Bosniaks of Serbia

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Bosniaks of Serbia
Bošnjaci u Srbiji
Бошњаци у Србији
Nacionalni-grb-sandzackih-Bosnjaka-RGB.jpg
Coat of arms of the National Council of Bosniak minority in Serbia [1] [2]
Total population
145,278 (2011) [3]
Regions with significant populations
Raška District (105,488)
Zlatibor District (43,220)
Sandžak / Raška historical regions
Languages
Bosnian
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Other South Slavs

Bosniaks (Serbian : Бошњаци, romanized: Bošnjaci) are the fourth largest ethnic group in Serbia after Serbs, Hungarians and Roma, numbering 145,278 or 2.02% of the population according to the 2011 census. [4] They are concentrated in south-western Serbia, and their cultural centre is Novi Pazar.

Contents

Demographics

Bosniaks, as ethnic minority, are primarily the ones living in south-western Serbia, in the region historically known as Sandžak, which is today divided between the states of Serbia and Montenegro. Colloquially referred to as Sandžaklije by themselves and others, Bosniaks form the majority in three out of six municipalities in the Serbian part of Sandžak: Novi Pazar (77.1%), Tutin (90%) and Sjenica (73.8%) and comprise an overall majority of 59.6%. The town of Novi Pazar is a cultural center of the Bosniaks in Serbia. Many Bosniaks from the Sandžak area left after the fall of the Ottoman Empire to continental Turkey. Over the years a large number of Bosniaks from the Sandžak region left to other countries, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Turkey, Germany, Sweden, United States, Canada, Australia, etc. A second group is formed by Bosniaks that came from Bosnia and Herzegovina to the largest cities in Serbia during 20th century as economic migrants and inter-Yugoslav migrations.

Today, the majority of Bosniaks are Sunni Muslim and adhere to the Hanafi school of thought, the largest and oldest school of Islamic law in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Some in this region who identify as Bosniak do so on account of religious identity as Muslims, but are ethic Albanian by ethnicity and live in villages (Boroštica, Doliće, Ugao) located in the Pešter region. They have adopted a Bosniak identity in censuses, due to inter-marriage, during the period of SFR Yugoslavia, or due to sociopolitical discrimination against Albanians following the break-up of SFRJ. [5]

History

The Bosnia Eyalet (1580-1864) spanned large areas of modern-day Sandzak and included the eponymous Sanjak of Novi Pazar Bosnia Eyalet, Central europe 1683.png
The Bosnia Eyalet (1580–1864) spanned large areas of modern-day Sandžak and included the eponymous Sanjak of Novi Pazar

Two thirds of Sandžak Bosniaks [ citation needed ] trace their ancestry to the regions of Montenegro. [ citation needed ] which they started departing first in 1687, after Turkey lost Boka Kotorska. The trend continued in Old Montenegro after 1711 with the extermination of alleged converts to Islam (“istraga poturica”).[ citation needed ] Another contributing factor that spurred migration to Sandžak from the Old Montenegro was the fact that the old Orthodox population of Sandžak moved towards Serbia and Habsburg Monarchy (Vojvodina) in two waves, first after 1687, and then, after 1740, basically leaving Sandžak depopulated. The advance of increasingly stronger ethnic Serbs of Montenegro [ citation needed ] caused additional resettlements out of Montenegro proper in 1858 and 1878, when, upon Treaty of Berlin, Montenegro was recognized as an independent state. While only 20 Bosniak families remained in Nikšić after 1878, the towns like Kolašin, Spuž, Grahovo, and others, completely lost their Bosniak population.

The last segment of Sandžak Bosniaks arrived from a couple of other places. Some Bosniaks came from Slavonia after 1687, when Turkey lost all the lands north of Sava in the Austro-Turkish war. Many more came from Herzegovina in the post-1876 period, after the Herzegovina Rebellion staged by the Serbs against Austro-Hungary and their Muslim subjects. Another wave followed immediately thereafter from both Bosnia and Herzegovina, as the Treaty of Berlin placed the Vilayet of Bosnia under the effective control of Austria-Hungary in 1878. The last wave from Bosnia followed in 1908, when Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia, thereby cutting off all direct ties of Bosnian Muslims to the Ottoman Empire, their effective protector.

Politics

Prvomajska Street in Novi Pazar Prvomajska ulica sa pogledom na Altun-alem dzamiju.JPG
Prvomajska Street in Novi Pazar

The first major political organising of the Sandžak Muslims happened at the Sjenica conference, held in August 1917, during the Austrian-Hungarian occupation of the Sanjak of Novi Pazar. The Muslim representatives at the conference decided to ask the Austrian-Hungarian authorities to separate the Sanjak of Novi Pazar from Serbia and Montenegro and merge it with Bosnia and Herzegovina, or at least to give an autonomy to the region. [6]

After the end of the World War I and the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, the Sandžak region also become a part of the newly created country. At the Constitutional Assembly election held in 1920, the Sandžak Muslims voted for the People's Radical Party. The main reason for supporting the radicals was a promise made to several influential Muslims that they would be compensated for losing their lands during the agrarian reform. [7]

In order to protect their interests, the Sandžak Muslims organised themselves jointly with the Albanians in the Džemijet party, that covered the area of the present-day Kosovo, North Macedonia and Sandžak. The main goal of the Džemijet was the protection of interests of the Slavic Muslims and Albanians. Džemijet was founded in 1919 in Skopje and was led by Nexhip Draga and later by his brother Ferhat Bey Draga. After it was founded in Skopje, branches of the party were soon founded in Kosovo, Sandžak and the rest of Macedonia. District and municipal branches in Sandžak were founded at a meeting of Džemijet held in Novi Pazar in 1922. The meeting was highly attended, and it insisted upon Muslim unity instead of division by various political parties.

