Bowles Ridge

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Location of Bowles Ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Bowles-Ridge-location-map.PNG
Location of Bowles Ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.
Bowles Ridge from Ongal Peak in Tangra Mountains, with Kuzman Knoll and upper Huron Glacier in the middle ground. Bowles-Ridge.jpg
Bowles Ridge from Ongal Peak in Tangra Mountains, with Kuzman Knoll and upper Huron Glacier in the middle ground.
Eastern Bowles Ridge from Ongal Peak, with lower Huron Glacier in the middle ground. Levski-North.jpg
Eastern Bowles Ridge from Ongal Peak, with lower Huron Glacier in the middle ground.
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island Livingston-Island-Map-2010-15.png
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island

Bowles Ridge (Hrebet Bowles \'hre-bet 'bOls\) is the central ridge of eastern Livingston Island. The ridge extends 6.5 km in the east-west direction and is 1.5 km wide. The summit of the ridge is Mount Bowles which rises to 822m and is located 9.77 km northwest of Great Needle Peak, 6.08 km north by west of Mount Friesland, 8.77 km east-northeast of St. Kliment Ohridski base and 9.25 km south by west of Miziya Peak.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica lying between the islands of Greenwich and Snow. This island was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, and the name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

Mount Bowles mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Mount Bowles is an ice-covered mountain 822 metres (2,697 ft) high, the summit of Bowles Ridge in the central part of eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is situated south of Vidin Heights and north of Mount Friesland, Tangra Mountains to which it is linked by Wörner Gap.

Great Needle Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Great Needle Peak is the summit of the central Levski Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Rising to 1,679.5 m, it is the third highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland (1700.2 m) and St. Boris Peak (1685 m). Great Needle Peak surmounts Huron Glacier and its tributary draining Devnya Valley to the north, Magura Glacier to the east, Srebarna Glacier to the south, and Macy Glacier to the southwest.

Contents

Bowles Ridge is bounded by Kaliakra Glacier and Struma Glacier to the north, by Perunika Glacier to the west and southwest and by Huron Glacier to the southeast and east. It is linked to Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains by Wörner Gap, to Hemus Peak by Dimov Gate, and to Melnik Ridge by Yankov Gap. The ridge is crossed by Omurtag Pass and Pirdop Gate.

Kaliakra Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Kaliakra Glacier is a glacier in northeastern Livingston Island, Antarctica extending 3.8 nautical miles in east-west direction and 4.3 nautical miles in north-south direction, and situated southeast of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Panega Glacier, north of Struma Glacier and upper Huron Glacier, and northeast of Perunika Glacier. It is bounded by Melnik Ridge and Bowles Ridge to the south, by Hemus Peak, Gurev Gap, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap, Leslie Hill, Leslie Gap and Radnevo Peak to the west, and Miziya Peak and Samuel Peak to the north. The glacier drains eastwards into Moon Bay south of Perperek Knoll and north of Sindel Point.

Struma Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Struma Glacier is a glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated south of lower Kaliakra Glacier and north of Huron Glacier. Bounded by Melnik Ridge to the north, Yankov Gap to the west and Bowles Ridge to the south, it is 4.8 km long and 1.5 km wide, and flows eastwards into Moon Bay south of Sindel Point and north of Elemag Point.

Perunika Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Perunika Glacier is an 8 km long and 3 km wide (average) roughly crescent-shaped glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east of Pimpirev Glacier, south of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Kaliakra Glacier, west of Huron Glacier, and north of Balkan Snowfield and the head of Huntress Glacier.

The feature takes its name from Mount Bowles.

Location

The ridge is centred at 62°37′00″S60°10′20″W / 62.61667°S 60.17222°W / -62.61667; -60.17222 Coordinates: 62°37′00″S60°10′20″W / 62.61667°S 60.17222°W / -62.61667; -60.17222 . It was mapped by the British in 1968 and surveyed by Bulgarian topographic surveys in 1995/6 and 2004/5 with mapping in 2005 and 2009.

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

See also

Maps

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.

This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.


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Friesland Ridge

Friesland Ridge is a ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetlands, part of the Tangra Mountains. The summit, Mount Friesland, which rises to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft), is the northwesternmost of the ridge’s six main peaks. Its elevation was estimated at 1,684 metres (5,525 ft) by a 1995/96 Bulgarian survey; the present figure was produced by a 2003 Australian GPS survey, and closely matched by the Bulgarian survey Tangra 2004/05.

Levski Ridge

Levski Ridge is the central ridge of the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island. Its summit, Great Needle Peak rises to 1,680m and is the second highest summit of the island after Mount Friesland.

