Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County within Hungary
|• President of the General Assembly||Dezső Török (Fidesz-KDNP)|
|• Total||7,249.67 km2 (2,799.11 sq mi)|
|Area rank||2nd in Hungary|
|• Rank||2nd in Hungary|
34xx – 39xx
|Area code(s)||(+36) 46, 47, 48, 49|
|ISO 3166 code||HU-BZ|
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén (Hungarian : Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén megye, pronounced [ˈborʃod ˈɒbɒuːj ˈzɛmpleːn] ; Slovak : Boršodsko-abovsko-zemplínska) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in north-eastern Hungary (commonly called "Northern Hungary"), on the border with Slovakia (Košice Region). It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Nógrád, Heves, Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. The capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county is Miskolc. Of the seven statistical regions of Hungary it belongs to the region Northern Hungary.
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is the second largest county of Hungary both by area (after Bács-Kiskun) and by population (after Pest County). It is the only Hungarian county with two UNESCO World Heritage Sites (the Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst and the Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape).
The county bears the name of three historic counties of Hungary, each of them was centered around a castle.
Note that besides these three castles, there were other castles in the old counties which became the modern Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, such as the well-known Füzérvár.
The county's coat of arms was created in 1991 from the coats of arms of the former counties now forming parts of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén. From left to right: Coat of arms of Abaúj-Torna county. – Coat of arms of Zemplén county. – Coat of arms of Borsod county. – Coat of arms of Gömör / Gömör-Kishont county(with its red background color changed to the same blue as used in the coat of arms of Abaúj).
The flag is vertically divided into two equal sections (red and blue), with the coat of arms on it, and the county's name embroidered with gold thread under the coat of arms. Its ratio is 2:1. The use of both coat of arms and flag is regulated by the county council.
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is one of the most geographically diverse areas of Hungary. It lies where the Northern Mountains meet the Great Hungarian Plain, thus the northern parts of the county are mountainous – with some of the highest peaks and deepest caves in the country –, the southern parts are flat. The average temperature is lower than that of the country, the average humidity is higher (7–800 mm/year.) The region holds the country's record for lowest temperature: −35 °C (−31 °F) on 16 February 1940 in the town of Görömböly-Tapolca (now Miskolctapolca.)
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county was created after World War II from the pre-1938 counties Borsod-Gömör-Kishont, Abaúj-Torna and Zemplén (see also: 1950 Administrative Reform in Hungary).
The historical comitatus (Hungarian: vármegye – "castle county", since each of them belonged to a castle) came into existence during the Middle Ages. Borsod county belonged to the Castle of Borsod, Abaúj belonged to the Castle of Újvár (in the modern village of Abaújvár) and Zemplén belonged to the Castle of Zemplén (today in Slovakia.)
At this time the area of Borsod also included the later county Torna, and Abaúj also included the later counties Sáros and Heves. In the 12th century the former Abaúj comitatus was split into Abaúj, Heves and Sáros counties, while Torna was separated from Borsod. For the next hundreds of years the borders remained unchanged.
About two-thirds of the areas of these counties were royal property, the others were ruled by clans, for example the Miskóc clan (after whom the city of Miskolc was named.) The area was inhabited mostly by castle serfs and foreign settlers (Pechenegs, Walloons, Czechs and Germans.) By the 12th century more and more areas were owned by noble families and the Church. Most of Borsod was ruled by the Bors-Miskóc clan, while Abaúj was the estate of the Aba clan.
By the 14th century most of the area was owned by oligarchs. To straighten his rule Charles Robert waged war against them. Palatine Amadé Aba (Genus Aba) was "de facto" ruler of Northern Hungary. Charles Robert betrayed and defeated Amadé in the Battle of Rozgony in 1312, and also gained power over Northern Hungary.
The differences between towns and villages became important during the Anjou age of Hungary. In Borsod and Abaúj the Free Royal Town of Kassa (today's Košice, Slovakia) and Miskolc emerged as the most important towns. The Castle of Diósgyőr had its prime under Louis the Great, it was one of the favourite residences of the royal family.
In the 16th century wine growing gained more importance. Today Tokaj-Hegyalja in Zemplén is one of the most important and famous wine districts of Hungary, home of the famous Tokay wine (named after the town Tokaj, the center of the wine district.)
