Brăila

Last updated
Brăila
Ansamblul 'Piata Traian, centrul vechi al orasului Braila..jpg
Teatrul "Maria Filotti".jpg Hotel Danubiu - Municipiul Braila - vedere de zi.jpg
Centrul istoric al municipiului Braila (1).jpg Palatul " Lyra" 1924 - vedere de zi.jpg
Saint Nicholas Church , Braila, Romania.jpg The Headquarters of the Naval Authority - Braila.JPG Grupul statuar " Traian" - Piata Traian - in parc - Braila (1).jpg
From left: Overview of the city (night view), Maria Filotti Theatre, Hotel Danubiu, Old town, Lyra Palace, Saint Nicholas Church, Headquarters of the Naval Authority, Traian statue.
Braila jud Braila.png
Location in Brăila County
Romania location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Brăila
Location in Romania
Coordinates: 45°16′09.1″N27°57′26.9″E / 45.269194°N 27.957472°E / 45.269194; 27.957472 Coordinates: 45°16′09.1″N27°57′26.9″E / 45.269194°N 27.957472°E / 45.269194; 27.957472
CountryFlag of Romania.svg  Romania
County Brăila
Government
  MayorMarian Dragomir [1] (PSD)
Area
77.9 km2 (30.1 sq mi)
Elevation
25 m (82 ft)
Population
 (2011) [2]
180,302
  Density2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
Time zone EET/EEST (UTC+2/+3)
Postal code
810xxx
Area code (+40) 239
Vehicle reg. BR
Website www.primariabraila.ro

Brăila ( /brəˈlə/ , also US: /-lɑː/ , [3] [4] [5] Romanian:  [brəˈila] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in Muntenia, eastern Romania, a port on the Danube and the capital of Brăila County. The Sud-Est Regional Development Agency is located in Brăila.

Contents

According to the 2011 Romanian census there were 180,302 people living within the city of Brăila, [6] making it the 11th most populous city in Romania.

History

Braila in an early 1900s postcard. Braila.jpg
Brăila in an early 1900s postcard.
An overview of Braila in late 19th century or early 20th century. Braila 19th century.jpg
An overview of Brăila in late 19th century or early 20th century.

Origins

Before 14th century, a small village existed in the place of today's Brăila, probably inhabited by fishermen and small merchants. [7] The village fell to the Mongols during the 1241 Mongol invasion of Europe and it was under direct control of the rulers of Argeș in mid-14th century. [7]

A settlement called Drinago was found in several 14th century Catalan and Castillian portolan charts (Angelino de Dalorto, 1325/1330 and Angelino Dulcert, 1339), as well as in the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms . This may have been an erroneous transcription of Brillago, a name which was later used in 15th century traveller's journals. [8]

In Greek documents of roughly that time, the city is referred to as Proilabum or Proilava, a Greek language adaptation of its Slavic name, Brailov. In German language sources, it is mentioned as Uebereyl.[ citation needed ] The origin and meaning of the name is unknown, but it is thought to be an anthroponym. [8]

The first certain document mentioning Brăila is a privilege act, given by Vladislav I of Wallachia to German merchants of Brașov, who were exempt of customs duties when they followed the road from Brașov to the Danube via Braylan. [9]

Wallachian harbour

Following the fall of Vicina, Brăila developed as the main harbour of Wallachia, [9] gaining the town status around 1400. [10]

In 1396, Johann Schiltberger writes that Brăila was the place where ships docked, bringing "goods from heathen lands". [10] Foreign merchants bringing goods were forced to unload their merchandise in Brăila, as it can be understood from a 1445 account of Walerand de Wavrin. [10] A 1520 Ottoman account tells about the arrival of 70-80 ships in Brăila, bringing goods from Asia Minor and Crimea. [10] The town was also an important center of the fish trade: Polish merchants came to purchase it (1408) and this lucrative trade was taxed by the rulers following Vladislav I. [10]

The town did have autonomy, being ruled by pârgari and a județ . We know little about the ethnic structure of the town, but it is expected it was quite diverse, having inhabitants from many backgrounds. One document from 1500 talks about Mihoci Latinețul, a Ragusan who had lived in Brăila for five years and was a member of the community. [11]

