Brenda Romero

Last updated
Brenda Romero
Brenda Romero in 2014.JPG
Romero in 2014
Born
Brenda Louise Garno

(1966-10-12) October 12, 1966 (age 52)
Ogdensburg, New York, United States
Other namesBrenda Brathwaite
Occupation Video game designer
Known for Wizardry 8
Spouse(s)
John Romero (m. 2012)
Children3

Brenda Louise Romero (née Garno, born October 12, 1966), previously known as Brenda Brathwaite, is an American game designer and developer in the video game industry. She was born in Ogdensburg, New York and is a graduate of Clarkson University. Romero is best known for her work on the Wizardry series of role-playing video games and, more recently, the non-digital series The Mechanic is the Message. She has worked in game development since 1981 and has credits on 49 [1] [ self-published source ] game titles.

A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming, design, art, testing, etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make indie games.

The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.

Ogdensburg, New York City in New York, United States

Ogdensburg is a city in St. Lawrence County, New York, United States. The population was 11,128 at the 2010 census. In the late 18th century, European-American settlers named the community after American land owner and developer Samuel Ogden.

Contents

For Wizardry, Romero provided game design, level design, system design, writing and scripting. [2] She also wrote the manuals and documentation for some products in the series. [3] Romero provided writing and documentation for the award-winning Jagged Alliance series. [4] She was the lead designer for Playboy: The Mansion and Dungeons & Dragons: Heroes .

Video game design is the process of designing the content and rules of a video game in the pre-production stage and designing the gameplay, environment, storyline, and characters in the production stage. The designer of a game is very much like the director of a film; the designer is the visionary of the game and controls the artistic and technical elements of the game in fulfillment of their vision. Video game design requires artistic and technical competence as well as writing skills. As the industry has aged and embraced alternative production methodologies such as agile, the role of a principal game designer has begun to separate - some studios emphasising the auteur model while others emphasising a more team oriented model. Within the video game industry, video game design is usually just referred to as "game design", which is a more general term elsewhere.

Level design, environment design, or game mapping is a discipline of game development involving creation of video game levels—locales, stages, or missions. This is commonly done using a level editor, a game development software designed for building levels; however, some games feature built-in level editing tools. Level design is both an artistic and technical process.

<i>Jagged Alliance</i> 2008 video game

Jagged Alliance is a tactical role-playing game released in 1995 for MS-DOS and in 2009 for Nintendo DS. It is the first game in the Jagged Alliance series. It was re-released in 2008 on Gog.com and in 2010 on GamersGate, both with Windows support.

Career

Romero began her career in 1981 at video game developer and publisher Sir-tech Software, Inc., on the Wizardry role-playing team. She worked first as a tester, [5] and moved up through the ranks to designer for Wizardry 8 . While at Sir-tech, Romero also worked on the Jagged Alliance and Realms of Arkania series. [6] She was employed with Sir-tech for 18 years before moving on to Atari where she worked on the Dungeons & Dragons series for consoles before joining Cyberlore Studios in 2003 to work on the Playboy: The Mansion game. Romero's research for the game was ultimately published in a book, Sex in Video Games . [7]

A video game publisher is a company that publishes video games that have been developed either internally by the publisher or externally by a video game developer. As with book publishers or publishers of DVD movies, video game publishers are responsible for their product's manufacturing and marketing, including market research and all aspects of advertising.

Sir-Tech United States based video game developer and publisher

Sir-Tech Software, Inc. was a United States and Canada-based video game developer and publisher.

<i>Wizardry 8</i> 2001 video game

Wizardry 8 is the eighth and final title in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games by Sir-Tech Canada. It is the third in the Dark Savant trilogy, which includes Wizardry VI: Bane of the Cosmic Forge and Wizardry VII: Crusaders of the Dark Savant. It was published in 2001 by Sir-Tech, and re-released by Night Dive Studios on GOG.com and Steam in 2013.

