Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
Freie Hansestadt Bremen
|• Body||Bürgerschaft of Bremen|
|• Senate President||Andreas Bovenschulte (SPD)|
|• Governing parties||SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens / The Left|
|• Bundesrat votes||3 (of 69)|
|• City||419.38 km2 (161.92 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||DE-HB|
|GRP (nominal)||€34 billion (2019)|
|GRP per capita||€49,000 (2019)|
|HDI (2018)||0.951 |
very high · 3rd of 16
Bremen (German: [ˈbʁeːmən] ( listen )), officially the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (German : Freie Hansestadt Bremen), is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states. It is informally called Land Bremen ("State of Bremen"), although this is sometimes used in official contexts. The state consists of the city of Bremen as well as the exclave city of Bremerhaven in Northern Germany, surrounded by the larger state of Lower Saxony.
The state of Bremen consists of two non-contiguous territories. These enclaves contain Bremen, officially the 'City' (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) which is the state capital, and the city of Bremerhaven (Stadt Bremerhaven). Both are located on the River Weser; Bremerhaven is further downstream than the main parts of Bremen and serves as a North Sea harbour (the name Bremerhaven means "Bremen's harbour"). Both enclaves are completely surrounded by the neighbouring State of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen). The two cities are the only administrative subdivisions the state has.
The highest point in the state is in Friedehorst Park (32.5m).
At the unwinding of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 the Free Imperial City of Bremen (as of 1646, after earlier privileges of autonomy of 1186) was not mediatised but became a sovereign state officially titled Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. Its currency was the Bremen thaler (until 1873). In 1811 the First French Empire annexed the city-state. Upon the first, albeit only preliminary, defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte, Bremen resumed its pre-1811 status as city-state in 1813.
The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Bremen's—as well as Frankfurt's, Hamburg's, and Lübeck's—independence after pressuring by Bremen's emissary, and later burgomaster, Johann Smidt. Bremen became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation. In 1827 the state of Bremen bought the tract of land from the Kingdom of Hanover, where future Bremerhaven would be established. Bremen became part of the North German Confederation in 1867 and became an autonomous component state of the newly founded German Empire in 1871 and stayed with Germany in its following forms of government.
Bremen, which in 1935 had become a regular city at the de facto abolition of statehood of all component German states within the Third Reich, was reestablished as a state in 1947. Being—at that time—actually located in the British Zone of Occupation the Control Commission for Germany - British Element and the Office of Military Government for Germany, U.S. (OMGUS) agreed in 1947 to constitute the cities of Bremen and then Wesermünde—in their borders altered in 1939—as a German state named again Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, becoming at that occasion an exclave of the American Zone of Occupation within the British zone.In 1949 the city-state joined the then West German Federal Republic of Germany.
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The legislature of the state of Bremen is the 83-member Bürgerschaft (citizens' assembly), elected by the citizens in the two cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven.
The executive is constituted by the Senate of Bremen, elected by the Bürgerschaft. The Senate is chaired by the President of the senate (Senatspräsident), who is also one of the mayors of the city of Bremen (Bürgermeister) and is elected directly by the Bürgerschaft. The Senate selects of its members as a second mayor who serves as deputy of the president. In contrast to the Federal Chancellor of Germany or other German states, the President of the Senate has no authority to override senators on policy, which is decided upon by the senate collectively. Since 1945, the Senate has continuously been dominated by the Social Democratic Party.
On a municipal level, the two cities in the state are administered separately:
The political majorities in Bremen are based on a traditionally self-awareness of the Bremensians as liberal and open minded people. It is influenced historically by the pride to be an independent hanseatic city. Beside a trade-based class of merchants, in post-war Bremen, there was a majority of working class people, working at the shipyards. Since the 1990s the maritime industry has become more and more insignificant, but the priority to social themes in politics has remained.
Since the founding of the state of Bremen 1947, it has been ruled by a social democratic prime-minister. Comedian Jan Böhmermann, born and raised in Bremen said ironically that nobody in Bremen knowns anymore if there is a legislation or if it is just a scientific law that the mayor is always from the SPD.
Historically the SPD has formed coalitions with FDP, CDU, Grüne and Linke.