In 1462, Mehmed the Conqueror's fleet of 25 triremes and 150 other ships burnt the city to the ground. [11] The city was also caught in the conflict between Wallachia and the Moldavian prince Stephen the Great, as the Moldavians destroyed the city during the retaliation campaign against Wallachian prince Radu the Fair. [11] An account of the Moldavian attack is found in Cronica breviter scripta : [11]

much blood was shed, and the town burned to the ground, not leaving even the children of mothers to live, and sliced open the breasts of mothers and ripped the children from them

The conflict was not just political, as the town of Brăila competed against Moldavian town of Chilia. [12] Nevertheless, Brăila recovered, soon becoming the gateway for Levantine goods into Wallachia. [12] The town was burnt again by Bogdan III of Moldavia in 1512. [12]

Ottoman harbour

Around 1538-1540 (perhaps during the Suleiman the Magnificent's military expedition against Petru Rareș), the city became a part of the Ottoman Empire, being organized as a kaza. [12] The town was part of the Empire's northern defensive network and the Ottomans built a stone stronghold in the town. [13]

The Ottoman Empire ruled it from 1538–1540 until 1829; the Ottomans called it Ibrail or Ibraila. It was briefly ruled by Michael the Brave, prince of Wallachia (1595–1596).

Modern history

In 1711, the city was besieged and conquered by a Wallachian-Russian army during the Pruth River Campaign. In 1829, it was granted to Wallachia by the Akkerman Convention.

During the 19th century, the port became one of the three most important ports on the Danube in Wallachia, the other two being Turnu and Giurgiu. The city's greatest period of prosperity was at the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, when it was an important port for most of the merchandise coming in and going out of Romania.

During World War II, Brăila was captured on 28 August 1944 by Soviet troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front in the course of the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive.

After the 1989 Revolution, Brăila entered a period of economic decline.

In 2018, a terror attack in the city left 10 people injured. [14]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1859 15,767    
1900 58,392+270.3%
1912 65,053+11.4%
1930 68,347+5.1%
1941 99,531+45.6%
1948 95,514−4.0%
1956 102,500+7.3%
1966 138,802+35.4%
1977 194,633+40.2%
1992 234,110+20.3%
2002 216,292−7.6%
2011 180,302−16.6%
Censuses data, [15] [16] 1930–1948. [17]

At the 2011 census Brăila had an estimated population of 180,302, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census. [6] The ethnic makeup was as follows:

Metropolitan area

Economy

Accessible to small and medium-sized oceangoing ships, Brăila has large grain-handling and warehousing facilities. It is also an important industrial center, with metalworking, textile, food-processing, and other factories. The naval industry is one of the focus of Brăila's revenue bringers.

Cityscape

Brăila has the following districts: Centru (Center), Viziru (1, 2, 3), Călărași 4, Ansamblul Buzăului, Radu Negru, Obor, Hipodrom, Lacu Dulce, Dorobanți, 1 Mai, Comorofca, Calea Galați, Gării, Apollo, Siret, Pisc, Brăilița, Vidin-Progresul, Islaz, and Chercea.

Landmarks

Maria Filotti Theatre Teatrul "Maria Filotti" - Municipiul Braila.jpg
Maria Filotti Theatre
Hotel Danubiu in Traian Square Hotel Danubiu - Municipiul Braila - vedere de zi.jpg
Hotel Danubiu in Traian Square

Streets radiating from near the port towards Brăila's center are crossed at symmetrical intervals by concentric streets following the geometric design of the old Ottoman fortifications.

The old center of the city has many 19th century buildings, some of them fully restored. The most important monuments are the Greek Church, erected in 1863-1872 by the Greek community, the Sfinții Arhangheli Church, former jāmi during the Ottoman rule (until 1831), the 19th century Sfântul Nicolae Church, also from the 19th century, the Maria Filotti theatre, the Palace of Culture and its Art Museum, the History Museum, and the old Water Tower. The latter houses a restaurant and a rotation system (360° in one hour).

Another important site is the Public Garden, a park situated above the bank of the Danube with a view over the river and the Măcin Mountains. Early in 2006 the municipality received European Union funds to renovate the old center of the city, aiming to transform Brăila into a major tourist attraction of Muntenia.

The other important park of the city is the Monument Park, one of the largest urban parks in Romania, covering an area of up to 90 hectares (220 acres). [18] The park is home to the Natural Science permanent exhibition of Brăila Museum, hosting several dioramas that depict the flora and fauna of the region. [19]

The Church of the Holy Archangels is the oldest in the city. Begun in 1667, the former mosque was transformed into an Orthodox Church in 1808.

