Brodnica

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Brodnica
Brodnica, Duzy Rynek.JPG
Market Square
Flaga Brodnicy.jpg
Flag
POL Brodnica COA.svg
Coat of arms
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Brodnica
Poland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Brodnica
Coordinates: 53°15′35″N19°23′44″E / 53.25972°N 19.39556°E / 53.25972; 19.39556 Coordinates: 53°15′35″N19°23′44″E / 53.25972°N 19.39556°E / 53.25972; 19.39556
Country Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship POL wojewodztwo kujawsko-pomorskie flag.svg  Kuyavian-Pomeranian
County Brodnica County
Gmina Brodnica (urban gmina)
Established13th century
Town rights1298
Government
  MayorJarosław Radacz
Area
  Total22.87 km2 (8.83 sq mi)
Population
 (2014)
  Total28,574
  Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
87–300 to 87–302
Area code(s) +48 56
Car plates CBR
Climate Dfb
Website http://www.brodnica.pl

Brodnica [brɔdˈɲit͡sa] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) (German : Strasburg in Westpreußen or Strasburg an der Drewenz) is a town in northern Poland with 28,574 inhabitants as of 2014. Previously part of Toruń Voivodeship province, from 1975 to 1998, Brodnica is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. It is the seat of Brodnica County. The nearby Brodnica Landscape Park, a protected area, gets its name from Brodnica.

Contents

Brodnica is the capital of the district whose present quarter Michałowo, a settlement mentioned as early as in 1138 and then in 1240 as castrum Michałowo, hides relics from Neolithic era. As it is confirmed in old documents Michałowo was the capital of the Masovian Castellany. The town was chosen owing to its good position on the Drwęca (on the trade route leading from Masovia to Prussia) and a customs house between Dobrzyń and Chełmno Land (mentioned in 1252).

History

Gothic Saint Catherine church seen from the Market Square Kosciol farny w Brodnicy 2.jpg
Gothic Saint Catherine church seen from the Market Square

The first reference to the town of Brodnica dates from 1263. In 1285–1370 the construction of the Gothic Church of St. Catherine took place. Brodnica received town privileges in 1298. In 1440, the town was one of the founding members of the Prussian Confederation, which opposed Teutonic rule, [1] and upon the request of which King Casimir IV Jagiellon reincorporated the territory to the Kingdom of Poland in 1454. In May 1454 the town pledged allegiance to the Polish King in Toruń. [2] After the end of the Thirteen Years' War, the Teutonic Knights renounced claims to the town, and recognized it as part of Poland. [3] It became a royal town of the Polish Crown, [4] administratively located in the Chełmno Voivodeship. In the Teutonic state Brodnica was the seat of the Commander, in the Polish Kingdom it was the capital of the district starosty, and the former Commander's lands were then royal property.

Brodnica Castle tower, the highest Gothic tower in Poland east of the Vistula, today a museum Wieza zamkowa w Brodnicy.jpg
Brodnica Castle tower, the highest Gothic tower in Poland east of the Vistula, today a museum

A favourable location on the intersection of important routes used for transportation of different goods (wood, fish, furs, animal skin, grain, wool) accelerated the development of the town, making it an important trading centre, the status still reflected in the number of well-preserved granaries along the Drwęca. Between 1486 and 1604 the town belonged to the Działyński family, then between 1604 and 1625 to Anna Vasa of Sweden who was the royal sister of Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden. In later years it was the property Queen Cecily Renata, Chancellor Jerzy Ossoliński, Queen Maria Casimira, and Marshal Franciszek Bieliński.

Brodnica was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772, during the First Partition of Poland, but in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars, Brodnica became part of the short-lived Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815, Brodnica, known as Strasburg in German, was again annexed by Prussia. In 1871, it also became part of the German Empire. After 1785, the Prussians dismantled the Brodnica Castle, preserving only the tower, which is currently the highest Gothic tower in Poland east of the Vistula, and serves as a museum and a watchtower. The town had a Protestant church, a Catholic church, a synagogue, a grammar school, a district court, a main customs office and several commercial operations.