One of the most important political party is the Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak led by Sulejman Ugljanin, which has parliamentary representation and has participated in coalition governments.

Religion

According to the 2011 Census, almost all Bosniaks in Serbia are Muslim (99.5%). The remainder is not religious or did not declare their religion. [8] The Bosniaks make up the basis or 65% of the Muslim community in Serbia, while most other Muslims being ethnic Albanians or Romani.

Notable people

Politics

Military people

Religion

Sports

Performing arts

Other

See also

Related Research Articles

Novi Pazar City in Šumadija and Western Serbia, Serbia

Novi Pazar is a city located in the Raška District of southwestern Serbia. As of the 2011 census, the urban area has 66,527 inhabitants, while the city administrative area has 100,410 inhabitants. The city is the cultural center of the Bosniaks in Serbia and the region of Sandžak. A multicultural area of Muslims and Orthodox Christians, many monuments of both religions, like the Altun-Alem Mosque and the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, are found in the region which has a total of 30 protected monuments of culture.

Sandžak Geographical region in Serbia and Montenegro

Sandžak, also known as Sanjak, is a historical geo-political region in Serbia and Montenegro. The name Sandžak derives from the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, a former Ottoman administrative district founded in 1865. Serbs usually refer to the region by its medieval name of Raška.

Muslims as a designation for a particular ethnic group, refers to one of six officially recognized constituent peoples of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The term was adopted in 1971, as an official designation of ethnicity for Yugoslav Slavic Muslims, thus grouping together a number of distinct South Slavic communities of Islamic ethnocultural tradition, among them most numerous being the modern Bosniaks of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with some smaller groups of different ethnicity, such as Gorani and Torbeši. This designation did not include Yugoslav non-Slavic Muslims, such as Albanians, Turks and Romani.

Kosovo Vilayet Administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire from 1877 to 1913

The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the north-western part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The areas today comprising Sandžak (Raška) region of Serbia and Montenegro, although de jure under Ottoman control, were in fact under Austro-Hungarian occupation from 1878 until 1909, as provided under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Uskub (Skopje) functioned as the capital of the province and the midway point between Istanbul and its European provinces. Uskub's population of 32,000 made it the largest city in the province, followed by Prizren, also numbering at 30,000.

Sanjak of Novi Pazar

The Sanjak of Novi Pazar was an Ottoman sanjak that was created in 1865. It was reorganized in 1880 and 1902. The Ottoman rule in the region lasted until the First Balkan War (1912). The Sanjak of Novi Pazar included territories of present-day northeastern Montenegro and southwestern Serbia, also including some northern parts of Kosovo. The region is known as Sandžak.

Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak Political party in Serbia representing the Bosniak minority in Serbia

The Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak is a political party in Serbia, representing the Bosniak ethnic minority concentrated in Sandžak region.

Islam in Serbia

Islam spread to Serbia during the five centuries of Ottoman rule. The Muslims in Serbia are mostly ethnic Bosniaks, Albanians and significant part of Roma people as well as members of the smaller groups, like ethnic Muslims, Gorani and Serbs.

Bosniaks of Montenegro

Bosniaks are an ethnic group in Montenegro, first introduced in the 2003 census. According to the last census from 2011, the total number of Bosniaks in Montenegro was 89,614 and they comprised 15% of population. Bosniaks are the third largest ethnic group in the country, after Montenegrins and Serbs.

Sulejman Ugljanin Serbian politician

Sulejman Ugljanin is a Serbian politician, representative of the Bosniak minority as president of the Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak and the Bosniac National Council. He is a deputy in the National Assembly.

Pešter

The Pešter plateau, or simply Pešter, is a karst plateau in southwestern Serbia, in the Raška region. It lies at the altitude of 1150–1492 m, at 1492 meters. The territory of the plateau is mostly located in the municipality of Sjenica, with parts belonging to Novi Pazar and Tutin.

FK Novi Pazar Football club

Fudbalski klub Novi Pazar is a professional football club from Novi Pazar, Serbia. The club was formed in 1928 as FK Deževa. FK Novi Pazar compete in the Serbian SuperLiga and play their home games at the 12,000 capacity Novi Pazar City Stadium. The club has got a B team FK Novi Pazar 1928 who plays in the Serbian Zone League.