The 2019 Bremen state election was held on 26 May 2019 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The election took place on the same day as the 2019 European Parliament election.The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) became the largest party in the Bürgerschaft, while the Social Democratic Party (SPD) fell to second place. The Greens and The Left made small gains. After the election, the SPD, Greens, and Left agreed to form a coalition government. Carsten Sieling resigned as mayor and was replaced by fellow SPD member Andreas Bovenschulte.
Summary of the 26 May 2019 election results for the Bürgerschaft of Bremen
|Christian Democratic Union (CDU)||391,709||26.7||4.3||20||4||24||4||28.6|
|Social Democratic Party (SPD)||366,375||24.9||7.9||19||4||23||7||27.4|
|Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)||256,181||17.4||2.3||13||3||16||2||19.0|
|The Left (Linke)||166,378||11.3||1.8||9||1||10||2||11.9|
|Alternative for Germany (AfD)||89,939||6.1||0.6||4||1||5||1||6.0|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||87,420||5.9||0.7||4||1||5||1||6.0|
|Citizens in Rage (BiW)||35,808||2.4||0.8||0||1||1||0||1.2|
|Die PARTEI (PARTEI)||24,433||1.7||0.2||0||0||0||±0||0|
|Free Voters (FW)||14,205||1.0||1.0||0||0||0||±0||0|
|Pirate Party Germany (Piraten)||14,143||1.0||0.5||0||0||0||±0||0|
The coat of arms and flag of Bremen state include:
The unemployment rate stood at 9.5% in October 2018 and was the highest of all 16 German states.
|Unemployment rate in %||13.0||12.4||12.5||13.2||13.2||16.8||14.9||12.7||11.4||11.8||12.0||11.6||11.2||11.1||10.9||10.9||10.5||10.2|
The University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen. Furthermore, Bremen has a University of the Arts Bremen, a University of Applied Sciences in Bremen and another one in Bremerhaven, and more recently the Jacobs University Bremen.
Saxony-Anhalt is a state of Germany, bordering the states of Brandenburg, Saxony, Thuringia and Lower Saxony. It covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres (7,894.9 sq mi) and has a population of 2.19 million inhabitants, making it the 8th-largest state in Germany by area and the 11th-largest by population. Its capital is Magdeburg and its largest city is Halle (Saale).
Henning Scherf is a German lawyer and politician (SPD). He was the 6th President of the Senate and Mayor of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen from 4 July 1995 to 8 November 2005.
The 2003 Bremen state election was held on 25 May 2003 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The incumbent grand coalition of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Christian Democratic Union (CDU) led by Mayor Henning Scherf retained its majority and continued in office.
The 1999 Bremen state election was held on 6 June 1999 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The incumbent grand coalition of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Christian Democratic Union (CDU) led by Mayor Henning Scherf retained its majority and continued in office.
Jens Böhrnsen is a German politician of the SPD. From 2005 to 2015, he has served as the President of the Senate and Mayor of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, that is, the head of government of the city-state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. From 1 November 2009 until 31 October 2010 he was President of the Bundesrat. As such, he was acting head of state of Germany from the resignation of President Horst Köhler on 31 May 2010 until the election of Christian Wulff on 30 June 2010. Böhrnsen resigned in 2015 after his party sustained losses in state parliament election.
Uwe Karl Beckmeyer is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) who served as a member of the German Bundestag from 2002 until 2017.
The 2007 Bremen state election was held on 13 May 2007 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The incumbent government of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Christian Democratic Union (CDU) retained its majority with losses. However, the SPD chose to form a new government with The Greens. Jens Böhrnsen was re-elected as Mayor.
The City Municipality of Bremen is the capital of the German state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a two-city-state consisting of the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. With around 570,000 inhabitants, the Hanseatic city is the 11th largest city of Germany as well as the second largest city in Northern Germany after Hamburg.
Erich Vagts was a German politician. In 1945 he was the 1st President of the Senate and Mayor of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. After finishing his final exams at the German secondary school Erich Vagts became a soldier during the First World War. In 1919 he began his studies of law and political science at the University of Tübingen and the University of Kiel. Vagts did not finish his studies but became director of a consortium of farmers in Güstrow which was typical for Germany in the time after the First World War. After his return to Bremen in 1925 Vagts began his political career. He became chief executive officer of the German National People's Party, the Deutschnationale Volkspartei (DNVP). From 1928 Vagts belonged to the Bürgerschaft of Bremen. In 1931 Erich Vagts became chairman of the DNVP and two years later he was elected to the position of a senator for the health resort in the city state of Bremen.
