Brigham Young

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Brigham Young
Brigham Young by Charles William Carter.jpg
Brigham Young c. 1870
2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27)  August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29)
Predecessor Joseph Smith
Successor John Taylor
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14)  December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27)
Predecessor Thomas B. Marsh
Successor Orson Hyde
End reasonBecame President of the Church
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14)  December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27)
Called by Three Witnesses
End reasonBecame President of the Church
LDS Church Apostle
February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14)  August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29)
Called byThree Witnesses
ReasonInitial organization of Quorum of the Twelve
Reorganization
at end of term
No apostles immediately ordained [1]
1st Governor of Utah Territory
In office
February 3, 1851  April 12, 1858
PredecessorNone
Successor Alfred Cumming
Personal details
Born(1801-06-01)June 1, 1801
Whitingham, Vermont, U.S.
DiedAugust 29, 1877(1877-08-29) (aged 76)
Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, U.S.
Cause of deathRuptured appendix
Resting place Brigham Young Cemetery
40°46′13″N111°53′08″W / 40.7703°N 111.8856°W / 40.7703; -111.8856 (Brigham Young Cemetery)
Spouse(s)See List of Brigham Young's wives
Children56 [2]
ParentsJohn and Abigail Young
Website brighamyoung.org
Signature 
Brigham Young Signature.svg

Brigham Young ( /ˈbrɪɡəm/ ; June 1, 1801 August 29, 1877) [3] was an American religious leader, politician, and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877. He founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Settler person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there

A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are often built on land already claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by governments or large countries. They also sometimes leave in search of religious freedom.

President of the Church (LDS Church) highest office in the LDS Church

In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the President of the Church is the highest office of the church. It was the office held by Joseph Smith, the church's founder. The President of the LDS Church is the church's leader and the head of the First Presidency, the church's highest governing body. Latter-day Saints consider the president of the church to be a "prophet, seer, and revelator" and refer to him as "the Prophet," a title that was originally given to Smith. When the name of the president is used by adherents, it is usually prefaced by the title "President". Russell M. Nelson has been the president since January 14, 2018.

Contents

Young had many nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses" [4] (alternatively, the "Modern Moses" or "Mormon Moses"), [5] [6] because, like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. [7] Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality and commonly was called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. A polygamist, Young had 55 wives. He instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, and also led the church during the Utah War against the United States. [8]

Moses person, mentioned in the Torah (Pentateuch) and in the Quran, who led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt to Canaan

Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure, although retaining the possibility that a Moses-like figure existed.

Bible Collection of religious texts in Judaism and Christianity

The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews, Samaritans, and Rastafarians.

Mormon pioneers

The Mormon pioneers were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as Latter-day Saints, who migrated across the United States from the Midwest to the Salt Lake Valley in what is today the U.S. state of Utah. At the time of the ceasefire and planning of the exodus in 1846, the territory was owned by the Republic of Mexico, which soon after went to war with the United States over the annexation of Texas. Salt Lake Valley became American territory as a result of this war.

Early life and succession to Latter Day Saint leadership

The five sons of John and Nabby Young
From left to right: Lorenzo Dow, Brigham, Phineas H., Joseph, and John. Brigham Young and his brothers.jpg
The five sons of John and Nabby Young
From left to right: Lorenzo Dow, Brigham, Phineas H., Joseph, and John.

Young was born to John Young and Abigail "Nabby" Howe, a farming family in Whitingham, Vermont, and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith, among other trades. [9] Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works. Though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830. He officially joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary. After his wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835, and he assumed a leadership role within that organization in taking Mormonism to the United Kingdom and organizing the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838.

Whitingham, Vermont Town in Vermont, United States

Whitingham is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The town was named for Nathan Whiting, a landholder. The population was 1,357 at the 2010 census. Whitingham is the birthplace of Brigham Young, the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and founder of Salt Lake City, Utah. Its village center is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Whitingham Village Historic District.

Blacksmith person who creates wrought iron or steel products by forging, hammering, bending, and cutting

A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut. Blacksmiths produce objects such as gates, grilles, railings, light fixtures, furniture, sculpture, tools, agricultural implements, decorative and religious items, cooking utensils and weapons.

