Bouvet Island

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Bouvet Island

  • Bouvetøya [1]
  • Bouvet-øya [2]
Flag of Norway.svg
Bouvet Island on the globe (Antarctica centered).svg
Location of Bouvet Island (circled in red, in the Atlantic Ocean)
Largest settlementNorvegia Station [3] (sporadically inhabited)
Government Dependent territory
  Monarch
Harald V of Norway
 Administration
Ministry of Justice and Public Security
Dependency of Norway
 Claimed
1 December 1927
  Annexed
23 January 1928
 Dependency
27 February 1930 [2]
17 December 1971 [1]
Area
 Total
49 km2 (19 sq mi)
  Glaciated
93%
Population
 Census
0
ISO 3166 code BV
Internet TLD .bv a
  1. Not in use.

Bouvet Island (Norwegian : Bouvetøya [1] [2] ) is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at 54°25′S3°22′E / 54.417°S 3.367°E / -54.417; 3.367 Coordinates: 54°25′S3°22′E / 54.417°S 3.367°E / -54.417; 3.367 , thus locating it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System. It lies at the southern end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and is the most remote island in the world, approximately 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi) north of the Princess Astrid Coast of Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, 1,160 kilometres (720 mi) east of the South Sandwich Islands and 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) south-southwest of the coast of South Africa.

Norwegian language North Germanic language spoken in Norway

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties, and some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are hardly mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Subantarctic

The Subantarctic is a region in the southern hemisphere, located immediately north of the Antarctic region. This translates roughly to a latitude of between 46° and 60° south of the Equator. The subantarctic region includes many islands in the southern parts of the Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, especially those situated north of the Antarctic Convergence. Subantarctic glaciers are, by definition, located on islands within the subantarctic region. All glaciers located on the continent of Antarctica are by definition considered to be Antarctic glaciers.

High island Island of volcanic origin

In geology, a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the uplifting of coral reefs.

Contents

The island has an area of 49 square kilometres (19 sq mi), of which 93 percent is covered by a glacier. The centre of the island is an ice-filled crater of an inactive volcano. Some skerries and one smaller island, Larsøya, lie along the coast. Nyrøysa, created by a rock slide in the late 1950s, is the only easy place to land and is the location of a weather station.

Glacier Persistent body of ice that is moving under its own weight

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.

Volcano A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Skerry A rocky island smaller than an islet

A skerry is a small rocky island, usually too small for human habitation. It may simply be a rocky reef. A skerry can also be called a low sea stack.

The island was first spotted on 1 January 1739 by Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier, on a French exploration mission in the South Atlantic with the ships Aigle and Marie. They did not make a landfall, and he mislabeled the coordinates for the island and the island was not sighted again until 1808, when the British whaler captain James Lindsay named it Lindsay Island. [4] The first claim of landing, although disputed, was by American sailor Benjamin Morrell. In 1825, the island was claimed for the British Crown by George Norris, who named it Liverpool Island. He also reported Thompson Island as nearby, although this was later shown to be a phantom island. The first Norvegia expedition landed on the island in 1927 and claimed it for Norway. At this time the island was named Bouvet Island, or "Bouvetøya" in Norwegian. [5] After a dispute with the United Kingdom, it was declared a Norwegian dependency in 1930. It became a nature reserve in 1971.

Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier French explorer

Jean Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier was a French sailor, explorer, and governor of the Mascarene Islands.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.0 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

British people citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies, and their descendants

The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons. It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.

