Bronisław Malinowski

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Bronisław Malinowski
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Born
Bronisław Kasper Malinowski

7 April 1884
Died16 May 1942(1942-05-16) (aged 58)
Alma materPhD, Philosophy from Jagiellonian University, Physical Chemistry at University of Leipzig, PhD, Science from London School of Economics
Known forFather of Social Anthropology
Scientific career
Institutions London School of Economics, Yale University
Doctoral students
Other notable students
Influences Émile Durkheim
Charles Gabriel Seligman
Edvard Westermarck
Wilhelm Wundt
InfluencedVirtually all subsequent Social Anthropology

Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (Polish:  [brɔˈɲiswaf maliˈnɔfskʲi] ; 7 April 1884 – 16 May 1942) was an anthropologist whose writings on ethnography, social theory, and field research were a lasting influence on the discipline of anthropology. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Contents

From 1910, Malinowski studied exchange and economics at the London School of Economics (LSE) under Charles Gabriel Seligman and Edvard Alexander Westermarck, analysing patterns of exchange in Aboriginal Australia through ethnographic documents. In 1914, he was given a chance to travel to New Guinea accompanying anthropologist Robert Ranulph Marett, but as World War I broke out and Malinowski was an Austrian subject, and thereby an enemy of the British commonwealth, he was unable to travel back to England. The Australian government nonetheless provided him with permission and funds to undertake ethnographic work within their territories and Malinowski chose to go to the Trobriand Islands, in Melanesia where he stayed for several years, studying the indigenous culture. Upon his return to England after the war, he published his main work Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), which established him as one of the most important anthropologists in Europe of that time. He took posts as lecturer and later as a chair in anthropology at the LSE, attracting large numbers of students and exerting great influence on the development of British social anthropology. Among his students in this period were such prominent anthropologists as Raymond Firth, E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Hortense Powdermaker, Edmund Leach, Audrey Richards and Meyer Fortes. From 1933 he visited several American universities, and when World War II began, he decided to stay there, taking an appointment at Yale University.

His ethnography of the Trobriand Islands described the complex institution of the Kula ring and became foundational for subsequent theories of reciprocity and exchange. He was also widely regarded as an eminent fieldworker and his texts regarding the anthropological field methods were foundational to early anthropology, for example coining the term participatory observation. His approach to social theory was a brand of psychological functionalism emphasising how social and cultural institutions serve basic human needs, a perspective opposed to A. R. Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism that emphasised the ways in which social institutions function in relation to society as a whole.

Early life

Malinowski was born on 7 April 1884, in Kraków, then part of the Austro-Hungarian province known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, to an upper-middle-class Polish family. His father was a professor, and his mother was the daughter of a landowning family. As a child he was frail, often suffering from ill health, yet he excelled academically. In 1908, he received a doctorate in philosophy from Kraków's Jagiellonian University, where he focused on mathematics and the physical sciences. While attending the university he became ill and, while recuperating, decided to be an anthropologist as a result of reading James Frazer's The Golden Bough . This book turned his interest to ethnology, which he pursued at the University of Leipzig, where he studied under economist Karl Bücher and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. In 1910, he went to England, studying at the London School of Economics under C. G. Seligman and Edvard Westermarck.

Career

In 1914, he travelled to Papua (in what would later become Papua New Guinea), where he conducted fieldwork at Mailu Island and then, more famously, in the Trobriand Islands. The ethnographic collection he made on the Trobriand Islands is now held by the British Museum. [6] On his most famous trip to the area, he became stranded due to the outbreak of World War I. Malinowski was not allowed to return to Europe from the British-controlled region because, though Polish by ethnicity, he was a subject of Austria-Hungary. Australian authorities gave him the opportunity of conducting research in Melanesia, an opportunity he happily embraced. It was during this period that he conducted his fieldwork on the Kula ring and advanced the practice of participant observation, which remains the hallmark of ethnographic research today. [7] [8]

In 1920, he published a scientific article on the Kula Ring, [9] perhaps the first documentation of generalised exchange. In 1922, he earned a doctorate of science in anthropology and was teaching at the London School of Economics. That year his book Argonauts of the Western Pacific was published. It was widely regarded as a masterpiece, and Malinowski became one of the best-known anthropologists in the world. For the next two decades, he would establish the London School of Economics as Europe's main centre of anthropology. He became a British citizen in 1931. In 1933, he became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. [10]

Malinowski taught intermittently in the United States. When World War II broke out during one of his American visits, he stayed there. He took up a position at Yale University, where he remained until his death. In 1942, he co-founded the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America.