Mormonism religious tradition of Mormons

Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s. After Smith was killed in 1844, most Mormons followed Brigham Young on his westward journey to the area that became the Utah Territory, calling themselves The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Other sects include Mormon fundamentalism, which seeks to maintain practices and doctrines such as polygamy, and other small independent denominations. The second-largest Latter Day Saint denomination, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, since 2001 called the Community of Christ, does not describe itself as "Mormon", but follows a Trinitarian Christian restorationist theology, and considers itself Restorationist in terms of Latter Day Saint doctrine.

In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob. Several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis that ensued. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Illinois, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church. [10] Young opposed this reasoning and motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency, [11] so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles. [12] The majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorum's president. Many of Young's followers would later reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded exactly like Smith, which they attributed to the power of God. [13] [14] [15] [16] Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement.

Joseph Smith American religious leader and the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement

Joseph Smith Jr. was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. When he was 24, Smith published the Book of Mormon. By the time of his death, 14 years later, he had attracted tens of thousands of followers and founded a religion that continues to the present.

Death of Joseph Smith Founder and leader of the Latter Day Saint movement

Joseph Smith, the founder and leader of the Latter Day Saint movement, and his brother Hyrum Smith were killed by a mob in Carthage, Illinois, on June 27, 1844. The brothers had been in jail awaiting trial when an armed mob of about 200 men stormed the facility, their faces painted black with wet gunpowder. Hyrum was killed first, having been shot in the face. As he fell, Hyrum shouted, "I'm a dead man, Joseph!" After emptying the pistol with which he tried to defend himself, Joseph was then shot several times while trying to escape from a second-story window and fell from that window as he died.

The succession crisis in the Latter Day Saint movement occurred after the death of Joseph Smith, the movement's founder, on June 27, 1844.

Migration west

Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, which was then part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, then to the Salt Lake Valley. By the time Young arrived at the final destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico, although U.S. sovereignty would not be confirmed until 1848. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young's expedition was one of the largest and one of the best organized westward treks. [17] On August 22, 29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. [18]

Salt Lake Valley valley in Salt Lake County, Utah, United States

Salt Lake Valley is a 500-square-mile (1,300 km2) valley in Salt Lake County in the north-central portion of the U.S. state of Utah. It contains Salt Lake City and many of its suburbs, notably Murray, Sandy, South Jordan, West Jordan, and West Valley City; its total population is 1,029,655 as of 2010. Brigham Young said "this is the right place", when he and his fellow settlers moved into Utah after being driven out of several states.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Mexican–American War Armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848

The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the Intervención estadounidense en México, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the Second Federal Republic of Mexico from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 American annexation of the Republic of Texas, not formally recognized by the Mexican government, disputing the Treaties of Velasco signed by the unstable Mexican caudillo President/General Antonio López de Santa Anna after the Texas Revolution a decade earlier. In 1845, newly elected U.S. President James K. Polk, who saw the annexation of Texas as the first step towards a further expansion of the United States, sent troops to the disputed area and a diplomatic mission to Mexico. After Mexican forces attacked American forces, Polk cited this in his request that Congress declare war.

After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27, 1847.

President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles is a priesthood calling in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In general, the President of the Quorum of the Twelve is the most senior apostle in the church, aside from the President of the Church. When the President of the Church dies, it is the President of the Quorum of the Twelve who becomes the new church president. The calling of President of the Twelve has been held by 26 men, 15 of whom have gone on to become President of the Church. The current President of the Quorum of the Twelve is Dallin H. Oaks. Since Oaks is a counselor in the First Presidency, M. Russell Ballard is currently serving as acting president.

First Presidency (LDS Church)

The First Presidency, also called the Quorum of the Presidency of the Church or simply the Presidency), is the presiding or governing body of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is composed of the President of the Church and his counselors. The First Presidency currently consists of Russell M. Nelson and his two counselors: Dallin H. Oaks and Henry B. Eyring.

Governor of Utah Territory

A beardless Brigham Young in 1853. 1853 Brigham Young Daguerreotype.jpg
A beardless Brigham Young in 1853.

As colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore on February 3, 1851. [19] During his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Idaho, Arizona, Nevada, California and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico. Under his direction, the Mormons built roads and bridges, forts, irrigation projects; established public welfare; organized a militia; issued an extermination order against the Timpanogos and after a series of wars eventually made peace with the Native Americans. Young was also one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, for the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Young organized the first legislature and established Fillmore as the territory's first capital.

Young organized a board of regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley. [20] It was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret; its name was eventually changed to the University of Utah.

Brigham Young photographed by Charles Roscoe Savage, 1855 Brigham Young by Charles Roscoe Savage, 1855.jpg
Brigham Young photographed by Charles Roscoe Savage, 1855

In 1851, Young and several federal officials, including territorial Secretary Broughton Harris, became unable to work cooperatively. Harris and the others departed Utah without replacements being named, and these individuals later became known as the Runaway Officials of 1851. [21]

Young supported slavery and its expansion into Utah, and led the efforts to legalize and regulate slavery in the 1852 Act in Relation to Service, based on his beliefs on slavery. [22] [23] [24]

In 1856, Young organized an efficient mail service. In 1858, following the events of the Utah War, he stepped down to his successor, Alfred Cumming. [25]

LDS Church presidency

Young was the longest-serving President of the LDS Church in history, having served for 29 years.

Educational endeavors

On October 16, 1875, Young deeded buildings and land in Provo, Utah to a board of trustees for establishing an institution of learning, ostensibly as part of the University of Deseret. [26] Young said, "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo ... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country." [27] The school broke off from the University of Deseret and became Brigham Young Academy, [27] the precursor to Brigham Young University.

Within the church, Young reorganized the Relief Society for women in 1867, and he created organizations for young women in 1869 and young men in 1875.

Temple building

Young was involved in temple building throughout his membership in the LDS Church, making it a priority of his church presidency. Under Smith's leadership, Young participated in the building of the Kirtland and Nauvoo temples. Just four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young designated the location for the Salt Lake Temple; he presided over its groundbreaking on April 6, 1853. [28] During his tenure, Young oversaw construction of the Salt Lake Tabernacle and he announced plans to build the St. George (1871), Manti (1875), and Logan (1877) temples. He also provisioned the building of the Endowment House, a "temporary temple" which began to be used in 1855 to provide temple ordinances to church members while the Salt Lake Temple was under construction.

Teachings

The majority of Young's teachings are contained in the 19 volumes of transcribed and edited sermons in the Journal of Discourses. The LDS Church's Doctrine and Covenants contains one section from Young that has been canonized as scripture, adding the section in 1876. [29]

Though polygamy was practiced by Young's predecessor Joseph Smith, [30] the practice is often associated with Young. Some Latter Day Saint denominations, such as the Community of Christ, consider Young the "Father of Mormon Polygamy". [31] In 1853, Young made the church's first official statement on the subject since the church had arrived in Utah. Young acknowledged the suffering the doctrine created for women, but stated its necessity for creating large families, proclaiming: "But the first wife will say, 'It is hard, for I have lived with my husband twenty years, or thirty, and have raised a family of children for him, and it is a great trial to me for him to have more women;' then I say it is time that you gave him up to other women who will bear children." [32]

One of the more controversial teachings of Young was the Adam–God doctrine. According to Young, he was taught by Smith that Adam is "our Father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do". According to the doctrine, Adam was once a mortal man who became resurrected and exalted. From another planet, Adam brought Eve, one of his wives, with him to the earth, where they became mortal by eating the fruit of the Garden of Eden. After bearing mortal children and establishing the human race, Adam and Eve returned to their heavenly thrones where Adam acts as the god of this world. Later, as Young is generally understood to have taught, Adam returned to the earth to become the biological father of Jesus. [33] [34] [35] The LDS Church has since repudiated the Adam–God doctrine. [36]