Lyaskovets Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Lyaskovets Peak is the easternmost peak of Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island and has an elevation 1,473 m. The peak is bounded by Catalunyan Saddle to the west and Shipka Saddle to the east and is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous western, southern and eastern slopes. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the northwest and northeast, and Macy Glacier and Brunow Bay area to the south. Its northern offshoot forms Zograf Peak, and is linked to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak in Huron Glacier.

Maritsa Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Maritsa Peak rises to 560 m in eastern Bowles Ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It has precipitous rocky south slopes, and is situated on the west side of Pirdop Gate, surmounting Huron Glacier to the south and Struma Glacier to the north. The peak is "named after the Maritsa River in Bulgaria."

Pliska Ridge

Pliska Ridge is a three-peaked ridge rising to 667 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its central and highest summit, Pliska Peak, is located 2.48 km east-northeast of Willan Nunatak, 1.81 km southeast of Burdick Peak, 3.53 km south-southwest of Mount Bowles, 3.68 km west-southwest of Kuzman Knoll, and 3.61 km northwest of Mount Friesland. The feature is 1.6 km long and 500 m wide, its axis trending due east-west, with precipitous southern slopes. It is ice-covered except for segments of its easternmost peak and is bounded to the northwest by Orpheus Gate, to the north by the head of Perunika Glacier, to the east by Nesebar Gap, and to the south and west by the head of Huntress Glacier, the latter flowing 6 km southwestwards into False Bay.

Presian Ridge

Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.

Radomir Knoll

Radomir Knoll rises to approximately 300 m in Prespa Glacier, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is formed by the south extremity of an offshoot of Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains that extends to the south-southeast from St. Cyril Peak and surmounts Chavei Cove to the south and southwest.

Rayna Knyaginya Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Rayna Knyaginya Peak is a peak of elevation 680 m in western Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Perunika Glacier to the south and northwest, and Kaliakra Glacier to the northeast.

St. Cyril Peak

St. Cyril Peak rises to 1,505m in Friesland Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is linked to St. Methodius Peak to the southwest by Vladaya Saddle and surmounts Ruen Icefall to the west, Macy Glacier to the east and Prespa Glacier to the south.

St. Methodius Peak

St. Methodius Peak rises to approximately 1,180m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island, Antarctica and surmounts Ruen Icefall to the north-northwest, Prespa Glacier to the southeast and Charity Glacier to the southwest. Linked to St. Cyril Peak by Vladaya Saddle.

Svoge Knoll

Svoge Knoll is an ice-covered peak rising to 560 m in Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Perunika Glacier to the south and west.

Tran Crag

Tran Crag rises to 490 m in the Tangra Mountains of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and projects from the tributary glacier draining the west slopes of Friesland Ridge between St. Boris Peak and Simeon Peak. It is named after the town of Tran in Western Bulgaria.

Veleka Ridge

Veleka Ridge is a predominantly ice-free ridge extending 3 km between Charity Glacier in the north and Botev Point in the south, and 1.3 km wide, in the southwest extremity of Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The ice-free surface area of the ridge and the adjacent Arkutino Beach is 468 hectares. Surmounting Tarnovo Ice Piedmont to the east, Charity Glacier to the north, Arkutino Beach to the west, and Barnard Point and Botev Point to the southwest and south respectively. The ridge's summit Veleka Peak rises to 538 m in its north extremity.

W├Ârner Gap

Wörner Gap is a flat saddle extending 3 km in the south-north direction between Friesland Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its elevation decreases from 585 m in the south to 541 m in the middle, and 525 m in the north. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the west and Huron Glacier to the east, and is linked to the east to Kuzman Knoll, a conspicuous landmark in the area. The gap is visited by field parties from St. Kliment Ohridski Base and Juan Carlos I Base and is subject to Spanish and Bulgarian glaciological studies.

Yambol Peak

Yambol Peak is a rocky peak rising to 300 m in the south extremity of Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and overlooking Tarnovo Ice Piedmont to the west and Prespa Glacier to the northeast. The ice-free surface area of the peak is 33 hectares. A southeastern offshoot of the peak forms Gela Point. The feature is named after the Bulgarian town of Yambol.

Zlatograd Rock mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Zlatograd Rock is a rocky 240 m peak forming the eastern extremity of Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Struma Glacier to the northwest and Huron Glacier to the southeast. It is named after the town of Zlatograd in the Rhodope Mountains, Southern Bulgaria.

Camp Academia Antarctic camp in Bulgaria

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Willan Nunatak

Willan Nunatak is an ice-free tipped peak rising to 449 m on the glacial divide between Huntress Glacier and Balkan Snowfield on Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is linked to Burdick South Peak to the northeast by Willan Saddle and, via Castillo Nunatak and Charrúa Gap, to Charrúa Ridge to the west.