Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

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Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Belvoir, le chateau.jpg
Castle Belvoir
Flag of the region Bourgogne-Franche-Comte.svg
Flag
Blason region fr Bourgogne Franche Comte.svg
Coat of arms
Bourgogne-Franche-Comte region locator map.svg
CountryFlag of France.svg France
Capital Besançon
Departments
Government
   President of the Regional Council Marie-Guite Dufay (Socialist Party)
Area
  Total47,784 km2 (18,450 sq mi)
Area rank6th
Population
 (2015)
  Total2,820,940
  Density59/km2 (150/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code FR-BFC
GDP  () Ranked
Total€ billion (US$ bn)
Per capita€ (US$)

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté (French:  [buʁɡɔɲ fʁɑ̃ʃ kɔ̃te] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); lit."Burgundy–Free County"), sometimes abbreviated BFC, is a region in the east of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. [1]

Regions of France France top-level territorial subdivision

France is divided into 18 administrative regions, of which 13 are located in metropolitan France, while the other five are overseas regions. All 13 mainland administrative regions are further subdivided into 2 to 13 administrative departments, while the overseas regions administratively consist of only one department each and hence also coexist with administrative "overseas departments" of equal size. All administrative regions except Corsica, the French Guiana, Mayotte, and Martinique also correspond to a regional territorial collectivity since 1982, whereas the regional and departmental territorial collectivities of Corsica, the French Guiana, Mayotte, and Martinique have been replaced with single territorial collectivities.

France Republic in Europe with several non-European regions

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Burgundy Region of France

Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period.

Contents

The region covers an area of 47,784 km2 (18,450 sq mi), and has a population of 2,816,814. [2]

Toponymy

The text of the territorial reform law gives interim names for most of the merged regions, combining the names of their constituent regions separated by hyphens. Permanent names would be proposed by the new regional councils and confirmed by the Conseil d'État by 1 October 2016. [3] Hence the interim name of the new administrative region is composed of the names of former administrative regions of Burgundy (Bourgogne) and Franche-Comté. The region chose to retain its interim name as its permanent name, a decision made official by the Conseil d'État on 28 September 2016. [4]

A working title, sometimes called a production title or a tentative title, is the temporary title of a product or project used during its development, usually used in filmmaking, television production, novel, video game development, or music album.

The hyphen () is a punctuation mark used to join words, and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. Non-hyphenated is an example of a hyphenated word. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes, which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign (−), which is also longer in some contexts.

Geographical renaming is the changing of the name of a geographical feature or area. This can range from the change of a street name to a change to the name of a country. Some names are changed locally but the new names are not recognised by other countries, especially when there is a difference in language. Other names may not be officially recognised but remain in common use. Many places have different names in different languages, and a change of language in official or general use has often resulted in what is arguably a change of name. There are many reasons to undertake renaming, with political motivation being the primary cause; for example many places in the former Soviet Union and its satellites were renamed to honour Stalin. Sometimes a place reverts to its former name. One of the most common reasons for a country changing its name is newly acquired independence. When borders are changed, sometimes due to a country splitting or two countries joining together, the names of the relevant areas can change. This, however, is more the creation of a different entity than an act of geographical renaming.

The merger represents a historic reunification of the Duchy of Burgundy (Duché de Bourgogne) and the Free County of Burgundy (Franche Comté de Bourgogne), for the first time since they were divided in 1477.

Duchy of Burgundy historic principality

The Duchy of Burgundy emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th-century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were reduced to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France in 1004. Robert II's son and heir, King Henry I of France, inherited the duchy but ceded it to his younger brother Robert in 1032. Other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles and the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté).

County of Burgundy countship

The Free County of Burgundy was a medieval county of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose very name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf. It should not be confused with the more westerly Duchy of Burgundy, a fiefdom of Francia since 843.

History

Middle Ages

The territory that is now Burgundy and Franche-Comté was already united under the Kingdom of Burgundy (from the 5th to the 8th century). It was divided into two parts: the Duchy of Burgundy (now Burgundy) of France, and the County of Burgundy (now Franche-Comté) of the Holy Roman Empire. The County was reintegrated as a free province within the Kingdom of France in the 17th century, separately from the Duchy which remained a vassal province of the Kingdom of France. These two former provinces were abolished during the French Revolution.

Kingdom of Burgundy historic region in Western Europe, now Southern France

Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The historical Burgundy correlates with the border area of France, Italy and Switzerland and includes the major modern cities of Geneva and Lyon.