History

Discovery and early sightings

Southeast coast of Bouvet Island in 1898 Bouvet island 0.jpg
Southeast coast of Bouvet Island in 1898

The island was discovered on 1 January 1739 by Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier, commander of the French ships Aigle and Marie. [6] Bouvet, who was searching for a presumed large southern continent, spotted the island through the fog and named the cape he saw Cap de la Circoncision. He was not able to land and did not circumnavigate his discovery, thus not clarifying if it was an island or part of a continent. [7] His plotting of its position was inaccurate, [8] leading several expeditions to fail to find the island again. [9] James Cook's second voyage set off from Cape Verde on 22 November 1772 to find Cape Circoncision, but was unable to find the cape. [10]

Terra Australis fictional continent

Terra Australis was a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries. The existence of Terra Australis was not based on any survey or direct observation, but rather on the idea that continental land in the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the Southern Hemisphere. This theory of balancing land has been documented as early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius, who uses the term Australis on his maps.

James Cook 18th-century British explorer

Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Second voyage of James Cook Exploration voyage from 1772 to 1775

The second voyage of James Cook, from 1772 to 1775, commissioned by the British government with advice from the Royal Society, was designed to circumnavigate the globe as far south as possible to finally determine whether there was any great southern landmass, or Terra Australis. On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south, and he charted almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia, yet Terra Australis was believed to lie further south. Alexander Dalrymple and others of the Royal Society still believed that this massive southern continent should exist. After a delay brought about by the botanist Joseph Banks' unreasonable demands, the ships Resolution and Adventure were fitted for the voyage and set sail for the Antarctic in July 1772.

The next expedition to spot the island was in 1808 by James Lindsay, captain of the Samuel Enderby & Sons' (SE&S) snow whaler Swan. [11] Swan and another Enderby whaler, Otter were in company when they reached the island and recorded its position, though they were unable to land. [12] [13] Lindsay could confirm that the "cape" was indeed an island. [7] The next expedition to arrive at the island was American Benjamin Morrell and his seal hunting ship Wasp. Morrell, by his own account, found the island without difficulty (with "improbable ease", in the words of historian William Mills) [12] before landing and hunting 196 seals. [7] In his subsequent lengthy description, Morrell does not mention the island's most obvious physical feature, its permanent ice cover. [14] This has caused some commentators to doubt whether he actually visited the island. [12] [15]

Samuel Enderby & Sons was a whaling and sealing company based in London, England, founded circa 1775 by Samuel Enderby (1717–1797). The company encouraged their captains to combine exploration with their business activities, and sponsored several of the earliest expeditions to the subantarctic, Southern Ocean and Antarctica itself.

Snow (ship) sailing vessel

In sailing, a snow, snaw or snauw is a square rigged vessel with two masts, complemented by a snow- or trysail-mast stepped immediately abaft (behind) the main mast.

Whaler specialized ship designed for whaling

A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized ship, designed, or adapted, for whaling: the catching or processing of whales. The former includes the whale catcher – a steam or diesel-driven vessel with a harpoon gun mounted at its bow. The latter includes such vessels as the sail or steam-driven whaleship of the 16th to early 20th centuries and the floating factory or factory ship of the modern era. There have also been vessels which combined the two activities, such as the bottlenose whalers of the late 19th and early 20th century, and catcher/factory ships of the modern era.

On 10 December 1825, SE&S's George Norris, master of the Sprightly, landed on the island, [7] named it Liverpool Island and claimed it for the British Crown and George IV on 16 December. [16] The next expedition to spot the island was Joseph Fuller and his ship Francis Allyn in 1893, but he was not able to land on the island. German Carl Chun's Valdivia expedition arrived at the island in 1898. They were not able to land, but dredged the seabed for geological samples. [17] They were also the first to accurately fix the island's position. [16] At least three sealing vessels visited the island between 1822 and 1895. A voyage of exploration in 1927-28 also took seal pelts. [18]

Carl Chun German zoologist

Carl Chun was a German marine biologist.

