to June 17, 1969. Spassky won.
Events in chess in 1970;
Events in chess in 1971;
Events in chess in 1973:
Events in chess in 1974;
Events in chess in 1976;
Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi was a Soviet and Swiss chess grandmaster and writer. He is considered one of the strongest players never to have become World Chess Champion.
The major chess events of 1981 were the final match of the Candidates Tournament and the second Karpov–Korchnoi World Chess Championship match.
I would not like to defend or justify Bobby Fischer. He is what he is. I am asking only for one thing. For mercy, charity. If for some reason it is impossible, I would like to ask you the following: Please correct the mistake of President François Mitterrand in 1992. Bobby and myself committed the same crime. Put sanctions against me also. Arrest me. And put me in the same cell with Bobby Fischer. And give us a chess set.
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