Death

Malinowski died on 16 May 1942, aged 58, of a heart attack while preparing to conduct summer fieldwork in Oaxaca, Mexico. He was interred at Evergreen Cemetery in New Haven, Connecticut. [11] His personal diary, written during his fieldwork in Melanesia and New Guinea, was published posthumously in 1967 by his widow Valetta Swann and has been a source of controversy since its inception. [12]

Ideas and influences

Malinowski is often considered one of anthropology's most skilled ethnographers, especially because of the highly methodical and well theorised approach to the study of social systems. He is often referred to as the first researcher to bring anthropology "off the verandah" (a phrase that is also the name of a documentary about his work), [13] that is, experiencing the everyday life of his subjects along with them. [14] Malinowski emphasised the importance of detailed participant observation and argued that anthropologists must have daily contact with their informants if they are to adequately record the "imponderabilia of everyday life" that are so important to understanding a different culture.

He stated that the goal of the anthropologist, or ethnographer, is "to grasp the native's point of view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world" (Argonauts of the Western Pacific, Dutton 1961 edition, p. 25.)

However, in reference to the Kula ring, Malinowski also stated, in the same edition, pp. 83–84:

Yet it must be remembered that what appears to us an extensive, complicated, and yet well ordered institution is the outcome of so many doings and pursuits, carried on by savages, who have no laws or aims or charters definitely laid down. They have no knowledge of the total outline of any of their social structure. They know their own motives, know the purpose of individual actions and the rules which apply to them, but how, out of these, the whole collective institution shapes, this is beyond their mental range. Not even the most intelligent native has any clear idea of the Kula as a big, organised social construction, still less of its sociological function and implications....The integration of all the details observed, the achievement of a sociological synthesis of all the various, relevant symptoms, is the task of the Ethnographer... the Ethnographer has to construct the picture of the big institution, very much as the physicist constructs his theory from the experimental data, which always have been within reach of everybody, but needed a consistent interpretation.

Malinowski with natives, Trobriand Islands, 1918 Wmalinowski trobriand isles 1918.jpg
Malinowski with natives, Trobriand Islands, 1918

In these two passages, Malinowski anticipated the distinction between description and analysis, and between the views of actors and analysts. This distinction continues to inform anthropological method and theory. [15] [16]

His study of the Kula ring was also vital to the development of an anthropological theory of reciprocity, and his material from the Trobriands was extensively discussed in Marcel Mauss's seminal essay The Gift .

Malinowski originated the school of social anthropology known as functionalism. In contrast to Radcliffe-Brown's structural functionalism, Malinowski argued that culture functioned to meet the needs of individuals rather than society as a whole. He reasoned that when the needs of individuals, who comprise society, are met, then the needs of society are met. To Malinowski, the feelings of people and their motives were crucial knowledge to understand the way their society functioned:

Besides the firm outline of tribal constitution and crystallized cultural items which form the skeleton, besides the data of daily life and ordinary behavior, which are, so to speak, its flesh and blood, there is still to be recorded the spirit—the natives' views and opinions and utterances.

Argonauts, p. 22.

Apart from fieldwork, Malinowski also challenged the claim to universality of Freud's theory of the Oedipus complex. He initiated a cross-cultural approach in Sex and Repression in Savage Society (1927) where he demonstrated that specific psychological complexes are not universal.

Malinowski likewise influenced the course of African history, serving as an academic mentor to Jomo Kenyatta, the father and first president of modern-day Kenya. Malinowski also wrote the introduction to Facing Mount Kenya, Kenyatta's ethnographic study of the Gikuyu tribe. The Kulurami tribe in Africa also caught his attention.

In a brief passage in his 1979 book Broca's Brain, the late science populariser Carl Sagan criticised Malinowski for thinking that "he had discovered a people in the Trobriand Islands who had not worked out the connection between sexual intercourse and childbirth", arguing that it was more likely that the islanders were simply making fun of Malinowski. [17] However Mark Mosko wrote in 2014 that further research on Trobriand people affirmed Malinowski's claims about their beliefs on procreation, adding that the dogmas are tied to a complicated system of belief encapsulating magic into beliefs about human and plant procreation. [18]

The Malinowski Memorial Lecture, an annual anthropology lecture series at London School of Economics, is named after him. A student-led anthropology magazine at the LSE, The Argonaut , took its name from Malinowski's Argonauts of the Western Pacific .

Controversy

The personal diary of Malinowski, along with several others, written in Polish, was discovered in his Yale University office after his death. First published (in 1967, posthumously) as Bronislaw Malinowski's diary, covering the period of his fieldwork in 1914–1915 and 1917–1918 in New Guinea and the Trobriand Islands, it set off a storm of controversy.