Norris also spotted a second island in 1825, which he named Thompson Island, which he placed 72 kilometres (45 mi) north-northeast of Liverpool Island. Thompson Island was also reported in 1893 by Fuller, but in 1898 Chun did not report seeing such an island, nor has anyone since. [17] However, Thompson Island continued to appear on maps as late as 1943. [19] A 1967 paper suggested that the island might have disappeared in an undetected volcanic eruption, but in 1997 it was discovered that the ocean is more than 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) deep in the area. [20]

Norwegian annexation

The annexation of the island on 1 December 1927 Bouvet Island 1927.jpg
The annexation of the island on 1 December 1927
The first hut, built on Kapp Circoncision, in 1929 Cape Circoncision - Bouvet Island.jpg
The first hut, built on Kapp Circoncision, in 1929

In 1927, the First Norvegia Expedition led by Harald Horntvedt and financed by Lars Christensen  was the first to make an extended stay on the island. Observations and surveying were conducted on the islands and oceanographic measurements performed in the sea around it. At Ny Sandefjord, a small hut was erected and, on 1 December, the Norwegian flag was hoisted and the island claimed for Norway. The annexation was established by a royal decree on 23 January 1928. [16] The claim was initially protested by the United Kingdom, on the basis of Norris's landing and annexation. However, the British position was weakened by Norris's sighting of two islands and the uncertainty as to whether he had been on Thompson or Liverpool (i.e. Bouvet) Island. Norris's positioning deviating from the correct location combined with the island's small size and lack of a natural harbour made the UK accept the Norwegian claim. [21] This resulted in diplomatic negotiations between the two countries, and in November 1929, Britain renounced its claim to the island. [16]

The Second Norvegia Expedition arrived in 1928 with the intent of establishing a manned meteorological radio station, but a suitable location could not be found. [16] By then both the flagpole and hut from the previous year had been washed away. The Third Norvegia Expedition, led by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen, arrived the following year and built a new hut at Kapp Circoncision and on Larsøya. The expedition carried out aerial photography of the island and was the first Antarctic expedition to use aircraft. [22] The Dependency Act, passed by the Parliament of Norway on 27 February 1930, established Bouvet Island as a dependency, along with Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land. [2] The eared seal was protected on and around the island in 1929 and in 1935 all seals around the island were protected. [23]

Recent history

In 1955, the South African frigate Transvaal visited the island. [24] Nyrøysa, a rock-strewn ice-free area, the largest such on Bouvet, was created sometime between 1955 and 1958, probably by a landslide. [25] In 1964 the island was visited by the British naval ship HMS Protector. On 17 December 1971, the entire island and its territorial waters were protected as a nature reserve. [1] A scientific landing was made in 1978, during which the underground temperature was measured to be 25 °C (77 °F). [26] In addition to scientific surveys, [17] a lifeboat was recovered at Nyrøysa, although no people were found. [26] The lifeboat belonged to a scientific reconnaissance vessel ("The scientific reconnaissance vessel “Slava-9” began his regular 13th cruise with the “Slava” Antarctic whaling fleet on 22 October 1958 ... On 27 November she got to Bouvet Island. A group of sailors landed but were unable to leave the island in time because of worsened weather and stayed on it for about 3 days. The people were withdrawn only by helicopter on 29 November" [27] ).

The Vela Incident took place on 22 September 1979, on or above the sea between Bouvetøya and Prince Edward Islands, when the American Vela Hotel satellite 6911 registered an unexplained double flash. This observation has been variously interpreted as a nuclear test, meteor, or instrumentation glitch. [26] [28] [29] [30]

Since the 1970s, the island has been visited frequently by Norwegian Antarctic expeditions. In 1977, an automated weather station was constructed, and for two months in 1978 and 1979 a manned weather station was operated. [22] In March 1985, a Norwegian expedition experienced sufficiently clear weather to allow the entire island to be photographed from the air, resulting in the first accurate map of the whole island, 247 years after its discovery. [31] The Norwegian Polar Institute established a 36-square-metre (390 sq ft) research station, made of shipping containers, at Nyrøysa in 1996. On 23 February 2006, the island experienced a magnitude 6.2 earthquake whose epicentre was about 100 km (62 mi) away, [32] weakening the station's foundation and causing it to be blown to sea during a winter storm. [33] In 2014, a new research station was sent from Tromsø in Norway, via Cape Town, to Bouvet. The new station is designed to house six people for periods of two to four months. [34]