In 2007, Romero was named one of the 100 most influential women in the game industry by Next Generation magazine. [8] Nerve magazine cited her as a "New Radical" — one of "the 50 artists, actors, authors, activists and icons who are making the world a more stimulating place". [8] In 2009, Next Generation magazine identified her as the woman with the longest continuous service in video game development. [5]

<i>Next Generation</i> (magazine)

Next Generation was a video game magazine that was published by Imagine Media. It was affiliated to and shared editorial with the UK's Edge magazine. Next Generation ran from January 1995 until January 2002. It was published by Jonathan Simpson-Bint and edited by Neil West. Other editors included Chris Charla, Tom Russo, and Blake Fischer.

Nerve is a free magazine published by Catalyst Media in Liverpool, North West England. Combining features on social issues with artist profiles, it runs to 32 pages and is published about three times a year. The magazine has a broadly anti-capitalist stance.

Romero served as Chair of the Savannah College of Art and Design's Interactive Design and Game Development department until November 2009. She moved to San Francisco to consult as Creative Director for social media company Slide, Inc., and then became Creative Director of social gaming company Lolapps, Inc. in May 2010. [9] She co-founded the social game company Loot Drop with John Romero in November 2010, then left Lolapps and joined Loot Drop in February 2011. [10] In 2013, Romero became the first game designer in residence at the Games and Playable Media Program of the University of California at Santa Cruz. She also served as the program's director. [11] Brenda is currently the Program Director of the MSc program in Game Design and Development at the University of Limerick in Limerick, Ireland. [12] [13]

Savannah College of Art and Design art school

Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) is a private art school with locations in Savannah, Georgia; Atlanta, Georgia; Hong Kong; and Lacoste, France.

San Francisco Consolidated city-county in California, US

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a city in, and the cultural, commercial, and financial center of, Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, and the fourth-most populous in California, with 883,305 residents as of 2018. It covers an area of about 46.89 square miles (121.4 km2), mostly at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, and the fifth-most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is also part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area.

Slide.com

Slide, Inc., operator of the Slide.com website, was a Web 2.0 company founded by Max Levchin and based in San Francisco, California. Originally formed to make photo sharing software for social networking services such as MySpace, the company achieved its greatest success as the largest developer of third-party applications for Facebook. The company was acquired by Google on August 4, 2010 and shut down on March 6, 2012.

Recognition

Brenda has won several awards in her long career. [14] Some highlights include RPG of the Year for Wizardry 8, [15] a Fulbright Scholar award in 2014, [16] the Game Developer's Choice Ambassador Award in 2015, [17] the Development Legend award at the Develop:Brighton awards. [18]

DateAwardDescription
2018Honorific AwardAwarded by the Fun & Serious Game Festival [19]
2018Top 10 Most Influential Women in Game DevelopmentAwarded in recognition of Brenda's most popular games. [20]
2017 BAFTA Special AwardAwarded in recognition of her creative contribution to the industry. [21]
2017Development LegendAwarded at Develop:Brighton [22]
2015 Ambassador Award Awarded at Game Developers Conference in San Francisco for helping the game industry advance to a better place. [17]
2014Fulbright U.S. Specialist AwardTo carry out master classes and cirriculum reviews of Digital Games courses at a number of Irish universities. [16]
2014100 Most Influential Tech Women on Twitter Named #74 by Business Insider [23]
2013Top 10 Game Developers of 2013Awarded a position on the list by Gamasutra [24]
2013 Lifetime Achievement Award The Women in Gaming session at GDC 2013 honoured Brenda Romero with an award for her service to the industry. [25]
2009Vanguard Award IndieCade awarded Brenda the Vanguard Award for Train. [26]
2008Top 20 Women in Games Gamasutra named Brenda one of the Top 20 Women in Games. [27]
2006Top 100 Most Influential Women in the Game Industry Next Generation named Brenda one of the 100 Most Influential Women in the Game Industry. [28]
2001RPG of the Year Wizardry 8 awarded RPG of the Year by Computer Gaming World [15]