Young is generally considered to have instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, who had been treated equally in this respect under Smith's presidency. [37] After settling in Utah in 1848, Young announced the ban, [37] which also forbade blacks from participating in Mormon temple rites such as the endowment or sealings. On many occasions, Young taught that blacks were denied the priesthood because they were "the seed of Cain", [38] but also stated that they would eventually receive the priesthood after "all the other children of Adam have the privilege of receiving the Priesthood, and of coming into the kingdom of God, and of being redeemed from the four quarters of the earth, and have received their resurrection from the dead, then it will be time enough to remove the curse from Cain and his posterity." [39] These racial restrictions remained in place until 1978, when the policy was rescinded by LDS Church president Spencer W. Kimball, [40] and the LDS Church subsequently "disavow[ed] theories advanced in the past" to explain this ban, [41] thereby "plac[ing] the origins of black priesthood denial blame squarely on Brigham Young." [42]

In 1863, Young stated: "Shall I tell you the law of God in regard to the African race? If the white man who belongs to the chosen seed mixes his blood with the seed of Cain, the penalty, under the law of God, is death on the spot. This will always be so." [43]

Young was a vocal opponent of theories of human polygenesis, being a firm voice for stating that all humans were the product of one creation. [44]

Conflicts

Shortly after the arrival of Young's pioneers, the new Mormon colonies were incorporated into the United States through the Mexican Cession. Young petitioned the U.S. Congress to create the State of Deseret. The Compromise of 1850 instead carved out Utah Territory and Young was installed as governor. As governor and church president, Young directed both religious and economic matters. He encouraged independence and self-sufficiency. Many cities and towns in Utah, and some in neighboring states, were founded under Young's direction. Young's leadership style has been viewed as autocratic. [45] When federal officials received reports of widespread and systematic obstruction of federal officials in Utah (most notably judges), U.S. President James Buchanan decided to install a non-Mormon governor. Buchanan accepted the reports of the judges without any further investigation, and the new non-sectarian governor was accompanied by troops sent to garrison forts in the new territory. When Young received word that federal troops were headed to Utah with his replacement, he called out his militia to ambush the federal force. During the defense of Utah, now called the Utah War, Young held the U.S. Army at bay for a winter by taking their cattle and burning supply wagons. The Mormon forces were largely successful thanks to Lot Smith. Young eventually relented and agreed to step down as governor. He later received a pardon from Buchanan. Relations between Young and future governors and U.S. Presidents were mixed.

Brigham Young (seated near the middle, wearing a tall beaver hat) and an exploring party camped at the Colorado River in 1870 Brigham Young and company 1870.PNG
Brigham Young (seated near the middle, wearing a tall beaver hat) and an exploring party camped at the Colorado River in 1870

The degree of Young's involvement in the Mountain Meadows massacre, which took place in Washington County in 1857, is disputed. [46] Leonard J. Arrington reports that Young received a rider at his office on the day of the massacre, and that when he learned of the contemplated attack by the members of the LDS Church in Parowan and Cedar City, he sent back a letter directing that the Fancher party be allowed to pass through the territory unmolested. [47] Young's letter reportedly arrived on September 13, 1857, two days after the massacre. As governor, Young had promised the federal government he would protect immigrants passing through Utah Territory, but over 120 men, women and children were killed in this incident. There is no debate concerning the involvement of individual Mormons from the surrounding communities by scholars. Only children under the age of seven, who were cared for by local Mormon families, survived, and the murdered members of the wagon train were left unburied. The remains of about 40 people were later found and buried, and Union Army officer James Henry Carleton had a large cross made from local trees, the transverse beam bearing the engraving, "Vengeance Is Mine, Saith The Lord: I Will Repay" and erected a cairn of rocks at the site. A large slab of granite was put up on which he had the following words engraved: "Here 120 men, women and children were massacred in cold blood early in September, 1857. They were from Arkansas." For two years, the monument stood as a memorial to those travelling the Spanish Trail through Mountain Meadow. Some claim that, in 1861, Young brought an entourage to Mountain Meadows and had the cairn and cross destroyed, while exclaiming, "Vengeance is mine and I have taken a little". [48]

Death

Young is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in Salt Lake City. BrighamYoungGrave.jpg
Young is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in Salt Lake City.