Transportation

Brăila features one of the oldest electrical tram lines in Romania, inaugurated at the end of the 19th century and still in use. Brăila's bus system is operated by the town hall in cooperation with Braicar Company, with four primary bus configurations available servicing most of the city.[ citation needed ]

Local media

The city has several local newspapers, including Obiectiv-Vocea Brăilei, Monitorul de Brăila , Ziarul de Brăila and Arcașu'. It also has three television stations: Mega TV, and the local stations of Antena 1 and Pro TV.

Rivalry with Galați

Brăila has a deep rivalry with neighbouring Galați. This conflict has a long history and has reached the point of being studied by academics. In fact, a group of Romanian researchers have already published the book Galați - Brăila. Trecut. Actualitate. Perspective ("Galați - Brăila. Past. Present. Perspectives"). [20] [21]

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns - sister cities

Brăila is twinned with: [22]

Notes

  1. "Results of the 2016 local elections". Central Electoral Bureau. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  2. "Populaţia stabilă pe judeţe, municipii, oraşe şi localităti componenete la RPL_2011" (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  3. "Braila". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  4. "Brăila" (US) and "Brăila". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  5. "Brăila". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  6. 1 2 "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.[ permanent dead link ]
  7. 1 2 Rădvan, p.248
  8. 1 2 Rădvan, p.249
  9. 1 2 Rădvan, p.250
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Rădvan, p.252
  11. 1 2 3 4 Rădvan, p.253
  12. 1 2 3 4 Rădvan, p.254
  13. Rădvan, p.255
  14. "Romania: 10 injured after suspect stabs, drives into people". Archived from the original on 2018-11-22. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  15. A Handbook of Roumania
  16. Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  17. Populatia RPR la 25 ianuarie 1948, p. 14
  18. http://www.brailei.ro/obiectiv-braila/parcul-monument-braila/
  19. https://www.muzeulbrailei.ro/en/index.php?pn=2&idn=617
  20. Crangan, Costel (13 April 2020). "Cum a ajuns rivalitatea proverbială dintre Galați și Brăila subiect de cercetare academică". Adevărul (in Romanian).
  21. Galați - Brăila. Trecut. Actualitate. Perspective
  22. http://www.primariabr.ro/orase-infratite

Related Research Articles

Wallachia Historical and geographical region of Romania

Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Lower Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections, Muntenia and Oltenia. Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections.

Bacău Municipality in Romania

Bacău is the main city in Bacău County, Romania. At the 2016 national estimation it had a population of 196,883, making it the 12th largest city in Romania. The city is situated in the historical region of Moldavia, at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, and on the Bistrița River. The Ghimeș Pass links Bacău to the region of Transylvania.

Galați County Seat in Galați County, Romania

Galați is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Western Moldavia, in eastern Romania. Galați is a port town on the Danube River. It has been the only port for the most part of Moldavia's existence. In 2011, the Romanian census recorded 249,432 residents, making it the 8th most populous city in Romania. Galați is an economic centre based around the port of Galați, the naval shipyard, and the largest steel mill in Romania, Galați steel works.

Focșani Municipality in Vrancea, Romania

Focșani is the capital city of Vrancea County in Romania on the shores the Milcov River, in the historical region of Moldavia. It has a population of 79,315.

Târgoviște Municipality in Dâmbovița, Romania

Târgoviște is a city in the region of Muntenia, Romania, and the county seat of the Dâmbovița County. It is situated on the right bank of the Ialomița. At the 2011 census Târgoviște had a population of 79,610, making it the 26th largest city in Romania. One of the most important cities in the history of Wallachia, it was its capital between the early 15th century and the 16th century.

Sulina Town in Tulcea, Romania

Sulina is a town and free port in Tulcea County, Northern Dobruja, Romania, at the mouth of the Sulina branch of the Danube. It is the easternmost point of Romania.

Curtea de Argeș Municipality in Argeș, Romania

Curtea de Argeș is a municipality in Romania on the left bank of the river Argeș, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians, on the railway from Pitești to the Turnu Roșu Pass. It is part of Argeș County. The city also administers one village, Noapteș.