After the battle of Mohács, as the Turks occupied more and more of the Southern territories of Hungary, the area of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, as the northernmost part of the country, became an important area. After the Turkish occupation ended, and Hungary became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, the area – because of its distance from Austria – was the main base of the resistance, and held this status until the Ausgleich ("Compromise"), when Hungary, formerly a mere province of the Empire, became an equal partner with Austria (1867). The family of Francis II Rákóczi (leader of the Revolution against Habsburg rule in the early 18th century) had estates here, and the revolution itself was organised from here.
The region also had cultural importance. The Reformation began its spreading in Hungary in this area, and the first Protestant college was opened in Sárospatak. Many of the important persons of the Age of Enlightenment grew up in this region, for example the important politicians Lajos Kossuth, Bertalan Szemere and László Palóczy, and the language reformer Ferenc Kazinczy.
During the 18th century several towns bought their freedom from their feudal landowners. New guilds were formed, manufactures were built, mines were opened, glassworks and forges were built. Miskolc began to catch up with Kassa and take over the role as the leading city of the region, and because of this Borsod was the fastest developing county of the three counties. Many foreign settlers arrived, Slovaks, Greeks, Germans, Russians – even today there are whole villages with significant number of them. According to the census of 1787 Borsod, Abaúj and Zemplén had almost 500,000 inhabitants.
After the Ausgleich Northern Hungary – just like the other parts of the country – experienced an era of prosperity and fast development. New factories, railway lines were built, the population grew. In 1882 Abaúj county was merged with Torna, and was renamed Abaúj-Torna.
Furthermore, a large population of Jews was established during this time period. The famous film mogul who created Paramount Pictures, Adolph Zukor, was born in Ricse, a town in this county.
After World War I and the Treaty of Trianon Hungary had to give up its northern parts to Czechoslovakia. Abaúj-Torna had to give up 48% of its area, 72% of Zemplén became part of Czechoslovakia, only Borsod remained fully within Hungary. The neighboring county of Gömör-Kishont retained 7.5% of its area, and remaining parts were merged with Borsod. The county seats were Miskolc (Borsod-Gömör-Kishont), Szikszó (Abaúj-Torna) and Sátoraljaújhely (Zemplén).
Under the First Vienna Award, arbitrated by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy following the Munich Agreement, Hungary re-annexed territories that has been ceded to Czechoslovakia. During World War II Kassa was the capital of Abaúj-Torna. After Allied Victory in Europe, the pre-1938 borders were reinstated. The administration of the country needed to revert to pre-war status quo, since most of the land grabs proved temporary. Hundreds of thousands of Hungarians remaining in Slovakia were forcibly expelled. In 1950 the Hungarian parts of the former counties Borsod-Gömör-Kishont, Abaúj-Torna and Zemplén were united, forming the county of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, with Miskolc being the county capital.
During the Socialist era the region was developed into the centre of heavy industry. Whole new towns came into existence in place of small villages (Tiszaújváros, Kazincbarcika), the industrial character of existing cities became more important (Miskolc, Ózd.) Urbanization was rapid, workers from all over the country were arriving in these cities and towns, and the population of Miskolc reached its highest level in the 1980s (around 211.000.) The end of the Socialist era and the recession of the 1990s hit hard, the unemployment rate is one of the highest of the country, and the local governments try to get over the crisis by strengthening the touristic potential. This seems to be a good idea, since Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is a geographically diverse area with rich natural and cultural treasures.
In 2015, it had a population of 667,594 and the population density was 92/km2.
Besides the Hungarian majority, the main minorities are the Roma (approx. 58,000), Germans (2,500), Slovaks (2,000) and Rusyns (1,500).
Total population (2011 census): 686,266
Ethnic groups (2011 census): Identified themselves: 643,950 persons:
Approx. 89,000 persons in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County did not declare their ethnic group at the 2011 census.