Carl Wilhelm Kaisen was a German politician from the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Between 1945 and 1965 he was the 2nd President of the Senate and Mayor of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. In 1958/59 he served as the 10th President of the Bundesrat. He became a symbol of the German reconstruction in Bremen after 1945.
The government of Hamburg is divided into executive, legislative and judicial branches. Hamburg is a city-state and municipality, and thus its governance deals with several details of both state and local community politics. It takes place in two ranks – a citywide and state administration, and a local rank for the boroughs. The head of the city-state's government is the First Mayor and President of the Senate. A ministry is called Behörde (office) and a state minister is a Senator in Hamburg. The legislature is the state parliament, called Hamburgische Bürgerschaft, and the judicial branch is composed of the state supreme court and other courts. The seat of the government is Hamburg Rathaus. The President of the Hamburg Parliament is the highest official person of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. This is a traditional difference to the other German states. The president is not allowed to exert any occupation of the executive.
The Bremische Bürgerschaft is the legislative branch of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen in Germany. The state parliament elects the members of the Senate (executive), exercises oversight of the executive, and passes legislation. It currently consists of 83 members from seven parties. The current majority is a coalition of the Social Democratic Party, Alliance '90/The Greens and The Left, supporting Mayor and Senate president Andreas Bovenschulte. The 68 delegates of the city of Bremen also form the Stadtbürgerschaft, while Bremerhaven has its own local parliament.
Bernd Otto Neumann is a former German politician and since 2014 president of the German Federal Film Board (FFA).
The 2015 Bremen state election was held on 10 May 2015 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The incumbent government of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and The Greens retained its majority. However, Mayor and SPD leader Jens Böhrnsen resigned due to his party's poor performance, which was significantly below expectations. He was succeeded by fellow SPD member Carsten Sieling.
The 2019 Bremen state election was held on 26 May 2019 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The election took place on the same day as the 2019 European Parliament election. The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) became the largest party in the Bürgerschaft, while the Social Democratic Party (SPD) fell to second place. The Greens and The Left made small gains. After the election, the SPD, Greens, and Left agreed to form a coalition government. Carsten Sieling resigned as mayor and was replaced by fellow SPD member Andreas Bovenschulte.
The 2020 Hamburg state election was held on 23 February 2020 to elect the members of the 22nd Hamburg Parliament. The outgoing government was a coalition of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and The Greens led by First Mayor Peter Tschentscher. The election was marked by a decline for the SPD and right-of-centre parties, while The Greens doubled their vote share and number of seats, becoming the second largest party. The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) suffered their worst ever result in Hamburg and their worst state election result in 68 years. The Left achieved a small upswing. Alternative for Germany (AfD) declined in vote share and seat count compared to a previous election for the first time in its history. The Free Democratic Party fell narrowly short of the 5% electoral threshold to win proportional seats, in total winning only one seat from a direct mandate.
In the federal system of the Federal Republic of Germany, the state parliaments embody the legislative power in the sixteen states. In thirteen of the sixteen German states, the state parliament is known as the Landtag. In the states Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, the state parliament is called Bürgerschaft (Citizenry), in Berlin it is called Abgeordnetenhaus.
The 1995 Bremen state election was held on 14 May 1995 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The incumbent coalition was a traffic light coalition of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), The Greens, and the Free Democratic Party (FDP) led by Mayor Klaus Wedemeier. The coalition was defeated as the FDP lost its representation in the Bürgerschaft. The SPD narrowly remained the most popular party, though they tied with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in number of seats won. The major winner of the election was Labour for Bremen and Bremerhaven (AFB), a splinter from the SPD formed in January 1995 which espoused economic liberalism. The party entered the Bürgerschaft with 10.7% of votes cast and 12 seats.
The 1991 Bremen state election was held on 29 September 1991 to elect the members of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen, as well as the city councils of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The incumbent Social Democratic Party (SPD) government led by Mayor Klaus Wedemeier lost its majority, suffering an 11.7-point swing against it. The SPD subsequently formed a traffic light coalition with The Greens and the Free Democratic Party (FDP), and Wedemeier was re-elected as Mayor.
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