Bourges

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Bourges
Kathedrale Bourges v2.jpg
Flag of Bourges.svg
Blason de Bourges.svg
Location of Bourges
Bourges
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Bourges
Centre-Val de Loire region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bourges
Coordinates: 47°05′04″N2°23′47″E / 47.0844°N 2.3964°E / 47.0844; 2.3964
Country France
Region Centre-Val de Loire
Department Cher
Arrondissement Bourges
Intercommunality CA Bourges Plus
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Yann Galut  [ Wikidata ] [1]
Area
1
68.74 km2 (26.54 sq mi)
Population
 (2021) [2]
63,702
  Density930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Demonym Berruyers
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
18033 /18000
Elevation120–169 m (394–554 ft)
(avg. 153 m or 502 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Bourges (French pronunciation: [buʁʒ] ) is a commune in central France on the river Yèvre. It is the capital of the department of Cher, and also was the capital city of the former province of Berry.

Contents

History

The name of the commune derives either from the Bituriges, the name of the original inhabitants, or from the Germanic word Burg (French: bourg; Spanish: burgo; English, others: burgh , berg , or borough ), for "hill" or "village". The Celts called it Avaricon; Latin-speakers: Avaricum . In the fourth century BC, as in the time of Caesar, the area around it was the center of a Gallic (Celtic) confederacy.

In 52 BC, the sixth year of the Gallic Wars, while the Gauls implemented a scorched-earth policy to try to deny Caesar's forces supplies, the inhabitants of Avaricum begged not to have their town burned.[ citation needed ] It was temporarily spared due to its good defences provided by the surrounding marshes, by a river that nearly encircled it, and by a strong southern wall. Julius Caesar's forces, nevertheless, captured and destroyed the town, killing all but 800 of its inhabitants. [3]

Rome reconstructed Avaricum as a Roman town, with a monumental gate, aqueducts, thermae and an amphitheatre; it reached a greater size than it would attain during the Middle Ages. The massive walls surrounding the late-Roman town, enclosing 40 hectares, were built in part with stone re-used from earlier public buildings.

The third-century AD Saint Ursinus, also known as Saint Ursin, is considered[ by whom? ] the first bishop of the town. Bourges functions as the seat of an archbishopric. During the 8th century Bourges lay on the northern fringes of the Duchy of Aquitaine and was therefore the first town to come under Frankish attacks when the Franks crossed the Loire. The Frankish Charles Martel captured the town in 731, but Duke Odo the Great of Aquitaine immediately re-took it. It remained under the rule of counts who pledged allegiance to the Aquitanian dukes up to the destructive siege by the Frankish King Pepin the Short in 762, when Basque troops are found defending the town along with its count.

Bourges in 1820 Plan de la cathedrale Bourges 1820 Archives nationales France.jpg
Bourges in 1820

During the Middle Ages, Bourges served as the capital of the Viscounty of Bourges until 1101. In the fourteenth century, it became the capital of the Duchy of Berry (established in 1360). The future king of France, Charles VII (r.1422–1461), sought refuge there in the 1420s during the Hundred Years' War. His son, Louis XI, was born there in 1423. In 1438, Charles VII decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. During this period, Bourges was a major centre of alchemy.[ citation needed ]

The Gothic Cathedral of Saint Étienne, begun at the end of the twelfth century, ranks as a World Heritage Site. It is considered[ by whom? ] one of the earliest examples of the High Gothic style of the thirteenth century. [4]

Bourges has a long tradition of art and history. Apart from the cathedral, other sites of importance include the 15th-century Palais Jacques Cœur and a sixty-five-hectare district of half-timbered houses and fine town-houses.

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 15,964    
1800 16,330+0.32%
1806 17,552+1.21%
1821 18,910+0.50%
1831 19,730+0.43%
1836 25,324+5.12%
1841 22,826−2.06%
1846 24,799+1.67%
1851 25,037+0.19%
1856 26,799+1.37%
1861 28,064+0.93%
1866 30,119+1.42%
1872 31,312+0.65%
1876 35,785+3.39%
1881 40,217+2.36%
1886 42,829+1.27%
1891 45,342+1.15%
1896 43,587−0.79%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 46,551+1.32%
1906 44,133−1.06%
1911 45,735+0.72%
1921 45,942+0.05%
1926 44,245−0.75%
1931 45,067+0.37%
1936 49,263+1.80%
1946 51,040+0.35%
1954 53,879+0.68%
1962 60,632+1.49%
1968 70,814+2.62%
1975 77,300+1.26%
1982 76,432−0.16%
1990 75,609−0.14%
1999 72,480−0.47%
2007 71,155−0.23%
2012 66,666−1.29%
2017 64,551−0.64%
Source: EHESS [5] and INSEE (1968–2017) [6]

Geography

Bourges sits at the river junction where the Auron flows into the Yèvre. The disused Canal de Berry follows alongside the course of the Auron through Bourges.