Before his death in Salt Lake City on August 29, 1877, [49] Young was suffering from cholera morbus and inflammation of the bowels. [50] It is believed that he died of peritonitis from a ruptured appendix. [2] His last words were "Joseph! Joseph! Joseph!", invoking the name of the late Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon faith. [51] On September 2, 1877, Young's funeral was held in the Tabernacle with an estimated 12,000 to 15,000 people in attendance. [52] He is buried on the grounds of the Mormon Pioneer Memorial Monument in the heart of Salt Lake City. A bronze marker was placed at the grave site June 10, 1938, by members of the Young Men and Young Women organizations, which he founded. [53]

Legacy

Impact

A century after his death, one writer stated that [54]

[Joseph Smith] was succeeded by one of the outstanding organizers of the 19th century, Brigham Young. If the circumstances of his life had worked out differently [he] might have become a captain of industry—an Andrew Carnegie or John D. Rockefeller or a railroad builder. Instead, this able, energetic, earthy man became the absolute ruler and the revered, genuinely loved father figure of all Mormons everywhere.

He credited Young's leadership with helping to settle much of the American West: [54]

During the 30 years between the Mormons' arrival in Utah in 1847 and [his death in] 1877, Young directed the founding of 350 towns in the Southwest. Thereby the Mormons became the most important single agency in colonizing that vast arid West between the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada.

Memorials to Young include a bronze statue in front of the Abraham O. Smoot Administration Building, Brigham Young University; a marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the United States Capitol, donated by the State of Utah in 1950; [55] and a statue atop the This is the Place Monument in Salt Lake City.

Young's teachings were the 1998–99 course of study in the LDS Church's Sunday Relief Society and Melchizedek priesthood classes.

Family and descendants

Caricature of Young's wives, after his death In memoriam brigham young 2.jpg
Caricature of Young's wives, after his death

Young was a polygamist, marrying a total of 55 wives, 54 of them after he converted to Mormonism. [56] The policy was difficult for many in the church. Young stated that upon being taught about plural marriage, "It was the first time in my life that I desired the grave." [57] By the time of his death, Young had 56 children by 16 of his wives; 46 of his children reached adulthood. [2]

Sources have varied on the number of Young's wives, due to differences in what scholars have considered to be a "wife". [56] There were 55 women who Young was sealed to during his lifetime. While the majority of the sealings were "for eternity", some were "for time only". Researchers believe that not all of the 55 marriages were conjugal. [56] Young did not live with a number of his wives or publicly hold them out as wives, which has led to confusion on the number and their identities. [56] This is in part due to the complexity of how wives were identified in the Mormon society at the time.

Of Young's 55 wives, 21 had never been married before; 16 were widows; six were divorced; six had living husbands and the marital status of six others is unknown. [56] In 1856, Young built the Lion House to accommodate his sizable family. This building remains a Salt Lake City landmark, together with the Beehive House, another Young family home. A contemporary of Young wrote: "It was amusing to walk by Brigham Young's big house, a long rambling building with innumerable doors. Each wife has an establishment of her own, consisting of parlor, bedroom, and a front door, the key of which she keeps in her pocket." [58] At the time of Young's death, 19 of his wives had predeceased him; he was divorced from ten, and 23 survived him. The status of four was unknown. [56] One of his wives, Zina Huntington Young, served as the third president of the Relief Society. In his will, Young shared his estate with the 16 surviving wives who had lived with him; the six surviving non-conjugal wives were not mentioned in the will. [56]

Notable descendants

In 1902, 25 years after his death, The New York Times established that Young's direct descendants numbered more than 1,000. [59] Some of Young's descendants have become leaders in the LDS Church.

Cultural references

In comics

Brigham Young appeared at the end of Le Fil qui chante album, the last Lucky Luke album written by Goscinny. [60]

In literature

The Scottish poet John Lyon, who was an intimate friend of Young, wrote Brigham the Bold in tribute to him after his death. [61] [62]

Florence Claxton's graphic novel, The Adventures of a Woman in Search of Her Rights (1872), satirizes a would-be emancipated woman whose failure to establish an independent career results in her marriage to Young before she wakes to discover she's been dreaming.