In the mid-1980s, Bouvetøya, Jan Mayen, and Svalbard were considered as locations for the new Norwegian International Ship Register, but the flag of convenience registry was ultimately established in Bergen, Norway, in 1987. [35] In 2007, the island was added to Norway's tentative list of nominations as a World Heritage Site as part of the transnational nomination of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. [36]

Krill fishing in the Southern Ocean is subject to the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, which defines maximum catch quotas for a sustainable exploitation of Antarctic krill. [37] Surveys conducted in 2000 showed high concentration of krill around Bouvetøya. In 2004, Aker BioMarine was awarded a concession to fish krill, and additional quotas were awarded from 2008 for a total catch of 620,000 tonnes (610,000 long tons; 680,000 short tons). [38] There is a controversy as to whether the fisheries are sustainable, particularly in relation to krill being important food for whales. [39] In 2009, Norway filed with the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf to extend the outer limit of the continental shelf past 200 nautical miles (230 mi; 370 km) surrounding the island. [40]

The Hanse Explorer expedition ship visited Bouvet Island on 20 and 21 February 2012 as part of "Expédition pour le Futur". The expedition's goal was to land and summit the highest point on the island. The first four climbers (Aaron Halstead, Will Allen, Bruno Rodi and Jason Rodi) were the first humans to climb the highest peak. A time capsule containing the top visions of the future for 2062 was left behind. The next morning, Aaron Halstead led five other climbers (Sarto Blouin, Seth Sherman, Chakib Bouayed, Cindy Sampson, and Akos Hivekovics) to the top. [41]

Several amateur radio DX-peditions have been conducted to the island. [42] [43] [44]

Geography

Bouvet Island Bouvet Map.png
Bouvet Island
Glacier on Bouvet Island's west coast Bouvet Island west coast glacier.jpg
Glacier on Bouvet Island's west coast

Bouvetøya is a volcanic island constituting the top of a volcano located at the southern end of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean. The island measures 9.5 by 7 kilometres (5.9 by 4.3 mi) and covers an area of 49 square kilometres (19 sq mi), [23] including a number of small rocks and skerries and one sizable island, Larsøya. [45] It is located in the Subantarctic, south of the Antarctic Convergence, [46] which, by some definitions, would place the island in the Southern Ocean. [47] Bouvet Island is the most remote island in the world. [48] The closest land is Queen Maud Land of Antarctica, which is 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi) to the south, [9] and Gough Island, 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) to the north. [49] The closest inhabited location is Tristan da Cunha island, 2,250 kilometres (1,400 mi) to the northwest. [23] To its west, the South Sandwich Islands lie about 1,900 km (1,200 mi) away, and to its east are the Prince Edward Islands, about 2,500 km (1,600 mi) away.

Nyrøysa is a 2-by-0.5-kilometre (1.2 by 0.3 mi) terrace located on the north-west coast of the island. Created by a rock slide sometime between 1955 and 1957, it is the island's easiest access point. [31] It is the site of the automatic weather station. [50] The north-west corner is the peninsula of Kapp Circoncision. [51] From there, east to Kapp Valdivia, the coast is known as Morgenstiernekysten. [52] Store Kari is an islet located 1.2 kilometres (0.75 mi) east of the cape. [53] From Kapp Valdivia, southeast to Kapp Lollo, on the east side of the island, the coast is known as Victoria Terrasse. [54] From there to Kapp Fie at the southeastern corner, the coast is known as Mowinckelkysten. Svartstranda is a section of black sand which runs 1.8 kilometres (1.1 mi) along the section from Kapp Meteor, south to Kapp Fie. [55] After rounding Kapp Fie, the coast along the south side is known as Vogtkysten. [56] The westernmost part of it is the 300 metres (980 ft) long shore of Sjøelefantstranda. [57] Off Catoodden, on the south-western corner, lies Larsøya, the only island of any size off Bouvetøya. [45] The western coast from Catoodden north to Nyrøysa, is known as Esmarchkysten. Midway up the coast lies Norvegiaodden (Kapp Norvegia) [58] and 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) off it the skerries of Bennskjæra. [59]