Personal life

Romero married game developer John Romero on October 27, 2012. [29] [30] [31] [32] Together, they worked on Ravenwood Fair , with John as lead designer and Brenda as creative director and game designer. John and Brenda had become engaged on March 24, 2012. Brenda has three children from a previous marriage.[ citation needed ]

IGDA and activism

Brenda and other game developers at a BAFTA event in Los Angeles in July 2011. From left: Rod Humble, Louis Castle, David Perry, Brenda Romero, John Romero, Will Wright, Tim Schafer, Chris Hecker. BAFTA2011 GameDevs.jpg
Brenda and other game developers at a BAFTA event in Los Angeles in July 2011. From left: Rod Humble, Louis Castle, David Perry, Brenda Romero, John Romero, Will Wright, Tim Schafer, Chris Hecker.

Brenda Romero was an active member of the International Game Developers Association (IGDA). In 2008, she was elected to the IGDA's Board of Directors. On March 28, 2013, she resigned as co-chair of the IGDA Women in Games SIG.

She had founded the International Game Developers Sex Special Interest Group (Sex SIG) in 2005. [33] Since working on Playboy, she has studied adult and sexual content in video games and is regularly interviewed about the subject in the media. She has written a book on the subject, Sex in Video Games .

She is an anti-censorship activist and a proponent of parental rating awareness. [34]

Academics

She is a regular speaker at universities and conferences, including the Game Developers Conference, Austin Game Developers Conference, and Montreal International Games Summit. Some of her lectures have been held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Guildhall at Southern Methodist University, and Clarkson University.

In the spring of 2007, she was awarded the Presidential Fellowship at Savannah College of Art and Design to develop an exhibit and presentation titled, "What You Don't Know About Video Games...". In April 2008, Romero became Chair of the Interactive Design and Game Development department at the Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD). Brathwaite left SCAD in November 2009 to return to full-time commercial game development.

In December 2012, she was appointed "Game Designer in Residence" at the University of California, Santa Cruz. [35]

In March 2014, she was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship. [36]

Mechanic is the Message

In February 2008, Romero began work on a series of non-digital games known collectively as The Mechanic is the Message. According to the series abstract: [37]

The Mechanic is the Message captures and expresses difficult experiences through the medium of a game. Much like photographs, paintings, literature and music are capable of transmitting the full range of the human experience from one human to another, so too can games. Due to their interactivity, the installation suggests that games are capable of a higher form of communication, one which actively engages the participant and makes them a part of the experience rather than a passive observer.

The series is composed of six separate non-digital games that experiment with the traditional notions of games.

Of the six, Train has received the most attention, and won the Vanguard Award at Indiecade in October 2009 for "pushing the boundaries of game design and showing us what games can do." [38] Train was also featured in the Wall Street Journal [39] as well as on game industry sites including Gamasutra, where it received accolades for its ability to evoke meaning through gestures, [40] the Escapist Magazine, [41] Extra Credits, [42] and on Kotaku. [43] Romero delivered Train: How I Dumped Electricity and Learned to Love Design [44] at the 2010 Gamesauce Conference.

Síochán leat (Irish for "peace be with you") chronicles the history of her children's heritage. [45] Romero made the game following The New World, a game she originally made to teach her daughter about the slave trade. Romero designed Síochán leat to teach her daughter about her Irish heritage and traces the family's history from the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland to their ancestor's eventual immigration into the West Indies on the paternal side and Canada on the maternal side. The game features a burlap pillow simulating an earthen mound covered by 26 pieces of grass, each representing a county in Ireland. In a talk given at the Austin Game Developers Conference in September 2009, Romero noted that the burlap was filled with mementos of her upbringing and her heritage, including photographs of her great grandfather, Paddy Donovan, and one of her mother's rosaries. On her blog, Romero notes that, "the game is signed in many ways and is highly autobiographical. It is my history and it also reveals my feelings about its present state." [46]

