|Head of State of Costa Rica|
May 28, 1838 –April 11, 1842
|Preceded by||Manuel Aguilar|
|Succeeded by||Francisco Morazán|
|Head of State of Costa Rica|
May 5, 1835 –March 1, 1837
|Preceded by||José Rafael Gallegos|
|Succeeded by||Joaquín Mora|
Braulio Evaristo Carrillo Colina
March 20, 1800
Cartago, Costa Rica
|Died||May 15, 1845 45) (aged|
La Sociedad, El Salvador
|Spouse(s)||Froilana Carranza Ramírez|
|Alma mater||Universidad de León|
Braulio Evaristo Carrillo Colina (March 20, 1800, Cartago, Costa Rica – May 15, 1845) was the Head of State of Costa Rica (the title as it was known before the reform of 1848) during two periods: the first between 1835 and 1837, and the de facto between 1838 and 1842.
Cartago is a city in Costa Rica, about 25 km (16 mi) east of the capital, San José. It is at an elevation of about 1435 m above sea level, at the base of the Irazú Volcano. Cartago is the capital of Cartago province, and was the capital of Costa Rica from 1574 to 1824. The city covers an area of 152,68 km². It includes the districts of city downtown: Oriental, Occidental, San Nicolás, El Carmen (north), Dulce Nombre, San Francisco, and Guadalupe (Arenilla). The city is part, with the cities of San Rafael de Oreamuno and Tejar del Guarco, of a continuous urban area that, in 2008, had a population of 156,600 inhabitants, according to the Statistics and Census Institute of Costa Rica.
Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers. An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area.
Before becoming head of state, Carrillo held a number of public positions, including Judge and Chairman of the Supreme Court of Costa Rica, member of the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica and member of the Congress of the Federal Republic of Central America.
The Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Costa Rica. The national congress building is located in the city capital, San José, specifically in El Carmen District in San José Canton.
The Federal Republic of Central America, also called the United Provinces of Central America in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain. It existed from 1823 to 1841, and was a republican democracy.
Braulio Carrillo studied law at the University of León in Nicaragua. At the early age of 28 years was elected to the legislature for a period of two years, and for a brief period held the position of president of the legislature. In 1834, he was sent as a representative of Costa Rica to the Central American Congress, in El Salvador.
The University of León is a Spanish public university with campus in León and Ponferrada.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, and on the south by the Pacific Ocean. El Salvador's capital and largest city is San Salvador. As of 2016, the country had a population of approximately 6.34 million.
Upon the resignation of Costa Rica's head of state José Rafael Gallegos in 1835, Carrillo was elected to complete the term of Gallegos. Because of their strong character and that the assembly repealed in August of that year the Ambulance Act, the cities of Cartago, Heredia and Alajuela took up arms against the government in mid-September, but were defeated after a civil war lasted a fortnight.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
José Rafael de Gallegos y Alvarado was president of Costa Rica's Junta Superior Gubernativa from October 1822 to January 1823 and head of state of Costa Rica from March 1833 until March 1835 and again from May 1845 to June 1846.
Heredia is a city in the Heredia province of Costa Rica, of which it is the capital; it is 10 kilometers to the north of the country's capital, San José.
Carrillo was a candidate for reelection in 1837, but was defeated by Manuel Aguilar, who was overthrown in 1838 by a cuartelazo. Carrillo again became the Head of State, with absolute powers. He convened a constituent assembly, which, in November, declared that the state was separated from the Federal Republic of Central America, and thus Costa Rica became a sovereign country. The constituent session was suspended in December 1838.
Manuel Aguilar Chacón was head of state of Costa Rica from April 1837 to March 1838.
In 1841 Carrillo issued the Guarantee Law, which made him head of state for life. There were a number of changes in the social life of Costa Rica, and Carrillo became known as the "Architect of the Costa Rican National State". He worked to prohibit vagrancy, vice and crime. He greatly boost the development of Costa Rica and introduced order in the Civil Service. His efforts to open a path to communicate with the Central Valley Matina on the Caribbean coast, could not be satisfactorily completed, as the government of Francisco Morazán stopped work when they were well advanced. Due to this effort, the National Park located between the provinces of Limón and San José and a highway between San José and Guápiles carries his name today. Braulio Carrillo National Park is also named after him.
Matina is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Bahia.
Francisco Morazán was a Central American politician who was president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1830 to 1839. Before he was president of Central America he was the head of state of Honduras. He rose to prominence at the battle of La Trinidad on November 11, 1827. Morazán then dominated the political and military scene of Central America until his execution in 1842.