Religious adherence in the county according to 2011 census:
|1|| Cigánd District |
|2|| Edelény District |
|3|| Encs District |
|4|| Gönc District |
|5|| Kazincbarcika District |
|6|| Mezőcsát District |
|7|| Mezőkövesd District |
|8|| Miskolc District |
|9|| Ózd District |
|10|| Putnok District |
|11|| Sárospatak District |
|12|| Sátoraljaújhely District |
|13|| Szerencs District |
|14|| Szikszó District |
|15|| Tiszaújváros District |
|16|| Tokaj District |
Due to the emphasis on industrialization during the former Socialist regime and the county's richness in brown coal, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén has become one of the leading industrial regions of the country, "the Ruhr Area of Hungary". The most important centres of heavy industry were Miskolc, Ózd, Tiszaújváros and Kazincbarcika. With the fall of the Socialist regime the industry faced a crisis, and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is among the counties that have the highest rate of unemployment and also the lowest rates of GDP per capita in Hungary.
The county is the site of the Borsod Power Plant, one of the largest biomass power plants in Hungary.
The Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County Council, elected at the 2019 local government elections, is made up of 29 counselors,with the following party composition:
|Party||Seats||Current County Assembly|
|List of Presidents, from 1990|
|Dezső Török (Fidesz-KDNP)||2014–|
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County has 1 urban county, 27 towns, 8 large villages and 322 villages.
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is the county of extremes: it is the home of the country's fourth largest city and second largest agglomeration, where one fourth of the county' population resides, on the other hand, the county is full of hamlets with population under 200. Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén has 28 cities/towns (as of 2019) and over 300 villages. With a total of 358 cities, towns and villages this county has the most municipalities in Hungary. Approximately half of the population lives in cities/towns.
(ordered by population, as of 2011 census)
municipalities are large villages.
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County has a partnership relationship with:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County .|
Gömör was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the 19th century, and in the beginning of the 20th century, it was united with the Kis-Hont County to form Gömör-Kishont County. Its territory is located in southern Slovakia and northern Hungary. Today names Gömör/Gemer are only an informal designation of the corresponding territory without administrative role.
Zemplén was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. The northern part of its territory is now situated in eastern Slovakia, while a smaller southern portion of the former county belongs to Hungary, as part of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County.
Borsod was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. The capital of the county was Miskolc. After World War II, the county was merged with the Hungarian parts of Abaúj-Torna and Zemplén counties to form Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county.
Tokaj is a historical town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 54 kilometers from county capital Miskolc. It is the centre of the Tokaj-Hegyalja wine district where Tokaji wine is produced.
Felsőzsolca is a small town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, in the Miskolc agglomeration. It is the city with the tenth highest population in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county and the second biggest in the Miskolc agglomeration.
Gömör-Kishont was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its capital was Rimaszombat. Most of its territory is now part of Slovakia, while a smaller part belongs to Hungary.
Abaúj-Torna was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its capital was Kassa. Its territory is now divided between Hungary and Slovakia.
Ózd is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 40 km (25 mi) from the county seat of Miskolc. Ózd is the second largest municipality in the county.
Edelény is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary. It lies in the valley of Bódva River, 25 km (16 mi) north of the county seat, Miskolc. The historic L'Huillier-Coburg Palace is located there.
Putnok is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary. It lies 40 km (25 mi) away from Miskolc, between the Bükk Mountains and the river Sajó.
Encs is a small town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 30 kilometers from the county capital Miskolc.
The Ottó Herman Museum is the largest museum in Miskolc, Hungary. It holds more than 600,000 artifacts. Its main focus is on archaeology, mineralogy, arts, history, and ethnography.
Abaúj is a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. In parts of the 19th century, and in the beginning of the 20th century, it was united with Torna County to form Abaúj-Torna county. Its territory is now in eastern Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary. Today Abaúj and Abov are only informal designations of the corresponding territories in Hungary and Slovakia.
Northern Hungary is a region in Hungary. As a statistical region it includes the counties Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Heves and Nógrád, but in colloquial speech it usually also refers to Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. The region is in the north-eastern part of the country. The region's centre and largest city is Miskolc.
Szinpetri is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary. It has a population of approximately 250 people.
Teresztenye is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, in the north-east region of Hungary.
Aggtelek is a village in the county of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Hungary. It is known for the vast stalactite caverns of the nearby Baradla-Domica cave system, part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Aggtelek and Slovak Karst.
Szentistvánbaksa is a village in the middle of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County in northeastern Hungary.
Gönc is a district in north-eastern part of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Gönc is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Hungary Statistical Region.
Putnok is a district in north-western part of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Putnok is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Hungary Statistical Region.