93 percent of the island is covered by glaciers, giving it a domed shape. [31] The summit region of the island is Wilhelmplatået, slightly to the west of the island's center. [17] The plateau is 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) across [60] and surrounded by several peaks. [17] The tallest is Olavtoppen, 780 metres (2,560 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL), [31] followed by Lykketoppen (766 metres or 2,513 feet AMSL) [61] and Mosbytoppane (670 metres or 2,200 feet AMSL). [62] Below Wilhelmplatået is the main caldera responsible for creating the island. [17] The last eruption took place 2000 BC, producing a lava flow at Kapp Meteor. [60] The volcano is presumed to be in a declining state. [17] The temperature 30 centimetres (12 in) below the surface is 25 °C (77 °F). [31]

The island's total coastline is 29.6 kilometres (18.4 mi). [63] Landing on the island is very difficult, as it normally experiences high seas and features a steep coast. [31] During the winter, it is surrounded by pack ice. [23] The Bouvet Triple Junction is located 275 kilometres (171 mi) west of Bouvet Island. It is a triple junction between the South American Plate, the African Plate and the Antarctic Plate, and of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Southwest Indian Ridge and the American–Antarctic Ridge. [64]

Bouvet Island west coast.jpg
West coast of Bouvet Island

Climate

The island is located south of the Antarctic Convergence, giving it a marine Antarctic climate dominated by heavy clouds and fog. It experiences a mean temperature of −1 °C (30 °F), [31] with January average of 1 °C (34 °F) and September average of −3 °C (27 °F). [49] The monthly high mean temperatures fluctuate little through the year. [65] The peak temperature of 14 °C (57 °F) was recorded in March 1980, caused by intense sun radiation. Spot temperatures as high as 20 °C (68 °F) have been recorded in sunny weather on rock faces. [31] The island predominantly experiences a weak west wind. [49]

Climate data for Bouvet Island
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)3
(37)
4
(39)
3
(37)
2
(36)
1
(34)
0
(32)
−1
(30)
−1
(30)
−1
(30)
0
(32)
1
(34)
3
(37)
1
(34)
Average low °C (°F)0
(32)
0
(32)
0
(32)
0
(32)
−2
(28)
−4
(25)
−5
(23)
−5
(23)
−5
(23)
−3
(27)
−2
(28)
−1
(30)
−2
(28)
Source: [65]

Nature

NASA image of Bouvet Island from space Bouvet aerial photo.jpg
NASA image of Bouvet Island from space

The harsh climate and ice-bound terrain limits non-animal life to fungi (ascomycetes including symbiotic lichens) and non-vascular plants (mosses and liverworts). The flora are representative for the maritime Antarctic and are phytogeographically similar to the South Sandwich Islands and South Shetland Islands. Vegetation is limited because of the ice cover, although snow algae are recorded. The remaining vegetation is located in snow-free areas such as nunatak ridges and other parts of the summit plateau, the coastal cliffs, capes and beaches. At Nyrøysa, five species of moss, six ascomycetes (including five lichens), and twenty algae have been recorded. Most snow-free areas are so steep and subject to frequent avalanches that only crustose lichens and algal formations are sustainable. There are six endemic ascomycetes, three of which are lichenized. [50]

Cape Valdivia, Bouvet Island, 2009 Bouvet island.jpg
Cape Valdivia, Bouvet Island, 2009

