Botho zu Eulenburg

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Count Botho zu Eulenburg

Botho Wendt zu Eulenburg.jpg

Count Botho zu Eulenburg
Prime Minister of Prussia
In office
22 March 1892 26 October 1894
Monarch Wilhelm II
Preceded by Count Leo von Caprivi
Succeeded by Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
Personal details
Born(1831-07-31)31 July 1831
Wicken/Bartenstein, East Prussia
Died 5 February 1912(1912-02-05) (aged 80)
Berlin, Imperial Germany
Spouse(s) Elisabeth von Alvensleben
Children Botho zu Eulenburg (18791881)
Occupation Jurist

Botho Wendt August Graf zu Eulenburg (31 July 1831 5 February 1912) was a Prussian statesman.

<i lang="de" title="German language text">Graf</i> historical title of the German nobility

Graf (male) or Gräfin (female) is a historical title of the German nobility, usually translated as "count". Considered to be intermediate among noble ranks, the title is often treated as equivalent to the British title of "earl".

Kingdom of Prussia Former German state (1701–1918)

The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.


Early life and career

Eulenburg was born in Wicken near Bartenstein [1] to Botho Heinrich zu Eulenburg (18041879) and Therese née von Dönhoff (18061882). [2] He studied law at the universities of Königsberg and Bonn.

Bartoszyce Place in Warmian-Masurian, Poland

Bartoszyce(listen) is a town on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland with 25,621 inhabitants. It is the capital of Bartoszyce County within the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.

University of Königsberg former university of Königsberg in Eastern Prussia (1544-1945)

The University of Königsberg was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia. It was founded in 1544 as the world's second Protestant academy by Duke Albert of Prussia, and was commonly known as the Albertina.

University of Bonn public research university located in Bonn, Germany

The University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein University on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn which was founded in 1777. The University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes.

Eulenburg worked in high positions of the Prussian and German administration in Wiesbaden (18691872), Metz (president of the Département de la Lorraine; 18721873) and upper president of the Province of Hanover (18731878). In March 1878 Eulenburg succeeded his first cousin once removed Friedrich Albrecht zu Eulenburg as Minister of the Interior, serving under Bismarck. He implemented a series of repressive anti-socialist measures. From 1881 to 1892 he was the president of the province of Hesse-Nassau. [2]

Wiesbaden Place in Hesse, Germany

Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. In January 2018, it had 289,544 inhabitants, plus approximately 19,000 United States citizens. The Wiesbaden urban area is home to approx. 560,000 people.

Metz Prefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Metz is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle department and the seat of the parliament of the Grand Est region. Located near the tripoint along the junction of France, Germany, and Luxembourg, the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion.

Oberpräsident was the official title of the highest administrative officials in the Prussian provinces.

Prime Minister of Prussia

In 1892, he was appointed Prime Minister of Prussia in succession to Leo von Caprivi, who however remained Chancellor of Germany.

Leo von Caprivi German major general and statesman

Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi, was a German general and statesman who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. Caprivi served as German Chancellor from March 1890 to October 1894. Caprivi promoted industrial and commercial development, and concluded numerous bilateral treaties for reduction of tariff barriers. However, this movement toward free trade angered the conservative agrarian interests, especially the Junkers. He promised the Catholic Center party educational reforms that would increase their influence, but failed to deliver. As part of Kaiser Wilhelm's "new course" in foreign policy, Caprivi abandoned Bismarck's military, economic, and ideological cooperation with the Russian Empire, and was unable to forge a close relationship with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. He successfully promoted the reorganization of the German military.

Though Caprivi had recommended the experienced administrator Eulenburg for this appointment, the new prime minister soon made life difficult for Caprivi, and often thought of pressing for his removal. Both Caprivi and Eulenburg were eventually dismissed by Wilhelm II following the renewal of anti-Socialist moves (and an anti-subversion bill) in 1894. Eulenburg often thought of himself as the only possible successor to Caprivi, and he was extremely unhappy to be dismissed at what he regarded as the moment of his destiny.

From 1899 until his death, Eulenburg was a member of the Prussian House of Lords. He died in Berlin in 1912 and is buried in No. I cemetery of Trinity Church, Berlin-Kreuzberg.

Prussian House of Lords upper house

The Prussian House of Lords in Berlin was the upper house of the Preußischer Landtag, the parliament of Prussia from 1850 to 1918. Together with the lower house, the House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus), it formed the Prussian bicameral legislature.

Personal life and family

Eulenburg was a second cousin of Prince Philip of Eulenburg, a close friend of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, and an instrumental figure behind the scenes of German politics.

Wilhelm II, German Emperor German Emperor and King of Prussia

Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I. He was the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably his first cousin King George V of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whose wife, Alexandra, was Wilhelm and George's first cousin.

On 25 October 1875 he married at Neustadt, West Prussia Elisabeth von Alvensleben (22 September 1834 in Brandenburg/Havel 5 September 1919 in Neustadt), by whom he had an only son, Botho (15 February 1879 in Berlin 30 May 1881 in Berlin).

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Government offices
Preceded by
Karl Heinrich von Boetticher
Oberpräsident of Hanover
1873 1878
Succeeded by
Adolf Hilmar von Leipzig
Preceded by
August von Ende
Oberpräsident of Hesse-Nassau
1881 1892
Succeeded by
Eduard von Magdeburg
Political offices
Preceded by
Count Friedrich Albrecht zu Eulenburg
Interior Minister of Prussia
1878 1881
Succeeded by
Robert von Puttkamer
Preceded by
Count Leo von Caprivi
Prime Minister of Prussia
1892 1894
Succeeded by
Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
Preceded by
Count Ludwig Herrfurt
Interior Minister of Prussia
1892 1894
Succeeded by
Ernst von Koeller