Puerto Limón, commonly known as Limón, is the capital city and main hub of Limón province, as well as of the cantón (county) of Limón in Costa Rica. It is the second largest city in Costa Rica, with a population of over 55,000, and is home of the Afro-Costa Rican community. Part of the community traces its roots to Italian, Jamaican and Chinese laborers who worked on a late nineteenth-century railroad project that connected San José to Puerto Limón. Until 1948, the Costa Rican government did not recognize Afro-Caribbean people as citizens and restricted their movement outside Limón province. As a result of this "travel ban", this Afro-Caribbean population became firmly established in the region, which influenced decisions not to move even after it was legally permitted. Nowadays, there is a significant outflow of Limón natives who move to the country's Central Valley in search for better employment and education. The Afro-Caribbean community speaks Spanish and Limonese Creole, a creole of English.
In 1842 Francisco Morazán, former Federal President Central America, invaded Costa Rica and seized power. Carrillo went into exile and settled in El Salvador, where he was killed in 1845.
Francisco Gómez de Altamirano y de Elizondo was a Central American licenciado, military officer and Liberal politician. From November 15, 1835 to February 1, 1836 he was chief of state of the state of El Salvador within the Central American Federation.
Diego Vigil Cocaña was a Central American politician. He was the last president of the Federal Republic of Central America (1839–40), during its disintegration. He was also chief of state of the federal states of Honduras (1829) and El Salvador.
Carlos Salazar Castro was a Central American military officer and Liberal politician. Briefly in 1834 he was provisional president of El Salvador, and in 1839 he was provisional president of Guatemala.
Manuel Antonio Bonilla Nava was a Costa Rican politician. His parents were Félix de Bonilla y Pacheco and Catalina de Nava López del Corral, the daughter of the Spanish Governor José Joaquín de Nava y Cabezudo. In San José, Costa Rica, May 16, 1830 he married Jesús Carrillo y Morales, the daughter of Basilio Carrillo Colina and Jacinta Morales y Saravia, the niece of Braulio Carrillo Colina, head of state from 1835 to 1837 and from 1838 to 1842.
José Francisco de Peralta y López del Corral was a Costa Rican priest and politician. He was born in Cartago, Costa Rica, the son of José María de Peralta y La Vega and Ana Benita de Nava López del Corral. Peralta attended the University of León and was ordained as a pastor in León, Nicaragua in 1812. He was named a parish priest for the village Olocuilta, El Salvador.
Joaquín Mora Fernández was the provisional head of state of Costa Rica from 1 March to 17 April 1837.
In the 1835 election for the Head of State of Costa Rica, Braulio Carrillo Colina won using the model of indirect suffrage. At that time the Constitution established a system in which male Costa Ricans voted publicly to elect their electoral delegates who, in proportion to the population of the area they represented, then elected the Head of State. San Jose chose 11, Cartago 8, Heredia 8, Alajuela 5, Bagaces 1, Escazú 3, Ujarrás 2, Térraba 1 and Nicoya 3.
The Free State of Costa Rica was the name acquired by Costa Rica after its split from the Federal Republic of Central America in 1838 and until the proclamation of the First Costa Rican Republic in 1847.
The League War was the second civil war of Costa Rica, as a member state of the Federal Republic of Central America. It passed between September and October 1835 in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Its immediate trigger was the repeal of the "Ambulance Law", the law that established the rotation of the country's capital among the four constituent cities. The most important consequence was the triumph of the city of San José over the cities of Alajuela, Heredia and Cartago, which allowed its consolidation as the capital of Costa Rica.
The history of the Costa Rican legislature is long and starts from even before its formal independence from the Spanish Empire. Costa Rica is one of the world's oldest democracies, thus, its parliamentary history dates back several centuries.
The Fundamental Law of the Free State of Costa Rica, sometimes called the Political Constitution of 1825, was issued on January 25, 1825 by the Constituent Congress of the State of Costa Rica and during a time the country was a formal member of the Federal Republic of Central America. It would function until it was abrogated by Braulio Carrillo Colina who in 1838 takes power in a dictatorial manner and issues on March 8, 1841 the Decree of Basis and Guarantees that will operate as a de facto constitution until the arrival of Francisco Morazán in 1844 who overthrew Carrillo and was temporarily restored.
The Decree of Bases and Guarantees was the de facto constitutional text of Costa Rica, granted on March 8, 1841 by the Head of State Braulio Carrillo Colina.
José Rafael Gallegos
| Head of State of Costa Rica |
| Head of State of Costa Rica |