Shkreli (tribe) Region in northern Albania; historic Albanian tribe

Shkreli is a historical Albanian tribe and region in the Malësia Madhe region of Northern Albania and is majority Catholic. With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, part of the tribe migrated to Rugova in Western Kosovo beginning around 1700, after which they continued to migrate into the Lower Pešter and Sandžak regions. The Shkreli tribe that migrated to Kosovo converted to Islam in the 18th century and maintained the Albanian language as their mother tongue; the Shkreli in Pešter and Sandžak over time were Islamized and became Slavophone by the 20th century, so today they self-identify as part of the Bosniak ethnicity, although in the Pešter plateau they partly utilized the Albanian language until the middle of the 20th century. The Shkreli in Albania and Montenegro are predominantly Catholic. The Shkreli tribe's patron saint is St. Nicholas (Shënkoll).

Albanians in Serbia are an officially recognized ethnic minority living in the present-day country of Serbia.

Doliće is a village in the municipality of Sjenica, Serbia. According to the 2002 census, the village has a population of 322 people.

Boroštica Village in Raška District, Serbia

Boroštica is a village in the municipality of Tutin, Serbia. According to the 2002 census, the village has a population of 379 people.

Aćif Hadžiahmetović Yugoslav politician (1887-1945)

Aćif Hadžiahmetović, known as Aćif Bljuta, was an Albanian politician in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar region of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the interwar period and during World War II. In the interwar period he was mayor of Novi Pazar and a deputy of Džemijet following the 1923 elections. After the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, he was appointed mayor of Novi Pazar under the German military government of the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia and in 1943–44 was a deputy of Mitrovica in the Albanian parliament. He was also a member of the central committee of the Second League of Prizren. Towards the end of the war, he was executed by the Yugoslav Partisans for his collaboration with the Axis for massive war crimes against Serbs and killings of Albanians who were against his rule.

The Battle of Novi Pazar was a battle fought between November and December 1941 during World War II, between the Chetniks and Muslim-Albanian forces under Axis command in the city of Novi Pazar, Sandžak in the German occupied Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Despite launching three assaults, the Chetniks failed to capture Novi Pazar.

Bosniac National Council

The Bosniak National Council is a representative body of the Bosniak national minority in Serbia. It was founded as the Muslim National Council of Sandžak (MNVS) on 11 May 1991. Its first president and founder is Sulejman Ugljanin. Until 2003, the Bosniak National Council was called the Bosniak National Council of Sandžak (BNVS), after which it took its current name.

Muamer Bačevac is a politician in Serbia from the country's Bosniak community. He is a prominent figure in the municipal government of Novi Pazar and has served in the National Assembly of Serbia since 2014 as a member of the Social Democratic Party of Serbia (SDPS).

Jahja Fehratović is a politician in Serbia from the country's Bosniak community. He has been a member of the National Assembly of Serbia since 2016 and is also a member of the Bosniak National Council. Fehratović was the leader of the Bosniak Democratic Union of Sandžak from the party's formation in 2013 until December 2017, when it was renamed as the Justice and Reconciliation Party under Muamer Zukorlić's leadership. He is now a vice-president of renamed party.

References

Notes

  1. "Bosniak national council, 23. December 2005". Archived from the original on 2016-04-19. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  2. | National minority council law, "Sl. glasnik RS", br. 72/2009, 20/2014; "Službeni glasnik RS", br. 23/06
  3. Census 2011
  4. "РЗС | Резултати извештаја". Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
  5. Andrea Pieroni, Maria Elena Giusti, & Cassandra L. Quave (2011). "Cross-cultural ethnobiology in the Western Balkans: medical ethnobotany and ethnozoology among Albanians and Serbs in the Pešter Plateau, Sandžak, South-Western Serbia." Human Ecology. 39.(3): 335. "The current population of the Albanian villages is partly “bosniakicised”, since in the last two generations a number of Albanian males began to intermarry with (Muslim) Bosniak women of Pešter. This is one of the reasons why locals in Ugao were declared to be “Bosniaks” in the last census of 2002, or, in Boroštica, to be simply “Muslims”, and in both cases abandoning the previous ethnic label of “Albanians”, which these villages used in the census conducted during “Yugoslavian” times. A number of our informants confirmed that the self-attribution “Albanian” was purposely abandoned in order to avoid problems following the Yugoslav Wars and associated violent incursions of Serbian para-military forces in the area. The oldest generation of the villagers however are still fluent in a dialect of Ghegh Albanian, which appears to have been neglected by European linguists thus far. Additionally, the presence of an Albanian minority in this area has never been brought to the attention of international stakeholders by either the former Yugoslav or the current Serbian authorities."
  6. Kamberović 2009, p. 9495.
  7. Crnovršanin & Sadiković 2001, p. 287.
  8. Population by national affiliation and religion, Census 2011

Journals

  • Kamberović, Husnija (2009). "Projugoslavenska struja među muslimanskim političarima 1918. godine". Historijska Traganja (in Serbo-Croatian). Sarajevo: Institut za istoriju (3). ISSN   1840-3875.