Works

NameYearCredit
Jagged Alliance 1994 manual writer
Nemesis: The Wizardry Adventure 1996 manual and dialogue writer, scripter
Jagged Alliance 2 1999 writer
Jagged Alliance 2: Unfinished Business 2000 game and manual writer
Wizardry 8 2001 game designer, game and manual writer
Dungeons & Dragons: Heroes 2003 lead designer
Playboy: The Mansion 2005 lead designer, manual writer
Playboy: The Mansion - Private Party 2005 game designer
Ravenwood Fair 2010 game designer
Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon: Commander 2012 director, lead designer, writer
Pettington Park 2012 game designer
Dodger Down 2013 game designer, tester
Gunman Taco Truck 2017 game designer
Empire of Sin [47] 2020 game designer

Bibliography


Related Research Articles

John Romero American video game designer

Alfonso John Romero is an American director, designer, programmer, and developer in the video game industry. He is best known as a co-founder of id Software and designer for many of their games, including Wolfenstein 3D, Dangerous Dave, Hexen, Doom, Doom II and Quake. His game designs and development tools, along with new programming techniques created and implemented by id Software's lead programmer John D. Carmack, led to a mass popularization of the first-person shooter, or FPS, in the 1990s. He is credited with coining the FPS multiplayer term "deathmatch".

Game Developers Choice Awards

The Game Developers Choice Awards are awards annually presented at the Game Developers Conference for outstanding game developers and games. Introduced in 2001, the Game Developers Choice Awards were preceded by the Spotlight Awards, which were presented from 1997 to 1999. Since then, the ceremony for the Independent Games Festival is held just prior to the Choice Awards ceremony.

Game Developers Conference convention

The Game Developers Conference (GDC) is an annual conference for video game developers.

International Game Developers Association organization

The International Game Developers Association (IGDA) is a nonprofit professional association whose stated mission is to "support and empower game developers around the world in achieving fulfilling and sustainable careers."

Mark Cerny video game industry figure

Mark Evan Cerny is an American video game designer, programmer, producer and entertainment executive. Raised in the San Francisco Bay Area, Cerny graduated from The College Preparatory School and attended UC Berkeley.

Doug Church American computer game designer and producer

Doug Church, is an American video game designer and producer. He attended MIT in the late 1980s, but left and went to work with Looking Glass Studios, when they were making primarily MS-DOS-based immersive sim games, including Ultima Underworld, Ultima Underworld II, System Shock and Thief. His colleague Warren Spector claims, in fact, that Church was the one who originally coined the term "immersive simulation".

Bob Bates American computer games designer

Robert "Bob" Bates is an American computer games designer. One of the early designers of interactive fiction games, he was co-founder of Challenge, Inc., which created games in the 1980s for the pioneering company Infocom. After Infocom's dissolution in 1989, Bates co-founded Legend Entertainment to continue publishing games in the Infocom tradition, but with added graphics. He has designed, written, or produced scores of games, including Unreal II (2003), Spider-Man 3 (2007), and Eric the Unready (1993), listed as Adventure Game of the Year by Computer Gaming World magazine and also included on the 1996 list of "150 best games of all time". In 1998 he wrote the award-winning game Quandaries for the U.S. Department of Justice. He has twice been the chairperson of the International Game Developers Association, which honored him with a Lifetime Achievement Award in 2010. Bates has written extensively about game design and development in works such as the 2001 book Game Design: The Art and Business of Creating Games, which is commonly used as a game design textbook in college courses. From 2011–2014, Bates was Chief Creative Officer for External Studios at Zynga. He continues to work as an independent consultant with various publishers in the games industry.

Erin Hoffman Game designer, blogger and fantasy writer

Erin Hoffman is an American game developer, blogger and fantasy writer. She has published three fantasy novels, and been lead designer on multiple games such as Kung Fu Panda World, GoPets: Vacation Island, and Frontierville.

Jason Della Rocca Canadian businessman

Jason Della Rocca is the former executive director of the International Game Developers Association (IGDA): Della Rocca supervised the daily operations, outreach initiatives, and membership programs of the organization from September 2000 to March 2009. After leaving the IGDA following his 9-year involvement with the company, Della Rocca founded Perimeter Partners, a consultancy that provides strategic level guidance and expertise to companies and organizations in, and around, the game industry globally. More recently, Della Rocca cofounded a hybrid incubator/accelerator for independent mobile game startups called Execution Labs. In the summer of 2013 he was appointed to the advisory board for the ICT practice of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development, Canada's foreign and trade ministry.