The island has been designated as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because of its importance as a breeding ground for seabirds. In 1978–79 there were an estimated 117,000 breeding penguins on the island, consisting of macaroni penguin and, to a lesser extent, chinstrap penguin and Adélie penguin, although these were only estimated to be 62,000 in 1989–90. Nyrøysa is the most important colony for penguins, supplemented by Posadowskybreen, Kapp Circoncision, Norvegiaodden and across from Larsøya. Southern fulmar is by far the most common non-penguin bird with 100,000 individuals. Other breeding seabirds consist of Cape petrel, Antarctic prion, Wilson's storm petrel, black-bellied storm petrel, subantarctic skua, southern giant petrel, snow petrel, slender-billed prion and Antarctic tern. Kelp gull is thought to have bred on the island earlier. Non-breeding birds which can be found on the island include the king penguin, wandering albatross, black-browed albatross, Campbell albatross, Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross, sooty albatross, light-mantled albatross, northern giant petrel, Antarctic petrel, blue petrel, soft-plumaged petrel, Kerguelen petrel, white-headed petrel, fairy prion, white-chinned petrel, great shearwater, common diving petrel, south polar skua and parasitic jaeger. [50]

The only non-bird vertebrates on the island are seals, specifically the southern elephant seal and Antarctic fur seal, which both breed on the island. In 1998–99, there were 88 elephant seal pups and 13,000 fur seal pups at Nyrøysa. Humpback whale and killer whale are seen in the surrounding waters. [50]

Politics and government

Image courtesy of the Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center Bouvet Island ISS017-E-16161 no text.JPG
Image courtesy of the Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center

Bouvetøya is one of three dependencies of Norway. [66] Unlike Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land, which are subject to the Antarctic Treaty System, [67] Bouvetøya is not disputed. [63] The dependency status entails that the island is not part of the Kingdom of Norway, but is still under Norwegian sovereignty. This implies that the island can be ceded without violating the first article of the Constitution of Norway. [66] Norwegian administration of the island is handled by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police, located in Oslo. [68]

The annexation of the island is regulated by the Dependency Act of 24 March 1933. It establishes that Norwegian criminal law, private law and procedural law apply to the island, in addition to other laws that explicitly state they are valid on the island. It further establishes that all land belongs to the state, and prohibits the storage and detonation of nuclear products. [2] Bouvet Island has been designated with the ISO 3166-2 code BV [69] and was subsequently awarded the country code top-level domain .bv on 21 August 1997. [70] The domain is managed by Norid but is not in use. [71] The exclusive economic zone surrounding the island covers an area of 441,163 square kilometres (170,334 sq mi). [72]

In fiction

See also

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Cape Valdivia is the northernmost point on Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. The subantarctic Bouvet Island is administered by Norway.

Queen Maud Land Norways territorial claim in Antarctica

Queen Maud Land is a c. 2.7 million square kilometre (1.04 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway. The territory lies between 20° west and 45° east, between the claimed British Antarctic Territory to the west and the similarly claimed Australian Antarctic Territory to the east. On most maps there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land's borders of 1939 and the South Pole until 12 June 2015 when Norway formally annexed that area. Positioned in East Antarctica, the territory comprises about one-fifth of the total area of Antarctica. The claim is named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales (1869–1938).

Dependencies of Norway

Norway has three dependent territories, all uninhabited and located in the Southern Hemisphere. Bouvetøya is a Subantarctic island in the South Atlantic Ocean. Queen Maud Land is a sector of Antarctica which spans between 20° west and 45° east. Peter I Island is a volcanic island located 450 kilometres (280 mi) off the coast of Ellsworth Land of continental Antarctica. Svalbard is not considered to be a dependency. While the Svalbard Treaty regulates some aspects of that Arctic territory, one article acknowledges that these islands are part of Norway. Similarly, Jan Mayen is recognized as an integral part of the nation. Both are, however, unincorporated areas.

