Brevet (military)

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In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet ( /brəˈvɛt/  ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) or /ˈbrɛvɪt/  ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) [1] was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank. [2] An officer so promoted was referred to as being brevetted (for example, "he was brevetted major general "). The promotion would be noted in the officer's title (for example, "Bvt. Maj. Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain " or "Bvt. Col. Arthur MacArthur ").

Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. Military ranks and the military rank system define among others dominance, authority, as well as roles and responsibility in a military hierarchy. The military rank system incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority, and the military chain of command – the succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised – constructs an important component for organized collective action.

Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.

Joshua Chamberlain Union Army general and Medal of Honor recipient

Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain was an American college professor from the State of Maine, who volunteered during the American Civil War to join the Union Army. He became a highly respected and decorated Union officer, reaching the rank of brigadier general. He is best known for his gallantry at the Battle of Gettysburg, for which he was awarded the Medal of Honor.

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It is not to be confused with a brevet in Francophone European military circles, where it is an award, nor should it be confused with temporary commissions.

<i>Brevet détat-major</i>

A Brevet d'état-major, commonly abbreviated to BEM, is a military distinction in France and Belgium which denotes that an officer has passed the École de guerre, the French Staff College. Though it is usually only seen in French, it can be abbreviated to SBH in Dutch. Between 1870 and 1940, an officier breveté was a graduate of the École supérieure de guerre.[3] Nowadays, while many officers still attend the école de guerre, they do not use the term officier breveté.

An acting rank is a military designation allowing a commissioned or non-commissioned officer to assume a rank—usually higher and usually temporary—without the pay and allowances appropriate to that grade. As such, an officer may be ordered back to the previous grade. This situation may arise when a lower-ranking officer is called upon to replace a senior officer, or fill a position higher than the current rank held.

France

In France, a brevet is a very broad-meaning word which includes every document giving a capacity to a person. For instance, the various military speciality courses, such as military parachutism, are ended by the award of a brevet.

Parachutist Badge Wikimedia disambiguation page

The Parachutist Badge or Parachutist Brevet is a military badge awarded by the Armed Forces of most countries in the world to soldiers who receive the proper parachute training and accomplish the required number of jumps. It is difficult to assess which country was the first to introduce such award.

The more important brevet in the French military is the one of the École de guerre, the French Staff College. Between 1870 and 1940, an officier breveté was a graduate of the École supérieure de guerre. [3] Nowadays, while many officers still attend the école de guerre, they do not use the term officier breveté.

École Militaire

The École Militaire is a vast complex of buildings housing various military training facilities in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, southeast of the Champ de Mars.

The French military does not use brevets to give officers a higher standing. It uses instead temporary commissions. [4] As an example, Charles de Gaulle was promoted "provisional brigadier general" (général de brigade à titre provisoire) in 1940 when he was commander of an armoured division.

Charles de Gaulle 18th President of the French Republic

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French army officer and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to establish democracy in France. In 1958, he came out of retirement when appointed President of the Council of Ministers by President René Coty. He was asked to rewrite the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of France later that year, a position he was reelected to in 1965 and held until his resignation in 1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era, and his memory continues to influence French politics.

Germany

In the Prussian and German army and navy, it was possible to bestow a Charakter rank on officers that was in many respects similar to a brevet rank. For example, an Oberst could receive the Charakter als Generalmajor. Very often, German officers would be promoted to the next higher Charakter rank on the day of their retirement.

Prussia state in Central Europe between 1525–1947

Prussia was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

Spain

It was not uncommon during the 19th century to distinguish between empleo ("employed") rank and graduación ("grade") being the effective command position. In the 1884 rank regulations (which with minor modifications were in force during the Spanish–American War) stars marked the rank whilst the actual post was reflected in gold lace on the cuffs.

As in practice both situations coincided the system was dropped in 1908 leaving only the starred system of denoting rank. Nevertheless, during the Spanish Civil War the system was revived in the Nationalist side due to the lack of trained officers because of the enlargement of the army. The breveted officers (known as habilitados or estampillados) wore their actual rank on the cuffs but their brevetted one in a rectangular black patch on the left breast of their coats or shirts.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the brevet commission was only by courtesy. Officially, both titles were used, as: "Major and Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Cornwallis". Originally the term designated a promotion given on such occasions as a coronation, or the termination of a great war, and had its origin during the reign of King James II (1685–1688); but it was abused so frequently and used to such an extent by the general award of brevet commissions that from 1854, during the Crimean War of 1853-1856 and subsequently, its bestowal was limited[ by whom? ] strictly to cases of very distinguished service in the field and on the principle of seniority. The British Army confined brevet commissions to ranks from captain to lieutenant-colonel.