Jennifer MacLean is the Executive Director of the IGDA since September 2017. From 2009 to 2012, she was Chief Executive Officer at 38 Studios, an independent game developer.

Kate Edwards American geographer

Kate Edwards was the executive director of the International Game Developers Association from December 2012 to June 2017. She is a geographer, writer and content culturalization strategist, most active in information-based cartography and video game content. Edwards spent over a decade working in various roles at Microsoft, creating the Geopolitical Strategy team and working to evaluate and manage geopolitical and cultural content in software products. After leaving Microsoft she founded Englobe as a consulting firm engaged in content culturalization and strategy, primarily for the video game industry.

Kellee Santiago American video game designer and producer

Kellee Santiago is a Venezuelan American video game designer and producer. She is the co-founder and former president of thatgamecompany. Santiago was born in Caracas, Venezuela and was raised in Richmond, Virginia, where she played video games from a young age and was encouraged by her software engineer father to experiment with computers. While attending New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, she became active in experimental theater, and intended to pursue it after earning a master's degree in the Interactive Media Program of the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California. While there, however, she became involved in video game design, and produced Cloud, a game developed by Jenova Chen and a student team. Its success sparked her and Chen to found thatgamecompany upon graduating, and she became the president.

A game design document is a highly descriptive living software design document of the design for a video game. A GDD is created and edited by the development team and it is primarily used in the video game industry to organize efforts within a development team. The document is created by the development team as result of collaboration between their designers, artists and programmers as a guiding vision which is used throughout the game development process. When a game is commissioned by a game publisher to the development team, the document must be created by the development team and it is often attached to the agreement between publisher and developer; the developer has to adhere to the GDD during game development process.

Heather Kelley media artist, video game designer

Heather Kelley is a media artist and video game designer. She is co-founder of the Kokoromi experimental game collective, with whom she produces and curates the annual Gamma game event promoting experimental games as creative expression in a social context. She is regular jury member for different computer gaming festivals and public speaker at technology events.

Robin Hunicke American video game designer and producer

Robin Hunicke is an American video game designer and producer. She is a professor of game design at UC Santa Cruz and the co-founder of Funomena.

Jeff Lander is an American video game programmer. He creates real-time 3D graphics at Darwin 3D, a game technology specialist company. He has written several articles on 3D graphics for Gamasutra and Game Developers Conference. In 2002, he received the IGDA Award for Community Contribution at the Game Developers Choice Awards.

Romero Games Ltd. is an independent game studio that was established on August 11, 2015 by John Romero along with his wife Brenda Romero and is located in Galway, Ireland. This is the ninth game studio Romero has established in his career, and currently it has released two titles while another is in development.

Loot Drop social video game studio that was started in San Mateo, California

Loot Drop was a social video game studio that was started in San Mateo, California. It was created by John Romero and Brenda Romero with veteran Game Designer Tom Hall heading up his own game. Its tagline was "Believe in fun".