Turnu Măgurele Municipality in Teleorman, Romania

Turnu Măgurele is a city in Teleorman County, Romania. Developed nearby the site once occupied by the medieval port of Turnu, it is situated north-east of the confluence between the Olt River and the Danube.

Măcin Town in Tulcea, Romania

Măcin is a town in Tulcea County, in the Northern Dobruja region of Romania.

Danube–Black Sea Canal Ship canal in Romania

The Danube–Black Sea Canal is a navigable canal in Romania, which runs from Cernavodă on the Danube river, via two branches, to Constanța and Năvodari on the Black Sea. Administrated from Agigea, it is an important part of the waterway link between the North Sea and the Black Sea via the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. The main branch of the canal, with a length of 64.4 km (40.0 mi), which connects the Port of Cernavodă with the Port of Constanța, was built in 1976–1984, while the northern branch, known as the Poarta Albă–Midia Năvodari Canal, with a length of 31.2 km (19.4 mi), connecting Poarta Albă and the Port of Midia, was built between 1983 and 1987.

Pruth River Campaign

The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava in the summer of 1709 and the escape of the wounded King Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman fortress of Bender. Sultan Ahmed III declined incessant Russian demands for Charles's eviction, prompting Tsar Peter I of Russia to attack the Ottoman Empire, which in its turn declared war on Russia on 20 November 1710. Concurrently with these events, the ruler (hospodar) Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Tsar Peter signed the Treaty of Lutsk, by which Moldavia pledged to support Russia in its war against the Ottomans with troops and by allowing the Russian army to cross its territory and place garrisons in Moldavian fortresses. After having gathered near the Moldavian capital Iași, the combined Russo-Moldavian army started on 11 July the march southwards along the Prut River with the intention of crossing the Danube and invading the Balkan peninsula.

Michael the Brave Prince of Wallachia

Michael the Brave was the Prince of Wallachia, Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600). He is considered one of Romania's greatest national heroes. Since the 19th century, Michael the Brave is regarded by Romanian nationalists as a symbol of Romanian unity,as under his reign was the first time when all principalities inhabited by Romanians were under the same ruler.

Orașul de Floci

Orașul de Floci, also Cetatea de Floci or Târgul de Floci, is a lost city of Wallachia, now in Romania. Floci, in this context, means "wool"; the name refers to the local sheep and wool market. It is also a Romanian slang word for "pubic hair".

Greeks in Romania

Greeks are a historic minority group in Romania. At times, as during the Phanariote era, this presence has amounted to hegemony; at other times, the Greeks have simply been one among the many ethnic minorities in Romania.

Baia Commune in Suceava, Romania

Baia is a commune in the Suceava County, Western Moldavia, Romania with a population of 6,793. It is composed of two villages, Baia, and Bogata. Located on the Moldova River, it was one of the earliest urban settlements in Moldavia.

The Albanians are an ethnic minority in Romania. As an officially recognized ethnic minority, Albanians have one seat reserved in the Romanian Chamber of Deputies to the League of Albanians of Romania.

Lower Danube metropolitan area Metropolitan area in Romania

The Danube metropolitan area or Galați-Brăila metropolitan area is a proposed metropolitan area project in Romania. It would be formed from the cities of Galați and Brăila. Together they have a population of about 430,000 people.

Vicina (town)

Vicina was a town on the Danube used as a tradepost (Emporia) by the Republic of Genoa, being part of the Genoese trade empire between the 13th and 14th century. At one time, it was the most flourishing port of the maritime Danube, but its importance declined with the development of other ports such as Kilia and Brăila. Although many locations have been proposed by both historians and archeologists as the remains of Vicina, it is still unknown where this town was located.

Târgșor

Târgșor is a former medieval market town in what is now Prahova County, Romania. The town peaked around 1600, after which it declined to become the village of Târgșoru Vechi, located about 7 km (4.3 mi) southwest of Ploiești.

Turnu Fortress

The medieval fortress of Turnu is located in the southern part of Turnu Măgurele at a distance of 3 km from the city and 1 km from the confluence of the Olt and Danube rivers in today's Romania. The fortress is documented during the reign of Mircea the Elder (1394) and was built on the Danube line for the defense of Wallachia against the Turkish peril. At the end of the reign of Mircea the Elder, under unclear circumstances, it came under Ottoman occupation to return to the possession of Wallachia only in 1829 when it was burned and demolished.

References