Holy Roman Empire Complex of territories in Europe from 962 to 1806

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. Its size gradually diminished over time, particularly from 1648 onward, and by the time of its dissolution, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia which was bordered by the German lands on three sides.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Modern times

Map of the new region with its eight departements, colored according to the historical provinces as they existed until 1790.
Bourgogne
Franche-Comte
Nivernais
Champagne
Alsace
Orleanais
Montbeliard
Ile de France
Others Bourgogne-Franche-Comte et provinces.svg
Map of the new region with its eight départements, colored according to the historical provinces as they existed until 1790.
   Bourgogne
   Nivernais
   Champagne
   Alsace
  Others

Most of the area making up the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté used to belong to the former provinces of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, but it also includes a significant part of the former provinces of Nivernais (now Nièvre), Champagne (now the northern part of Yonne), Orléanais (now the southwestern part of Yonne), the Territoire de Belfort (the region of Alsace that remained French territory after 1871), and a small portion of Île-de-France (now the northwestern part of Yonne).

From 1941 to 1944 the regional prefecture of Vichy reunited Burgundy and Franche-Comté, as did the igamie  [ fr ] of Dijon from 1948 to 1964. During the formation of the regions of France, Burgundy and Franche-Comté once again became two separate regions, first as public establishments in 1972, then as territorial collectivities in 1982.

On 14 April 2014, François Patriat and Marie-Guite Dufay (the presidents of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, respectively) announced in a press conference the desire for the reunification of the two regions, further to the declarations of Prime Minister Manuel Valls, who proposed a simplification of the administrative divisions of France.

On 2 June 2014 a map presented by President François Hollande showed the two regions as one. These two regions were the only ones to have voluntarily discussed a merger, and their alliance was the only one not needing revision by the National Assembly or the Senate.

Acte III de la décentralisation officially adopted the merger of the two regions on 17 December 2014. It became effective on 1 January 2016.

Geography

The region borders Grand Est to the north, Île-de-France to the northwest, Centre-Val de Loire to the west, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes to the south and Switzerland (the cantons of Vaud, Neuchâtel and Jura) to the east.

The distances from Besançon, the capital of the region, to other cities are: [5]

Departments

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté comprises eight departments: Côte-d'Or, Doubs, Jura, Nièvre, Haute-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, Yonne, Territoire de Belfort.

Major communities

See also

Related Research Articles

Franche-Comté Region of France

Franche-Comté is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Jura, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397.

Doubs Department of France

Doubs is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River.

Besançon Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Besançon is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. The city is located in Eastern France, close to the Jura Mountains and the border with Switzerland.

Côte-dOr Department of France

Côte-d'Or is a department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

Nièvre Department of France

Nièvre is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the centre of France named after the River Nièvre.

Yonne Department of France

Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de-France. It was created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Its prefecture (capital) is Auxerre and its postcode number is 89.

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TER Franche-Comté

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Noironte Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

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Saône, Doubs Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

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Arcey, Doubs Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

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Champlitte Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Champlitte is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. The inhabitants of Champlitte are known in French as the Chanitois.

Regional council of Franche-Comté

The Franche-Comté Regional Council was the Conseil régional of Franche-Comté (France). It was chaired by Marie-Marguerite Dufay until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

Gare de Dijon-Ville railway station in Dijon, France

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Gare de Besançon-Viotte railway station

Besançon-Viotte is the main railway station located in Besançon, Doubs, eastern France. The station was opened in 1855 and is located on the Dole–Belfort railway, Besançon–Le Locle railway and Besançon-Viotte-Vesoul railway. The train services are operated by SNCF. Besançon Franche-Comté TGV is a high speed station located 10km north of Besançon.

University of Burgundy - Franche-Comté is the association of universities and higher education institutions (ComUE) for institutions of higher education and research in the French regions of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. Its headquarters are in Besançon.

The Ligue de Bourgogne de football was a federal body of the French Football Federation which was founded in 1920. It was responsible for organising all football competitions in Burgundy.

Regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

The regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté is the deliberative assembly of the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Marie-Guite Dufay of the Socialist Party (PS) is the current president of the regional council, elected on 4 January 2016, following the regional elections on 6 and 13 December 2015.

References

  1. "La carte à 13 régions définitivement adoptée" [The 13-region map finally adopted]. Le Monde (in French). Agence France-Presse. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  2. "Populations légales 2012 - Populations légales des régions". Insee . Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  3. Loi n° 2015-29 du 16 janvier 2015 relative à la délimitation des régions, aux élections régionales et départementales et modifiant le calendrier électoral (in French)
  4. Décret n° 2016-1268 du 28 septembre 2016 portant fixation du nom et du chef-lieu de la région Bourgogne-Franche-Comté (in French)
  5. "Ville de Besançon". Annuaire-Mairie.fr (in French). Retrieved 13 June 2018.