Arthur Conan Doyle based his first Sherlock Holmes novel, A Study in Scarlet , on Mormon history, mentioning Young by name. When asked to comment on the story, which had, "provoked the animosity of the Mormon faithful", Doyle noted, "all I said about the Danite Band and the murders is historical so I cannot withdraw that though it is likely that in a work of fiction it is stated more luridly than in a work of history." Doyle's daughter stated: "You know father would be the first to admit that his first Sherlock Holmes novel was full of errors about the Mormons." [63]

Mark Twain devoted a chapter and much of an appendix to Young in Roughing It .

Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., talking about his fondness of trees, joked in his The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table : "I call all trees mine that I have put my wedding-ring on, and I have as many tree-wives as Brigham Young has human ones." [64]

In movies

Brigham Young was played by Dean Jagger in the 1940 film Brigham Young .

In television

Byron Morrow played Young in a cameo appearance in the Death Valley Days 1966 episode, "An Organ for Brother Brigham". In the story line, the organ built and guided west to Salt Lake City by Joseph Harris Ridges (1827–1914) of Australia becomes mired in the sand. Wagonmaster Luke Winner (Morgan Woodward) feels compelled to leave the instrument behind until Ridges finds solid rock under the sand. [65]

In another Death Valley Days episode in 1969, "Biscuits and Billy, the Kid", Michael Hinn (1913–1988) of the former Boots and Saddles western series was cast as Young. In the story line, the Tugwell family, Jason (Ben Cooper), Ellie (Emily Banks), and Mary (Erin Moran), are abandoned by their guide while on a wagon train from Utah to California. [66]

Gregg Henry depicts Young in the fourth (2014) and fifth (2015) seasons of the TV series Hell on Wheels, a fictional story about the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. As the competing rail lines approach Utah from the east and west coasts, Young supplies Mormon laborers to both railroad companies and negotiates with the railways to have them make Salt Lake City their meeting point. In the Season 5 mid-season finale, "False Prophets", Young's son, Phineas, attempts to murder his father. Persuaded by The Swede, Phineas believed he was the chosen one to go forward to lead the Mormons, instead of his father.

Literary works

Since Young's death, a number of works have published collections of his discourses and sayings.