Climate

Bourges, located in the center of France, away from the Atlantic Ocean, features a typical degraded oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), characterized by colder, drier winters and warmer, wetter summers than the oceanic climate.

Climate data for Bourges (Bourges Airport), elevation: 166 m or 545 ft, 1981–2010 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.6
(63.7)
22.6
(72.7)
29.4
(84.9)
29.4
(84.9)
32.0
(89.6)
38.0
(100.4)
39.6
(103.3)
39.9
(103.8)
35.1
(95.2)
31.7
(89.1)
23.4
(74.1)
20.0
(68.0)
39.9
(103.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.9
(44.4)
8.5
(47.3)
12.5
(54.5)
15.5
(59.9)
19.6
(67.3)
23.1
(73.6)
26.0
(78.8)
25.6
(78.1)
21.8
(71.2)
17.0
(62.6)
10.7
(51.3)
7.4
(45.3)
16.3
(61.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.1
(34.0)
1.1
(34.0)
3.4
(38.1)
5.3
(41.5)
9.2
(48.6)
12.4
(54.3)
14.4
(57.9)
14.1
(57.4)
11.1
(52.0)
8.3
(46.9)
4.0
(39.2)
1.8
(35.2)
7.2
(45.0)
Record low °C (°F)−20.4
(−4.7)
−16.4
(2.5)
−11.3
(11.7)
−3.7
(25.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
3.4
(38.1)
4.6
(40.3)
4.6
(40.3)
1.8
(35.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
−9.1
(15.6)
−14.0
(6.8)
−20.4
(−4.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)55.2
(2.17)
52.0
(2.05)
53.2
(2.09)
62.4
(2.46)
78.6
(3.09)
60.5
(2.38)
66.1
(2.60)
55.0
(2.17)
59.7
(2.35)
71.7
(2.82)
65.7
(2.59)
67.8
(2.67)
747.9
(29.44)
Average precipitation days11.69.310.210.611.68.67.97.78.210.410.911.3118.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.988.6151.0175.7210.0224.9239.0232.7185.8124.572.255.31,827.5
Source: Météo France [7] [8]
Climate data for Bourges (Bourges Airport), elevation: 166 m or 545 ft, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.0
(62.6)
22.6
(72.7)
24.4
(75.9)
27.0
(80.6)
29.8
(85.6)
35.9
(96.6)
38.5
(101.3)
39.2
(102.6)
35.1
(95.2)
31.7
(89.1)
21.6
(70.9)
20.0
(68.0)
39.2
(102.6)
Mean maximum °C (°F)10.2
(50.4)
13.9
(57.0)
15.2
(59.4)
18.0
(64.4)
23.0
(73.4)
28.3
(82.9)
30.0
(86.0)
28.4
(83.1)
26.2
(79.2)
19.1
(66.4)
13.5
(56.3)
9.5
(49.1)
30.0
(86.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.6
(43.9)
8.2
(46.8)
11.3
(52.3)
14.6
(58.3)
18.0
(64.4)
21.8
(71.2)
24.9
(76.8)
24.3
(75.7)
21.7
(71.1)
16.9
(62.4)
10.2
(50.4)
7.3
(45.1)
15.5
(59.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.7
(38.7)
5.0
(41.0)
7.1
(44.8)
9.7
(49.5)
13.1
(55.6)
16.7
(62.1)
18.9
(66.0)
18.6
(65.5)
16.1
(61.0)
12.4
(54.3)
6.9
(44.4)
4.1
(39.4)
11.0
(51.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)
1.3
(34.3)
2.9
(37.2)
4.9
(40.8)
8.1
(46.6)
11.1
(52.0)
13.0
(55.4)
12.9
(55.2)
10.8
(51.4)
8.1
(46.6)
3.7
(38.7)
1.1
(34.0)
6.6
(43.8)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−5.1
(22.8)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
2.5
(36.5)
6.1
(43.0)
8.6
(47.5)
11.8
(53.2)
11.0
(51.8)
7.8
(46.0)
4.6
(40.3)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
−5.1
(22.8)
Record low °C (°F)−20.4
(−4.7)
−14.2
(6.4)
−8.5
(16.7)
−3.7
(25.3)
−1.1
(30.0)
3.4
(38.1)
5.8
(42.4)
4.8
(40.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.0
(26.6)
−7.2
(19.0)
−12.4
(9.7)
−20.4
(−4.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)61.7
(2.43)
50.7
(2.00)
62.6
(2.46)
47.9
(1.89)
85.2
(3.35)
58.9
(2.32)
51.5
(2.03)
51.7
(2.04)
54.8
(2.16)
49.8
(1.96)
58.7
(2.31)
64.5
(2.54)
698
(27.49)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)11.710.511.19.712.58.97.37.78.19.210.511.2118.4
Average snowy days3.93.62.51.0.1000001.52.715.3
Average relative humidity (%)87827673767469717584878879
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.985.4137.8175.9199.6229.4260.3230.4185.5133.677.359.71,831.8
Percent possible sunshine 21.030.038.044.043.049.055.053.050.040.028.023.039.5
Source 1: NOAA [9]
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity) [10]