The brevet conferred rank in the British Army overall, but importantly, not in the regiment. Advancement in the regiment could take place generally only by purchase (until 1871) or by seniority (with the exception of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and the Royal Engineers where it has never been possible to buy commissions and promotion was based on merit), and when there was a suitable vacancy (caused by the death, retirement or promotion of a more senior officer). For an officer on duty with his regiment, only regimental rank counted; if the regiment formed part of a larger formation then brevet rank could be used to determine command of temporary units formed for special purposes. In particular brigadier did not become a permanent rank until 1947, so command of brigades was determined by seniority, including by the date of promotion to any brevet rank. Thus it was possible for a regimental major to hold a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy with seniority over the commission of his own commanding officer as lieutenant-colonel and be given command of a brigade (potentially including his own regiment). Similarly, while the officer served in a staff position or as an aide-de-camp, then he could use his brevet rank. Appointment to a brevet also counted towards the requirement to have served for a sufficient time in a lower rank to be eligible for promotion (by purchase) to a more senior one. [5]

United States

The Articles of War adopted by the United States Army in 1776 and slightly revised in 1806 established the use and significance of brevet ranks or awards in the U.S. Army. When first used, a brevet commission in the U.S. Army entitled the officer to be identified by a higher rank, but the award had limited effect on the right to higher command or pay. A brevet rank had no effect within the officer's current unit, but, when assigned duty at the brevet rank by the U.S. President, such an officer would command with the brevet rank and be paid at the higher rank. This higher command and pay would last only for the duration of that assignment. The brevet promotion would not affect the officer's seniority and actual permanent rank in the army. [6] Beginning on April 16, 1818, brevet commissions also required confirmation by the United States Senate, just as all other varieties of officer commissions did. [7]

Early use

Brevets were first used in the U.S. Army during the American Revolutionary War. Often, the nation's Continental Congress could not find suitable positions for foreign officersmostly from Francewho sought commissions. The first U.S. brevet was given to Jacques Antoine de Franchessin on July 20, 1776, allowing him to hold the rank of lieutenant colonel within the Continental Army. Franchessin and another 35 men of foreign birth would hold brevet commissions in the army by the end of the war. By 1784, an additional 50 officers would receive brevets for "meritorious services" during the conflict. [6]

In the 19th-century U.S. Army, brevet promotions were quite common because the army had many frontier forts to garrison and other missions to perform but could not always appoint appropriately ranked officers to command these forts or missions. The U.S. Congress permitted only a limited number of officers of each rank. Thus, an officer of lower rank might receive a brevet commission to a rank more appropriate for his assignment. Also, newly commissioned officers often received brevet rank until authorized positions became available. For example, an officer might graduate from West Point and be appointed a brevet second lieutenant until a permanent second lieutenant posting opened up. In early 1861, some recent graduates of West Point temporarily were named brevet second lieutenants because not enough Regular Army officer vacancies were available to give them commissions as regular second lieutenants. [8] In addition to officers being appointed to a brevet rank to temporarily serve in positions designated for higher-ranked officers (i.e., in lieu of promotion to permanent rank), officers might be awarded brevet rank as recognition for gallantry or meritorious service.

American Civil War

During the American Civil War, almost all senior officers received some form of brevet award, mainly during the final months of the war. These awards were made for gallantry or meritorious service, rather than for command. In addition to the authorization in a previous law for awards of brevet ranks to Regular Army officers, an act of Congress of March 3, 1863, authorized the award of brevet rank to officers of the United States Volunteers. [9] Thus, brevet awards became increasingly common later in the war. Some officers even received more than one award. Because of the existence of both Regular Army and United States Volunteers ranks, and the possibility that an officer could hold actual and brevet ranks in both services, some general and other officers could hold as many as four different ranks simultaneously. For example, by the end of the war, Ranald S. Mackenzie was a brevet major general of volunteers, an actual, full-rank brigadier general of volunteers, a brevet brigadier general in the United States Regular Army, and an actual Regular Army captain. [10]

Brevet rank in the Union Army, whether in the Regular Army or the United States Volunteers, during and at the conclusion of the American Civil War, may be regarded as an honorary title which conferred none of the authority, precedence, nor pay of real or full rank. [11] The vast majority of the Union Army brevet ranks were awarded posthumously or on or as of March 13, 1865, as the war was coming to a close. [11] U.S. Army regulations concerning brevet rank provided that brevet rank could be claimed "in courts-martial and on detachments, when composed of different corps" and when the officer served with provisional formations made up of different regiments or companies, or "on other occasions." [11] These regulations were vague enough to support the positions of some brevet generals who caused controversies by claiming supposed priorities or privileges of brevet ranks that had been awarded to them at earlier dates during the war. [11]

Some full-rank brigadier generals in the United States Volunteers (USV) in the American Civil War had been awarded brevet brigadier general rank in the USV before receiving full-rank promotions to brigadier general of United States Volunteers. Some full-rank brigadier generals in the USV were awarded the rank of brevet major general in the USV, but were not promoted to full-rank major generals in the USV. Some United States Regular Army officers who served with the USV in ranks below general officer were awarded brevet general officer rank in the USV, but were not promoted to full-rank general officers in the USV. On the other hand, at least a few USV general officers also were awarded brevet general officer rank in the Regular Army in addition to their full-rank appointments or brevet general officer awards in the United States Volunteers. Many of the Regular Army officers of lower rank who became full-rank USV generals, however, received neither actual promotions to a general officer rank nor brevet general officer awards in the Regular Army in addition to their USV ranks or awards. Some of them who stayed in the United States Regular Army after the war did achieve general officer rank in later years.

