Brocket deer

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Brocket deer
Mazama gouazoubira (AU)-right 01.JPG
Gray brocket (M. gouazoubira)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Genus: Mazama
Rafinesque, 1817
Type species
Mazama pita
Rafinesque, 1817
Species

M. americana
M. bororo
M. bricenii
M. chunyi
M. gouazoubira
M. nana
M. nemorivaga
M. pandora
M. rufina
M. temama
M. tienhoveni

Contents

Brockets or brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, and are found in the Yucatán Peninsula, Central and South America, and the island of Trinidad. Most species are primarily found in forests. They are superficially similar to the African duikers and the Asian muntjacs, but unrelated. About 10 species of brocket deer are described.

The genus name Mazama is derived from Nahuatl mazame, the plural of mazatl "deer". [1] The common English name "brocket" (from French brocart < broche, spindle) comes from the word for a stag in its second year, with unbranched antlers. [2]

Taxonomy

The taxonomy among Mazama species has changed significantly in the last decades, and as recently as 1999, some authorities only recognized four species. [3] These four "species", M. americana, M. gouazoubira, M. rufina, and M. chunnyi, included several distinct populations that subsequently were elevated to species status, resulting in a total of nine different species being recognized in Mammal Species of the World in 2005. [4] A tenth species, M. nemorivaga, has traditionally been included in M. gouazoubira, but this was shown to be mistaken in 2000. [5] M. nemorivaga was not recognized as a separate species in Mammal Species of the World, [4] but this was apparently in error. [6] Yet another species, the fair brocket (M. tienhoveni), has recently been described from the lower Amazon basin. [7] What may be an undescribed small species of brocket with a reddish coat and blackish legs has been photographed in the lowlands of Manú National Park in Peru, and based on sight records may also occur in northwestern Bolivia. [8]

Molecular dating suggests that the family Cervidae originated and radiated in central Asia during the Late Miocene, and that the Odocoileini dispersed to North America during the Miocene/Pliocene boundary and underwent an adaptive radiation in South America after their Pliocene dispersal across the Isthmus of Panama. [9] According to the systematic relationships and evolutionary history of neotropical deer, at least eight ancestral forms of deer invaded South America during the late Pliocene (2.5–3 Mya), and members of the red brockets had an independent early explosive diversification soon after their ancestor arrived there, giving rise to a number of morphologically cryptic species.

Deer endemic to the New World fall in two biogeographic lineages: the first, which includes genus Odocoileus and Mazama americana, is distributed in North, Central, and South America, whereas the second is composed of South American species only and includes Mazama gouazoubira. This implies that the genus Mazama is not a monophyletic taxon. [10] Genetic analysis reveals high levels of molecular and cytogenetic divergence between groups of morphologically similar species of brockets (Mazama) and suggests a polyphyletic origin. In particular, M. americana showed a striking kinship with Odocoileus on the basis of several DNA sequences, in contrast to that expected, since this M. americana (now M. temama) haplotype, of Mexican origin, was not close to several Bolivian Mazama sequences analyzed. Thus, Mazama as traditionally circumscribed may not be monophyletic. These Bolivian Mazama species were instead grouped with Pudu puda and Ozotoceros bezoarticus . This could be explained by various possibilities, among them the existence of common ancestral haplotypes among the species or the need for a revised phylogenetic tree, with revised placement into true monophyletic genera that better reflect the true ancestry. [11]

Physical description and habitat

Depending on species, brocket deer are small to medium-sized with stout bodies and large ears. The head-and-body length is 60–144 cm (24–57 in), the shoulder height is 35–80 cm (14–31 in), and the typical weight 8–48 kg (18–106 lb), though exceptionally large M. americana specimens have weighed as much as 65 kg (143 lb). [3] [8] When present, the antlers are small, simple spikes. [3] The pelage varies from reddish to brown to gray. Very roughly, the species can be divided into four groups based on size, color, and habitat (but not necessarily matching their phylogeny):

Behavior

In addition to being small and nocturnal, Mazama species are shy and are thus rarely observed. They are found living alone or in mated pairs within their own small territory, the boundaries usually marked with urine, feces, or secretions from the eye glands. When threatened by predators (primarily the cougar and the jaguar), they use their knowledge of their territory to finding hiding places in nearby vegetation. As herbivores, their diet consists of leaves, fruits, and shoots.

Reproduction

Mated pairs that live together remain monogamous. Single male deer usually mate with nearby females. When males compete for a mate, they fight by biting and stabbing with their short antlers. Brocket species that live in tropical areas have no fixed mating season, but those in temperate areas have a distinct rutting period in the autumn.

The gestation period is roughly 200220 days and females bear only one fawn at a time. The young stay with the mother, keeping concealed until large enough to accompany her. They are normally weaned around six months of age and reach sexual maturity after a year.

Related Research Articles

Deer Family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, and the fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, the roe deer, and the moose. Male deer of all species as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).

Even-toed ungulate Order of mammals

The even-toed ungulates are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates bear weight on an odd number of the five toes. Another difference between the two is that even-toed ungulates digest plant cellulose in one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as the odd-toed ungulates do.

Humid Chaco

The Humid Chaco is tropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregion in South America. It lies in the basin of the Paraná River, covering portions of central Paraguay and northern Argentina, and with a small portion of southwestern Brazil and northwestern Uruguay. The natural vegetation is a mosaic of grasslands, palm savanna, and forest.

Pygmy brocket Species of deer

The pygmy brocket is a brocket deer species from South America. It is found in southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. It is a small deer with short legs, weighing 15 to 20 kilograms. It is reddish-brown in color.

Red brocket Species of deer

The red brocket is a species of brocket deer from forests in South America, ranging from northern Argentina to Colombia and the Guianas. It also occurs on the Caribbean island of Trinidad.

