|Brétigny-sur-Orge train crash|
The derailed 4th carriage of the train that crashed at the Brétigny station
|Date||12 July 2013|
|Time||17:11 CEST (UTC+02:00)|
On 12 July 2013, a train crash occurred in the commune of Brétigny-sur-Orge in the southern suburbs of Paris, France, when a passenger train carrying 385 people derailed and hit the station platform. Six people were killed and nearly 200 were injured.
A train wreck or train crash is a type of disaster involving one or more trains. Train wrecks often occur as a result of miscommunication, as when a moving train meets another train on the same track; or an accident, such as when a train wheel jumps off a track in a derailment; or when a boiler explosion occurs. Train wrecks have often been widely covered in popular media and in folklore.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France.
Brétigny-sur-Orge is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France, 26.7 km (16.6 mi) from the city center.
The accident was cited as the most serious rail crash in France since the 1988 Gare de Lyon accident in which 56 people were killed.
The Gare de Lyon rail accident occurred on 27 June 1988, when an SNCF commuter train headed inbound to Paris's Gare de Lyon terminal crashed into a stationary outbound train, killing 56 and injuring 60, resulting as the third deadliest rail disaster in peacetime France.
At 17:11 CEST (15:11 UTC) on 12 July 2013,SNCF Corail Intercités train 3657 from Paris Gare d'Austerlitz to Limoges derailed and crashed at Brétigny station, resulting in the deaths of seven people (three passengers on the train and four on the platform) and injuries to "dozens" more. 385 passengers were on board, which occurred a few minutes after the train departed Austerlitz at 16:53. It was scheduled to arrive at Limoges-Bénédictins at 20:05. The trains and platforms at Brétigny were particularly busy as it was the Friday before the Bastille Day holiday weekend.
Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, and is not adjusted for daylight saving time. In some countries where English is spoken, the term Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is often used as a synonym for UTC and predates UTC by nearly 300 years.
The Société nationale des chemins de fer français is France's national state-owned railway company. Founded in 1938, it operates the country's national rail traffic along with Monaco, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network. Its functions include operation of railway services for passengers and freight, and maintenance and signalling of rail infrastructure. The railway network consists of about 32,000 km (20,000 mi) of route, of which 1,800 km (1,100 mi) are high-speed lines and 14,500 km (9,000 mi) electrified. About 14,000 trains are operated daily.
Corail is the name given to a class of passenger rail cars of the SNCF that first entered commercial service in 1975. When introduced Corail carriages improved passenger comfort, featured air-conditioning, and superior levels of comfort, suspension and sound-proofing compared with previous InterCity carriages.
Reports indicate the train, which was not scheduled to stop, crashed at 137 km/h (85 mph) (below the speed limit of 150 km/h). The last four carriages derailed on a double slip, and the train then broke in two between its fourth and fifth carriages. The rear of the train deviated to the left from Track 1 to Track 3 at the following railroad switch. With the fifth and seventh carriages following different tracks, the sixth carriage swept the platform between them for a distance of around 100metres. It was pierced by a roof beam. The fifth carriage first hit the platform on its left and then came to rest along the opposite platform.
A railroad switch (AE), turnout, or [set of] points (BE) is a mechanical installation enabling railway trains to be guided from one track to another, such as at a railway junction or where a spur or siding branches off.
Railway workers immediately took action, preventing, by a few seconds, a collision between the derailed carriages and another approaching from the opposite direction.
According to a police report, some thefts from passengers and throwing of projectiles at rescue workers occurred shortly after the accident.The Minister of Transport Frédéric Cuvillier and Interior Minister Manuel Valls described the incidents as "isolated acts" and said the throwing of missiles ceased when the police arrived.
Frédéric Cuvillier is a French politician who, until his appointment as Junior Minister for Transport and the Maritime Economy at the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, and Energy by President François Hollande on 16 May 2012, was a member of the National Assembly of France, where he represented the 5th constituency of Pas-de-Calais on behalf of the Parti Socialiste. He was mayor of Boulogne-sur-Mer from 22 November 2002 until 2012, when he became Secretary of State for Transport and the Maritime Economy.
Manuel Carlos Valls Galfetti is a French and Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 2014 until 2016.
The SNCF, French Land Transport Accident Investigation Bureau (BEA-TT), and judicial authorities started three separate investigations into the accident.
The SNCF released its initial findings on 13 July 2013, reporting that the derailment appeared to have been caused by a track failure. A steel fishplate connecting two rails came loose 200 metres (660 ft) from the station at a set of switches, and became stuck in them. The last axle of the third carriage is thought to be the first to have hit the fishplate.