In addition to the brevet awards to current (or future) full-rank United States Volunteers (USV) generals during the American Civil War, 1,367 other USV officers of lower ranks were awarded the rank of brevet brigadier general, brevet major general, or both, in the United States Volunteers, but not promoted to full-rank USV generals. [12] At least one enlisted man, Private Frederick W. Stowe, was brevetted as a second lieutenant in the Union Army during the Civil War. [13]

The Confederate States of America had legislation and regulations for the use of brevets in their armed forces, provided by Article 61 of the nation's Articles of War, and by their 1861 Army Regulations, which were based on the U.S. Army's 1857 version of their regulations. Although Article 61 was revised in 1862, it ultimately had no practical effect since the Confederate States Army did not use any brevet commissions or awards during its existence. [14]

The United States Marine Corps also issued brevets. After officers became eligible for the Medal of Honor, a rare Marine Corps Brevet Medal was issued to living officers who had been brevetted between 1861 and 1915. [15]

Modern usage

The practice of brevetting disappeared from the (regular) U.S. military at the end of the 19th century; honors were bestowed instead with a series of medals. Brevetting was declared obsolete in 1922. [16] However, the similar practice of frocking continues in four of the five branches of the U.S. armed forces. The U.S. Air Force does not allow the regular practice of frocking before a promotion date, except in rare circumstances, such as when an officer selected for promotion is assigned to a billet (typically a senior joint duty assignment), that requires him or her to hold/wear the higher rank to which he/she is expected to be promoted. Frocking typically requires special approval to be obtained from the service headquarters.

The promotion of an enlisted person or non-commissioned officer to commissioned officer rank as a reward for displaying leadership and bravery is referred to as a direct appointment rather than a brevet. It temporarily grants the rank of 1st lieutenant. The holder must then attend Officer Candidate School in order to keep the commission. They must also have or acquire a four-year college degree if they wish to be promoted to the rank of captain or above.

The U.S. National Guard, which depends on the governor of a state to concede its commissions in the Army National Guard and Air National Guard, may still confer brevets. Many states maintain a clause permitting the governor to confer any rank in its defense forces, including the militia and National Guards. Some states provide that the sitting governor may confer any rank, but this appointment is considered valid only for the duration of the governor's own term in office.

Some states also confer brevets as part of their regular honors system. Georgia confers honorary ranks into its state police force. Kentucky is famous for its colonels, and so too is Tennessee, both of which make the appointment as an honorary member of the governor's staff. Alabama, Kentucky, Texas and Nebraska also confer an admiralty within a symbolic navy. Similar honors have been issued for the Georgia Naval Militia, which has existed only on paper since 1908. In all cases these honorary titles may be considered effective brevets, equal to that of the National Guard, by being conferred by a sitting governor.

See also

Notes

  1. "the definition of brevet". www.dictionary.com.
  2. Boatner III, Mark M. (1991). The Civil War Dictionary. New York: Vintage Books. p. 84. ISBN   0-679-73392-2.
  3. "Service historique de la Défense". Servicehistorique.sga.defense.gouv.fr. Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
  4. Code de la Défense, art. L4134-2.
  5. Holmes, Richard (2001) [2001]. "Chapter III - Brothers of the Blade". Redcoat: the British soldier in the age of horse and musket (Hardback ed.). London: HarperCollins. pp. 166–179. ISBN   0-00-257097-1.
  6. 1 2 Hunt, "Introduction", p. v.
  7. Eicher, p. 34.
  8. Faust, Patricia L., ed. Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War, p. 79. Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, 1986. ISBN   0-06-181261-7.
  9. Boatner, III, Mark M., The Civil War Dictionary, p. 84, David McKay Company, Inc., New York, 1959. ISBN   0-679-50013-8.
  10. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue, p. xvii. Louisiana State University Press, 1964. ISBN   978-0-8071-0822-2.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Boatner, III, p. 84.
  12. Warner, Generals in Blue, p. xxiv.
  13. Faust, p .79.
  14. Weinert, pp. 5-6; Faust, p. 79.
  15. "Marine Corps Brevet Medal". Foxfall Medals. Retrieved 2007-10-10.
  16. "Brevet - military rank". britannica.com.

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