The 19th century saw 20 thousand Polish soldiers interned after the failure of the November Uprising (1830–1831) and many townspeople and noblemen involved in the January Uprising (1863). It is in the Brodnica region too that Masovian insurgents sought refuge from Russian persecution after the failure of the January Uprising. Bank Spółdzielczy w Brodnicy, which is the oldest continuously operating Polish bank, was established in 1862. [4] In 1873 a Polish philomath organization was founded in the local gymnasium, whose activity ended in 1901 due to Germany's anti-Polish policies. [4]

Between 1886 and 1910, Brodnica received railway connections with Działdowo, Grudziądz, Iława, Sierpc and Jabłonowo Pomorskie, which made it an important railway junction and triggered industrial progress. In the 19th century, the Chełmno Land (and Brodnica in particular) was a refuge for Polish patriots who contributed greatly to social, cultural and economic life of the region, like Ignacy Łyskowski.

Chapel dedicated the fallen Polish defenders of Brodnica of 1920 Brodnica, cmentarz wojskowy, kaplica 3.jpg
Chapel dedicated the fallen Polish defenders of Brodnica of 1920

In January 1920, after the end of World War I and the Treaty of Versailles, Brodnica was reintegrated with Poland, which had recently regained independence. [4] On 18 August 1920, the town was the site of a Polish victory over the invading Soviets in the Battle of Brodnica  [ pl ] during the Polish–Soviet War. In the 1920s the town was visited by highest Polish dignitaries: Prime Minister Wincenty Witos, Marshal Józef Piłsudski and President Stanisław Wojciechowski. [4]

During the occupation of Poland (World War II), in 1939, Germans carried out mass arrests of local Poles, who were later murdered in the area or deported to Nazi concentration camps. [4] [5] Some of these Poles were murdered in Skrwilno between 15 October and 15 November 1939 and in Brzezinki in October 1939. [6] The interwar principal of the local high school, Klemens Malicki, was among the Polish principals and teachers murdered in the Oranienburg concentration camp as part of the Intelligenzaktion Pommern . [7] In 1940–1941, the Germans carried out expulsions of Poles, whose homes, shops and workshops were then handed over to German colonists as part of the Lebensraum policy. [8] An Einsatzgruppen penal camp was operated in the town during the occupation, [9] and in 1944, the Germans also established a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp, intended for female prisoners. [10] The German occupation ended in January 1945.

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate). [11]

Climate data for Brodnica
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.0
(59.0)
16.6
(61.9)
24.1
(75.4)
30.0
(86.0)
34.0
(93.2)
36.2
(97.2)
38.2
(100.8)
37.7
(99.9)
34.1
(93.4)
27.3
(81.1)
20.2
(68.4)
16.8
(62.2)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F)2.3
(36.1)
2.9
(37.2)
8.3
(46.9)
13.6
(56.5)
19.4
(66.9)
22.1
(71.8)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
19.3
(66.7)
13.9
(57.0)
6.7
(44.1)
3.2
(37.8)
13.4
(56.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.2
(29.8)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.0
(39.2)
9.8
(49.6)
14.9
(58.8)
18.2
(64.8)
20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
15.3
(59.5)
9.9
(49.8)
4.4
(39.9)
0.2
(32.4)
9.6
(49.3)
Average low °C (°F)−4.6
(23.7)
−4.3
(24.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.0
(42.8)
10.3
(50.5)
14.3
(57.7)
15.5
(59.9)
15.1
(59.2)
11.3
(52.3)
5.9
(42.6)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F)−28.5
(−19.3)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−6.8
(19.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.1
(34.0)
4.7
(40.5)
3.0
(37.4)
−3.8
(25.2)
−6.9
(19.6)
−15.2
(4.6)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−28.5
(−19.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)25
(1.0)
23
(0.9)
30
(1.2)
38
(1.5)
45
(1.8)
62
(2.4)
70
(2.8)
58
(2.3)
35
(1.4)
39
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
30
(1.2)
492
(19.4)
Average precipitation days1412119111213139121412142
Average relative humidity (%)81827568636870727477808274
Mean monthly sunshine hours 566711817923023723622917112255401,740
Source: Polish Central Statistical Office (closest city on record

Location

Number of inhabitants by year
YearNumber
17721,283in 228 households (Feuerstellen) [12]
17831,853with the garrison (315 persons belonging to two squadrons
of a hussar regiment founded in 1773), mostly Lutherans, 27 Jews [13]
18072,113 [12]
18161,994 [12]
18262,669 [12]
18312,585mostly Germans [14]
18755,454 [15]
18805,801 [15]
18906,122incl. 2,587 Protestants, 3,048 Catholics and 480 Jews (2,000 Poles) [15]
19057,217incl. 2,702 Protestants and 318 Jews [16]
19318,521approx. 800 Germans [17]
200632,588
201027,731
201428,574

Brodnica is located in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship on an important route transit over the small river Drwęca, about 48 kilometres (30 miles) south-east of Grudziądz, 90 kilometres (56 miles) south-west of Olsztyn and 98 kilometres (61 miles) south of Elbląg.