In January 2019, an SNCF manager who had been supervising track inspections at Brétigny before the crash was charged with homicide.
Three investigations were initiated, by the Évry public prosecutor, the Land Transport Accident Investigation Bureau (BEA-TT) of the Ministry of Transport, and the SNCF. The train is believed to have derailed on the approach to Brétigny when passing over a switch 200 metres (660 ft) before the station. The French transport minister Frédéric Cuvillier stated that the accident was not due to human error and ruled out [ clarification needed ] any responsibility on the part of the driver.
At a press conference the day after the accident, an SNCF director stated that the failure of a fishplate (rail joint) was the cause of the accident, confirmed in the third SNCF press conference by supporting photographs. According to Guillaume Pepy, the SNCF president, the fishplate broke away from the rails and became lodged in the middle of the switch, causing the derailment.
Pepy said the SNCF considered itself responsible for the lives of its passengers and announced a campaign to check all similar equipment, nearly 5,000 units throughout the network, whose maintenance is within the SNCF's remit. [ clarification needed ]
The TGV is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator. The SNCF started working on a high-speed rail network in 1966 and later presented the project to President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing who approved it. Originally designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, TGV prototypes evolved into electric trains with the 1973 oil crisis. In 1976 the SNCF ordered 87 high-speed trains from GEC-Alstom. Following the inaugural service between Paris and Lyon in 1981 on the LGV Sud-Est, the network, centered on Paris, has expanded to connect major cities across France and in neighbouring countries on a combination of high-speed and conventional lines. The TGV network in France carries about 110 million passengers a year.
There have been four completely unrelated railway accidents in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, England, one in 1898, one in 1899, one in 1946 and the most recent in 2002.
In rail terminology, a fishplate, splice bar or joint bar is a metal bar that is bolted to the ends of two rails to join them together in a track. The name is derived from fish, a wooden bar with a curved profile used to strengthen a ship's mast. The top and bottom edges are tapered inwards so the device wedges itself between the top and bottom of the rail when it is bolted into place. In rail transport modelling, a fishplate is often a small copper or nickel silver plate that slips onto both rails to provide the functions of maintaining alignment and electrical continuity.
The RER D is one of five RER lines serving Paris, France. It connects Orry-la-Ville and Creil in the north to Melun, Corbeil-Essonnes and Malesherbes in the south, passing through the heart of Paris.
The Jaunpur train crash was the result of an act of sabotage which caused the derailment of a passenger train at Jaunpur in Uttar Pradesh, a state in Northern India on 13 May 2002.
Limoges-Bénédictins is the main railway station of Limoges. It is situated on the Orléans–Montauban railway. It was named Bénédictins due to the presence of a Benedictine monastery closed during the French Revolution.
Leuville-sur-Orge is a commune 31 km (19 mi) south of Paris, France. It is situated in the Essonne department in the Île-de-France region.
The Versailles rail accident occurred on 8 May 1842 in the cutting between Meudon and Bellevue stations on the railway between Versailles and Paris following celebrations at the Palace of Versailles marking King Louis Philippe's saint's day. A train returning to Paris derailed at Meudon after the leading locomotive broke an axle, and the carriages behind piled into it and caught fire. It was the first French railway accident and the deadliest in the world at the time, causing between 52 and 200 deaths, including that of explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville and his wife Adèle Dumont D'Urville. The accident led the French to abandon the practice of locking passengers in their carriages.
The French Land Transport Accident Investigation Bureau is an agency of the French government formed in 2004 and charged with the investigation into accidents involving all forms of land transport, including railways, urban guided transportation systems, cable-hauled transport systems, road transport, and canals and other navigable inland waterways. It is headquartered in the Tour Voltaire in La Défense business district in Puteaux.
Brétigny is a railway station located in Brétigny-sur-Orge, Essonne, Paris, France. The station was opened in 1865 and is located on the Paris–Bordeaux railway and Paris–Tours railway. The station is served by Paris' express suburban rail system, the RER. The train services are operated by SNCF.
Saint-Michel-sur-Orge is a railway station located in Saint-Michel-sur-Orge, Essonne, Paris, France. The station was opened in 1843 and is located on the Paris–Bordeaux railway. The station is served by Paris' express suburban rail system, the RER. The train services are operated by SNCF.
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Savigny-sur-Orge is a railway station located in Savigny-sur-Orge, Essonne, Paris, France. The station was opened in 1843 and is located on the Paris–Bordeaux railway and Grande Ceinture line, a freight railway around Paris. The station is served by Paris' express suburban rail system, the RER. The train services are operated by SNCF.
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