See also

Notes

  1. A year after Young's death, Orson Hyde died and Moses Thatcher was ordained an apostle. The First Presidency was not reorganized until October 10, 1880, after which Francis M. Lyman and John Henry Smith were ordained. Orson Pratt died in 1881, and the Quorum of the Twelve did not have twelve members again until October 16, 1882, when George Teasdale and Heber J. Grant were ordained.
  2. 1 2 3 "Brigham Young Biography: Facts of Faith", Y Facts, BYU, archived from the original on September 20, 2013, retrieved September 19, 2013
  3. "Brigham Young (1801–1877) | FamilySearch". ancestors.familysearch.org. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  4. "Topics and Background: Topic – Brigham Young", Newsroom (MormonNewsroom.org), LDS Church
  5. Gibbons, Francis M. (1981), Brigham Young: Modern Moses, Prophet of God, Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, ISBN   978-0877478584
  6. Steorts, Jason Lee (October 29, 2012), "The Mormon Moses", National Review
  7. Nelson, Russell M. (July 1999), "The Exodus Repeated", Ensign , Many instructive parallels exist between the exodus from Egypt of the Israelites under Moses and the exodus from the United States of the Latter-day Saint pioneers under Brigham Young. We can learn much from these stalwarts of ancient and modern Israel.
  8. Roberts, David. "The Brink of War". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution.
  9. Sheret, John G. (Fall 2006 – Winter 2007), "Brigham Young: Carpenter and Cabinet Maker", The Crooked Lake Review (141)
  10. Roberts, B. H. (ed.), "XVIII", History of the Church , 7
  11. Doctrine and Covenants 107:23–24
  12. Roberts, B. H. (ed.), "XIX", History of the Church , 7
  13. 1 2 Quinn, D. Michael (1994). The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power. Signature Books. p. 166. ISBN   1-56085-056-6.; Harper 1996; Jorgensen, Lynne Watkins (2005), "The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Smith Passes to Brother Brigham: One Hundred Twenty-one Testimonies of a Collective Spiritual Witness", in Welch, John W. (ed.), Opening the Heavens: Accounts of Divine Manifestations, 1820–1844, Provo, Utah: BYU Press, pp. 374–480; England, Eugene (Winter 1978), "George Laub's Nauvoo Journal", BYU Studies , 18: 16, Now when President Young arose to address the congregation his voice was the voice of Bro[ther] Joseph and his face appeared as Joseph's face & should I have not seen his face but heard his voice I should have declared that it was Joseph. [spelling and punctuation normalized]; Burton, William, William Burton Diary, May 1845, LDS Church Archives, But their [Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith's] places were filed by others much better than I once supposed they could have been, the spirit of Joseph appeared to rest upon Brigham"; Johnson, Benjamin F. (1928), My Life's Review, Independence, pp. 103–104, But as soon as he spoke I jumped upon my feet, for in every possible degree it was Joseph's voice, and his person, in look, attitude, dress and appearance; [it] was Joseph himself, personified and I knew in a moment the spirit and mantle of Joseph was upon him"; Life Story of Mosiah Hancock, BYU Library, p. 23, Although only a boy, I saw the mantle of the Prophet Joseph rest upon Brigham Young; and he arose lion-like to the occasion and led the people forth; Woodruff, Wilford (March 15, 1892), "none", Deseret News, If I had not seen him with my own eyes, there is no one that could have convinced me that it was not Joseph Smith; Cannon, George Q. (October 29, 1870), Juvenile Instructor , 5 (22): 174–175, When Brigham Young spoke it was with the voice of Joseph himself; and not only was it the voice of Joseph which was heard, but it seemed in the eyes of the people as though it was the every person of Joseph which stood before themCS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link)
  14. However, historians have come to different conclusions on whether the occurrence of such events is supported by contemporary records. Van Wagoner observed of contemporary accounts that "none of these references an explicit transfiguration, a physical metamorphosis of Brigham Young into the form and voice of Joseph Smith," and "[w]hen 8 August 1844 is stripped of emotional overlay, there is not a shred of irrefutable contemporary evidence to support the occurrence of a mystical event either in the morning or afternoon gatherings of that day.": Van Wagoner, Richard S. (Winter 1995). "The Making of a Mormon Myth: The 1844 Transfiguration of Brigham Young". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 28 (4): 1–24.
  15. Jorgenson, Lynne W. (1996–97). "The Mantle of the Prophet Joseph Passes to Brother Brigham: A Collective Spiritual Witness". BYU Studies. 36 (4): 125–204.
  16. Arrington, Leonard J. (1986). Brigham Young: American Moses. University of Illinois Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN   0-252-01296-8.
  17. "Brigham Young". historytogo.utah.gov. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
  18. "Frequently Asked Questions – When was the Mormon Tabernacle Choir formed?", Mormontabernaclechoir.org, Mormon Tabernacle Choir, archived from the original on March 29, 2013