Thorolds deer Species of mammal

Thorold's deer is a threatened species of deer found in grassland, shrubland, and forest at high altitudes in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. It is also known as the white-lipped deer for the white patches around its muzzle.

Gray brocket Species of deer

The gray brocket, also known as the brown brocket, is a species of brocket deer from northern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Peru, eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It formerly included the Amazonian brown brocket and sometimes also the Yucatan brown brocket as subspecies. Unlike other species of brocket deer in its range, the gray brocket has a gray-brown fur without reddish tones.

Dwarf brocket Species of deer

The dwarf brocket, or chunyi, is a small species of deer native to the Andean highlands in western Bolivia and southeastern Peru, where it is found in forest and páramo. Its pelage is reddish-brown with dark grey foreparts and neck. The underparts are lighter brown, and the muzzle short and thick. It weighs around 11 kg.

Little red brocket Species of deer

The little red brocket or swamp brocket, also known as the Ecuador red brocket, is a small, little-studied deer native to the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru, where found in forest and páramo at altitudes between 1,400 and 3,600 metres. It is one of the smallest brocket deer. The coat is reddish, and the legs and crown are blackish. As recently as 1999, some authorities included both the pygmy brocket and Merida brocket as subspecies of the little red brocket.

Yucatan brown brocket Species of deer

The Yucatan brown brocket is a small species of deer native to the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. While it is found in humid tropical forest like most other brocket deer, the Yucatan brown brocket also ranges across arid, relatively open habitats.

Small red brocket Species of deer

The small red brocket is a small species of deer in the family Cervidae. It is endemic to Atlantic Forest in Paraná, Santa Catarina and São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. This species, which only was scientifically described in 1996, is threatened by habitat loss. Though its size and structure most resemble that of the pygmy brocket, its coloration is very similar to that of the red brocket. It resembles hybrids between these two species even more closely, but differs from both, and their hybrids, in karyotype.

Mérida brocket Species of deer

The Mérida brocket, also known as the Meroia brocket or rufous brocket, is a small species of deer. It is found in forest and páramo at altitudes of 1,000–3,500 metres (3,300–11,500 ft) in the Andes of northern Colombia and western Venezuela. It was once treated as a subspecies of the similar little red brocket, but has been considered a distinct species since 1987, though as recent as 1999 some maintained it as a subspecies.

Capreolinae Subfamily of mammals

The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals. The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in central Asia.

The fair brocket, also known as the white brocket deer or veado branco to locals, is a possible species of brocket deer from the south-central Amazon near the Aripuanã River in Brazil.

Central American red brocket Species of deer

The Central American red brocket is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia. In 1792 Robert Kerr originally described it as a unique separate species as opposed to a subspecies. It was treated as a subspecies of the red brocket from South America, but its karyotype has 2n = 50, while the latter's was initially described as having 2n = 68–70. However, a more recent description gives the red brocket a variable karyotype with 2n ranging from 48 to 54, suggesting it represents several species. It is sympatric with the Yucatan brown brocket over part of its range. Additionally, it was estimated that Mazama temama diverged from other red brocket deer about 2 MYA. This was estimated through analysis of concatenated sequences from the mitochondrial gene ND2, Cytb, and tRNA-Pro-Control region. The species is found in primary and secondary tropical forest at altitudes from sea level to 2800 m. In Mexico, it is regarded as an agricultural pest by bean farmers. It is probably threatened by hunting and deforestation.

Mammals of Glacier National Park (U.S.)

There are at least 14 large mammal and 50 small mammal species known to occur in Glacier National Park.

Amazonian brown brocket Species of deer

The Amazonian brown brocket, also known as the small brown brocket, is a small species of deer that is almost entirely restricted to South America.

Mammals of Olympic National Park

There are at least 9 large terrestrial mammal, 50 small mammal and 14 marine mammal species known to occur in Olympic National Park.

References

  1. Bright, William (2007). Native American Placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 274. ISBN   978-0-8061-3598-4.
  2. Cf. "brocket, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, June 2017. Web. 5 August 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 Nowak, R. M. (eds) (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  4. 1 2 Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 655–657. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  5. 1 2 Rossi, R. V. (2000). Taxonomia de Mazama Rafinesque, 1817 do Brasil (Artiodactyla, Cervidae). M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade de São Paulo.
  6. Rossi, R.V. & Duarte, J.M.B. (2008). "Mazama nemorivaga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2010..
  7. Marc G.M. van Roosmalen (2015). "Hotspot of new megafauna found in the Central Amazon: the lower Rio Aripuanã Basin" (PDF). Biodiversity Journal. 6 (1): 219–244.
  8. 1 2 3 Trolle, M., and L. H. Emmons (2004). A record of a dwarf brocket from lowland Madre de Dios, Peru. Archived 2012-03-12 at the Wayback Machine Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 19: 2-5
  9. Gilbert, C., Ropiquet, A., and Hassanin, A. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:101-117
  10. Duarte, J. M. B., González, S. and Maldonado, J. E. 2008. The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49:17-22
  11. Ruiz-García, M., Randi, E., Martínez-Agüero, M. and Alvarez, D. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships among Neotropical deer genera (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) by means of DNAmt sequences and microsatellite markers. Revista de Biología Tropical 55:723-741
  12. Medellín, R. A., A. L. Gardner, J. M. Aranda (1998). The taxonomic status of the Yucatán brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae). Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111 (1): 1–14.
  13. Vogliotti, A., and J. M. B. Duarte (2009). Discovery of the first wild population of the small red brocket deer Mazama bororo (Artiodactyla: Cervidae). Mastozool. Beotrop. 16(2).