Points of interest

Worth noting is the War cemetery in Brodnica established by the Germans during the World War I. 15 November saw a burial of 25 German soldiers killed in the Russian offensive. In 1920 31 Polish soldiers killed during the battle of Brodnica with the Bolsheviks on 18 August were laid to rest here. In 1943 German soldiers who died in the local hospital together with those who lost their lives on 21 January 1945 during the Soviet offensive were put in the ground. A curiosity is that the Red Army soldiers who died on the same day were buried here as well. It is also a burial place for UB people notorious for waging war with Polish anti-communist partisans after 1945.

Sport

The sports teams in the city include the football club Sparta Brodnica, [18] the handball MKS Brodnica club, [19] the Karate Shotokan Brodnica club, [20] the Aikido Brodnicka Akademia Aikido club, [21] the boxing Klub Bokserski Gladiator Brodnica, [22] and the MMA Fight Team MMA Brodnica. [23]

Culture

Renaissance granary, main seat of the local museum Spichlerz brodnica.JPG
Renaissance granary, main seat of the local museum

The Museum of Brodnica (Muzeum w Brodnicy) consists of three branches, focusing on history, archeology and contemporary art. It is located in the Renaissance granary, the Brodnica Castle tower and the Gothic Chełmińska Gate.

Musicians

Sebastian Kuchczynski – (born 9 August 1986 in Brodnica) is a drummer, composer and arranger. He Graduated from Berklee Collage of Music in Boston, Master's degree, 2017. He is an influential jazz, hip hop, funk and pop drummer. He is a member of bands such as "Radiostatik", "Schmidt Electric", "Ola Trzaska" etc. He also plays with George Garzone, Zbigniew Namysłowski and Maciej Sikała.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Crests based on partnership towns Brodnica herby miast.jpg
Crests based on partnership towns

Brodnica is twinned with:

People who were born or lived in Brodnica and Brodnica County

Palace of Anna Vasa Brodnica palac Anny Wazowny.JPG
Palace of Anna Vasa

Notes

  1. Karol Górski, Związek Pruski i poddanie się Prus Polsce: zbiór tekstów źródłowych, Instytut Zachodni, Poznań, 1949, p. 11 (in Polish)
  2. Górski, p. 76
  3. Górski, p. 88-90, 206-207
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Historia". Urząd Miejski w Brodnicy (in Polish). Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  5. Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 173.
  6. Wardzyńska (2009), p. 174-175
  7. Wardzyńska (2009), p. 180
  8. Wardzyńska, Maria (2017). Wysiedlenia ludności polskiej z okupowanych ziem polskich włączonych do III Rzeszy w latach 1939-1945 (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. pp. 77, 101, 104. ISBN   978-83-8098-174-4.
  9. "Einsatzgruppen-Straflager Strasburg (Westpreußen)". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  10. "Strassburg (Brodnica)" (in German). Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  11. Climate Summary for Poznan, Poland (nearest city on record)
  12. 1 2 3 4 Handbuch der historischen Stätten: Ost und Westpreußen, Kröner, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN   3-520-31701-X, pp. 215–216.
  13. Johann Friedrich Goldbeck: Volständige Topographie des Königreichs Preussen. Part II: Topographie von West-Preussen, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 42–44.
  14. August Eduard Preuß: Preußische Landes- und Volkskunde. Königsberg 1835, p. 437, no. 46.
  15. 1 2 3 Michael Rademacher: Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Provinz Westpreußen, Kreis Strasburg (2006).
  16. Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 6th edition, Vol. 19, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, pp. 95–96.
  17. Der Große Brockhaus, 15th edition, Vol. 18, Leipzig 1934, p. 234.
  18. Sparta official website. Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  19. MKS Brodnica official website.
  20. Karate Shotokan Brodnica official website.
  21. promotional video
  22. Boxing club official website
  23. Fight Team MMA Brodnica official website

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References