References

  1. "Brenda Romero's Ludography". blromero.com. March 24, 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  2. "Game Credits for Wizardry 8". Mobygames.com. May 19, 2008. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  3. "Wizardry Gold". MobyGames. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  4. "Jagged Alliance". MobyGames. June 25, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  5. 1 2 "Celebrating Female Game Devs of Yesteryear". Archived from the original on October 30, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2016. The longest-serving female game developer in the business will also be attending the WIGI Conference. Brenda Brathwaite...CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  6. "Brenda Romero's MobyGames entry" . Retrieved May 19, 2010. Credits for work on Jagged Alliance and Realms of Arkania, among several others.
  7. "Sex in Video Games" . Retrieved May 19, 2010. Since the first computer games became available, sex has played a role in some form...
  8. 1 2 "Brenda Romero named first game designer in residence at UC Santa Cruz". Jack Baskin School of Engineering. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  9. "G.I.R.L. talk with Brenda Brathwaite". Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved May 19, 2010. I’m happy to announce that our first guest is Brenda Brathwaite, the Creative Director at Lolapps...
  10. Alexander, Leigh (February 23, 2011). "Brathwaite Joins Loot Drop For Old Reunions, New Frontiers".
  11. "Brenda Romero named first game designer in residence at UC Santa Cruz". December 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
  12. "University of Limerick MSc Faculty" . Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  13. "Coup for UL as it attracts world leading game developer". ClareHerald.com. February 2016.
  14. "Bio Awards".
  15. 1 2 "Computer Gaming World Announces Winners of 2001 'Premier Awards".
  16. 1 2 "Minister for Education and Skills welcomes gaming super star Brenda Romero to Ireland". August 28, 2014.
  17. 1 2 "15th Annual Game Developers Choice Awards".
  18. "Brenda and John Romero to be named development legends at Develop Awards 2017".
  19. https://vandal.elespanol.com/noticia/1350710003/brenda-romero-recibira-el-premio-bizkaia-en-fun-serious-game-festival/.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. "Top 10 Most Influential Women in Game Development".
  21. "Brenda Romero To Receive BAFTA Special Award". www.bafta.org. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  22. "Develop: Brighton Development Legend".
  23. "Most-Influential Tech Women on Twitter 2014".
  24. "The Top 10 Game Developers of 2013".
  25. "GDC 13: Women in Gaming Awards honours developers".
  26. "Life, Love and Death in 5 minutes". Archived from the original on March 25, 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  27. "Women in Games: The Gamasutra 20".
  28. "3783". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  29. Brenda Romero's Facebook relationship status
  30. John Romero's Facebook relationship status
  31. Brenda Romero's tweet confirming their relationship status
  32. John Romero's Twitter status update confirming their relationship status
  33. Terdiman, Daniel (August 16, 2005). "Game developers form sex 'special interest group'". CNET . Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  34. "The 'Sex in Games Lady' Is In". WIRED. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  35. Stephens, Tim (December 18, 2012). "Brenda Romero named first game designer in residence at UC Santa Cruz". University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
  36. Alexander, Leigh (March 28, 2014). "Romero awarded Fulbright fellowship for Irish industry work". Gamasutra . Think Services. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  37. "The Mechanic is the Message". Mechanicmessage.wordpress.com. May 7, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  38. "IndieCade applauds 2009 finalists and awardees!". IndieCade.com. IndieCade. October 5, 2009. International Festivals of Independent Games. Archived from the original on February 19, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  39. Brophy, Jamin (June 24, 2009). "Can You Make a Board Game about the Holocaust?: Meet "Train" - Speakeasy - WSJ". Blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  40. "Sande Chen's Blog - Reflections on Train". Gamasutra. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  41. "The Escapist : TGC 2009: How a Board Game Can Make You Cry". Escapistmagazine.com. May 1, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  42. "Extra Credits: Sex in Games". Extra Credits. October 17, 2012.
  43. "In Defense of the Classic Controller - Project Natal". Kotaku. June 29, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  44. "Train: How I Dumped Electricity and Learned to Love Design". gamesauce.org. August 20, 2010. Archived from the original on January 16, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
  45. "On Train and "The Irish Game" « Shambling Rambling Babbling". Caseyodonnell.org. July 29, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  46. "Sign Your Work « Applied Game Design". Bbrathwaite.wordpress.com. July 26, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  47. IP, Chris (June 17, 2019). "'Empire of Sin' looks like a new-school 'Mob Rule'". Engadget . Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  48. Brathwaite, Brenda; Schreiber, Ian (2008). Challenges for Game Designers (2nd ed.). p. 352.
  49. Romero, Brenda; Schreiber, Ian (2017). Game Balance. Amazon.
  50. Brathwaite, Brenda; Schreiber, Ian (2011). Breaking Into the Game Industry. Cengage Learning. p. 304.