Horntvedt Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Horntvedt Glacier is a small glacier flowing to the north coast of the island of Bouvetøya. It is situated immediately east of Cape Circoncision. It was first charted in 1898 by a German expedition under Carl Chun, and recharted in December 1927 by a Norwegian expedition which named it for Harald Horntvedt (1879-1946), the captain of the expedition ship Norvegia.

Posadowsky Glacier (Bouvet Island) glacier in Antarctica

Posadowsky Glacier is a glacier which flows to the north coast of the island of Bouvetøya in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. It is 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) eastward of Cape Circoncision.

Cato Point headland

Cato Point is a headland forming the southwest extremity of Bouvet Island. It was first charted in 1898 by a German expedition under Carl Chun. The Norwegian expedition under Captain Harald Horntvedt made a landing here from the Norvegia in December 1927; they applied the name.

Norvegia Point headland

Norvegia Point, is a point 2 nautical miles (3.7 km) south of Cape Circoncision on the west side of the island of Bouvetøya. First roughly charted from the Valdivia in 1898 by a German expedition under Carl Chun. Recharted in December 1927 by a Norwegian expedition under Captain Harald Horntvedt. Named by Horntvedt after his expedition ship, the Norvegia I.

Cape Fie headland

Cape Fie, located at 54°27′S3°28′E, is a cape marking the southeast extremity of Bouvetøya in the South Atlantic Ocean. It was first roughly charted in 1898 by a German expedition under Carl Chun, and was re-charted and named by the Norwegian expedition under Captain Harald Horntvedt who explored the area from the Norvegia in December 1927.

Mosbytoppane mountain on Bouvet Island

Mosbytoppane, are two crags to the southwest of the caldera of the island of Bouvetøya. The tallest is a snow-covered peak 670 meters (2,200 ft) above mean sea level and 1.3 kilometers (0.81 mi) northeast of Norvegiaodden. It was charted by the First Norvegia Expedition in 1927–28, under Captain Harald Horntvedt. It is named for Hakon Mosby, an oceanographer and meteorologist who was one of two scientists on the expedition.

Cape Meteor headland

Cape Meteor is a cape marked by steep cliffs in the coastal area of Mowinckelkysten, north of Svartstranda beach, and forms the eastern extremity of the Bouvetøya in the South Atlantic.

Haswell Island island off the coast of Antarctica

Haswell Island is the largest of the Haswell Islands, lying off the coast of Antarctica, about 3 kilometres (1.5 nmi) north of Mabus Point in Queen Mary Land. It was discovered by the Western Base Party of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911–14, under Mawson, and named by him for Professor William A. Haswell, a zoologist at Sydney University and a member of the expedition's Advisory Committee.

Lykketoppen mountain in Bouvet Island

Lykketoppen, occasionally anglicized as Lykke Peak, is a snow-covered, 765-meter (2,510 ft) tall summit that surmounts the southwest part of Bouvetøya, standing 1 nautical mile (2 km) east of Norvegia Point. It was first roughly charted in 1898 by a German expedition under Carl Chun, and was recharted and named in December 1927 by the First Norvegia Expedition under Captain Harald Horntvedt.

Larsøya landform

Larsøya, sometimes anglicized as Lars Island, is a rocky island, less than 0.2 nautical miles (0.4 km) long, which lies just off the southwestern extremity of the island of Bouvetøya in the South Atlantic Ocean. It was first roughly charted in 1898 by a German expedition under Carl Chun. The Norwegian expedition under Captain Harald Horntvedt made a landing on the island from the ship Norvegia in December 1927, and named it after Lars Christensen, sponsor of the expedition.

Mowinckelkysten

Mowinckelkysten is a coastal area at the southeastern side of the island of Bouvetøya. It is named after Johan Ludwig Mowinckel, the Norwegian Prime Minister at the time when Norwegian sovereignty over the island was established. It extends from Kapp Fie to Kapp Lollo. The coast includes Kapp Meteor, the easternmost point of the island. South of Kapp Meteor is the black sandy beach Svartstranda.

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Sources