  19. "Utah's new capitol grows from humble beginning; first political sessions were held in council house; fight for statehood". Salt Lake Telegram. October 22, 1916. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
  20. Ison, Yvette D. (January 1995), "The Beginnings of the University of Utah", History Blazer, Utah State Historical Society. Online reprint, with permission, at HistoryToGo.utah.gov by the Utah Division of State History, Utah Department of Heritage and Arts, State of Utah.
  21. Randal S. Chase, Church History Study Guide, Part 3, 2012, p. 85.
  22. Utah Legislative Assembly (1852). Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, of the ... Annual Session, for the Years ..., Volume 1. pp. 108–110.
  23. Young, Brigham (1987), Collier, Fred C. (ed.), The Teachings of President Brigham Young: Vol. 3 1852–1854, Salt Lake City, Utah: Colliers Publishing Company, pp. 26–28, ISBN   0934964017, OCLC   18192348, Inasmuch as we believe in the ordinances of God, in the Priesthood and order and decrees of God, we must believe in slavery
  24. "Brigham Young: We Must Believe in Slavery (23 January 1852)". mit.irr.org.
  25. Brigham Young, Utah State Archives
  26. Sloan, Robert W. (1884). Utah Gazatteer and Directory of Logan, Ogden, Provo and Salt Lake Cities, for 1884. p. 278.
  27. 1 2 Bills, Sarah (April 16, 2003). "Warren Dusenberry (1875–1876)". The Universe (BYU) . BYU NewsNet. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012.
  28. Hanks, Marion Duff (1992), "Salt Lake Temple", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1252–1254, ISBN   0-02-879602-0, OCLC   24502140
  29. https://www.lds.org/scriptures/dc-testament/dc/136?lang=eng
  30. "Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo". www.lds.org.
  31. Richard and Pamela Price (2000), "Vol.1, Ch.4: Brigham Young: The Father of Mormon Polygamy", Joseph Smith Fought Polygamy: How Men Nearest the Prophet Attached Polygamy to His Name in Order to Justify Their Own Polygamous Crimes (self-published), Independence, Missouri: Price Publishing Company, ISBN   1891353063, LCCN   99041763, OCLC   42027453
  32. http://jod.mrm.org/4/51. Vol.4 p.56
  33. Widmer, Kurt (2000), Mormonism and the Nature of God: A Theological Evolution, 1830–1915, Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, p. 131.
  34. Gary James Bergera, "The Orson Pratt–Brigham Young Controversies: Conflict Within the Quorums, 1853 to 1868" Archived June 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 13(2):7–49 (1980) at p. 41.
  35. Boyd Kirkland, "Jehovah as the Father: The Development of the Mormon Jehovah Doctrine", Sunstone 44:36–44 (1984) at p. 39 (Adam "later begot Jesus, his firstborn spirit son, in the flesh").
  36. Spencer W. Kimball, "Our Own Liahona," Ensign , November 1976, p. 77 ("We denounce that theory and hope that everyone will be cautioned against this and other kinds of false doctrine.").
  37. 1 2 Bush, Lester E., Jr.; Mauss, Armand L. (1984). "Chapter 3: Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview". Neither White nor Black: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church. Midvale, Utah: Signature Books. pp. 54–65, 70. ISBN   978-0-941214-22-3.
  38. Bush, Lester E. (Spring 1973), Mormonism’s Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview, Dialogue, pp. 54–97, retrieved December 17, 2013
  39. Journal of Discourses , 2, p.  142
  40. "Official Declaration 2", Doctrine and Covenants
  41. Gospel Topics – Race and the Priesthood, LDS Church
  42. "The Mormon Church Disavows Its Racist Past But Still Offers No Apology". Huffington Post . Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  43. Journal of Discourses , 10, p.  110 . See also: miscegenation.
  44. Daniel Peterson quoting statements from Paul Reeve in Religion of a Different Color
  45. "Brigham Young", Encarta , archived from the original on October 31, 2009, retrieved October 31, 2009.[ unreliable source? ]
  46. Eakin, Emily (October 12, 2002). "Reopening a Mormon Murder Mystery; New Accusations That Brigham Young Himself Ordered an 1857 Massacre of Pioneers". The New York Times (Late Edition-Final ed.). p. Section B, Page 9, Column 2.
  47. Brigham Young to Isaac C. Haight, September 10, 1857, Letterpress Copybook 3:827–28, Brigham Young Office Files, LDS Church Archives
  48. Sally Denton (2003). American Massacre: The Tragedy at Mountain Meadows, September 1857 (New York: Vintage Books, ISBN   0-375-72636-5) p. 210.
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  50. "Brigham Young's Health", The New York Times , August 29, 1877.
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References

Political offices
Preceded by
None
Governor of Utah Territory
1850–1858
Succeeded by
Alfred Cumming
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints titles
Preceded by
Joseph Smith
President of the Church
December 27, 1847 August 29, 1877
Succeeded by
John Taylor
Preceded by
Thomas B. Marsh
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
March 17, 1839 December 27, 1847
Succeeded by
Orson Hyde
Preceded by
David W. Patten
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
February 14, 1835 December 27, 1847
Succeeded by
Heber C. Kimball