Sights

Half-timbered houses in Place Gordaine Bourges place Gordaine 1.jpg
Half-timbered houses in Place Gordaine
Palais Jacques Coeur Jacques Coeur's palace.jpg
Palais Jacques Cœur

Transport

The Bourges station offers direct railway connections to Orléans, Tours, Lyon, Paris, Nantes and several regional destinations. The A71 motorway connects Bourges with Orléans and Clermont-Ferrand. Bourges Airport is a small regional airport.

Sport and recreation

Bourges' principal football team are Bourges Football 18. It is also home to the women's basketball club CJM Bourges Basket, which has won multiple titles in domestic and European basketball. Bourges XV is the premier rugby team in the region, currently playing in French National Division, Federal 3.

Colleges and universities

Twin towns – sister cities

Bourges is twinned with: [16]

Events

The Printemps de Bourges music festival takes place in Bourges every year.

Every summer, and since 2002, Les mille univers hosts a writing workshop in collaboration with Oulipo. [17]

Personalities

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bituriges Cubi</span> Gallic tribe

The Bituriges Cubi were a Gallic tribe dwelling in a territory corresponding to the later province of Berry, which is named after them, during the Iron Age and the Roman period. They had a homonym tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, in the Bordelais region, which could indicate a common origin, although there is no direct evidence of this.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lisieux</span> Subprefecture and commune in Normandy, France

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sancerre</span> Commune in Centre-Val de Loire, France

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bourges Cathedral</span> Cathedral in Bourges, Cher, France

Bourges Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in Bourges, France. The cathedral is dedicated to Saint Stephen and is the seat of the Archbishop of Bourges. Built atop an earlier Romanesque church from 1195 until 1230, it is largely in the Classic Gothic architectural style and was constructed at about the same time as Chartres Cathedral. The cathedral is particularly known for the great size and unity of its interior, the sculptural decoration of its portals, and the large collection of 13th century stained glass windows. Owing to its quintessential Gothic architecture, the cathedral was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Auron (river)</span> River in central France

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Musée du Berry</span> Museum in Bourges, France

The Musée du Berry is a museum in Bourges, France. Its collection was founded by Claude-Denis Mater in 1834. At first, the museum was housed in part of the Palais Jacques-Cœur, and later in what is now the Hôtel d'Angleterre on rue Jacques Cœur. In 1891, it moved to its present home in the Hôtel Cujas. It was renamed the Musée du Berry in 1912.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bourges, France.

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
  2. "Populations légales 2021". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2023.
  3. Holmes, Robert C. L. (16 January 2021). "The Gallic Wars: How Julius Caesar Conquered Gaul (Modern France)". The Collector. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  4. Destination 360 (Accessed 7 October 2016) Cathedral one of the earliest examples of High Gothic.
  5. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Bourges, EHESS (in French).
  6. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  7. "Données climatiques de la station de Bourges" (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  8. "Climat Centre-Val de Loire" (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  9. "Bourges (07255) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA . Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  10. "Normes et records 1961-1990: Bourges (18) - altitude 161m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  11. Jacques Cœur's palace, visitor centre Archived 21 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Lallemant's hotel, visitor centre Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Berry museum, visitor center Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Estève museum, visitor centre Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Bourges' marshes, visitor centre
  16. "Villes jumelles". ville-bourges.fr (in French). Bourges. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  17. Les récréations à Bourges.

Bibliography