Many anthropologists felt that the publication of the diary—which Raymond Firth describes as "this revealing, egocentric, obsessional document"—was a profound disservice to the memory of one of the giant figures in the history of anthropology.

Almost certainly never intended to be published, and against his daughters’ wishes and to the dismay of many colleagues who had heard rumours of its controversial contents, his widow published a translation under the title A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term . Malinowski's diary was intensely personal and brutally honest. He kept it, he said, "as a means of self-analysis." Reviews ranged from "it is to the discredit of all concerned that the diary has now been committed to print" to "fascinating reading." [12]

Twenty years have passed, and Raymond Firth suggests that the book has moved over to a more central place in the literature of anthropological reflection. On the diary's initial publication in 1967, Clifford Geertz felt that the "gross, tiresome" diary revealed Malinowski as "a crabbed, self-preoccupied, hypochondriacal narcissist, whose fellow-feeling for the people he lived with was limited in the extreme." [19] But in 1988, Geertz referred to the diary as a "backstage masterpiece of anthropology, our The Double Helix ". [20] Similarly in 1987, James Clifford called it "a crucial document for the history of anthropology. The Diary abundantly revealed some unpleasant aspects of Malinowski’s character". [21]

Works

Universities

See also

Related Research Articles

Trobriand Islands island group

The Trobriand Islands are a 450-square-kilometre (174-square-mile) archipelago of coral atolls off the east coast of New Guinea. They are part of the nation of Papua New Guinea and are in Milne Bay Province. Most of the population of 12,000 indigenous inhabitants live on the main island of Kiriwina, which is also the location of the government station, Losuia.

Economic anthropology is a field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope. It is an amalgamation of economics and anthropology.It is practiced by anthropologists and has a complex relationship with the discipline of economics, of which it is highly critical. Its origins as a sub-field of anthropology began with work by the Polish founder of anthropology Bronislaw Malinowski and the French Marcel Mauss on the nature of reciprocity as an alternative to market exchange. For the most part, studies in economic anthropology focus on exchange. In contrast, the Marxian school known as "political economy" focuses on production.

Clifford Geertz American anthropologist

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In the social sciences and related fields, a thick description is a description of human social action that describes not just physical behaviors, but their context as interpreted by the actors as well, so that it can be better understood by an outsider. A thick description typically adds a record of subjective explanations and meanings provided by the people engaged in the behaviors, making the collected data of greater value for studies by other social scientists.

In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected as in the exchange of birthday gifts. It is thus distinct from the true gift, where no return is expected.

Kula ring

Kula, also known as the Kula exchange or Kularing, is a ceremonial exchange system conducted in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. The Kula ring was made famous by the father of modern anthropology, Bronisław Malinowski, who used this test case to argue for the universality of rational decision making, and for the cultural nature of the object of their effort. Malinowski's path-breaking work, Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922), directly confronted the question, "why would men risk life and limb to travel across huge expanses of dangerous ocean to give away what appear to be worthless trinkets?" Malinowski carefully traced the network of exchanges of bracelets and necklaces across the Trobriand Islands, and established that they were part of a system of exchange, and that this exchange system was clearly linked to political authority. Malinowski's study became the subject of debate with the French anthropologist, Marcel Mauss, author of The Gift. Since then, the Kula ring has been central to the continuing anthropological debate on the nature of gift giving, and the existence of gift economies.

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<i>The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia</i> book by Bronisław Malinowski

The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia is a 1929 book by anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski. The work is his second in the trilogy on the Trobrianders, with the other two being Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922) and Coral Gardens and Their Magic (1935).

Ward Hunt Goodenough II was an American anthropologist, who has made contributions to kinship studies, linguistic anthropology, cross-cultural studies, and cognitive anthropology.

<i>Argonauts of the Western Pacific</i> book by Bronisław Malinowski

Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea is a 1922 ethnological work by Bronisław Malinowski, which has had enormous impact on the ethnographic genre. The book is about the Trobriand people who live on the small Kiriwana island chain northeast of the island of New Guinea. It is part of Malinowski's trilogy on the Trobrianders, including The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia (1929) and Coral Gardens and Their Magic (1935).

Coral Gardens and Their Magic, properly Coral Gardens and Their Magic Volume I: A Study of the Methods of Tilling the Soil and of Agricultural Rites in the Trobriand Islands and Coral Gardens and Their Magic Volume II: The Language of Magic and Gardening, is the final two-volume book in anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski's ethnographic trilogy on the lives of the Trobriand Islanders. It concentrates on the cultivation practices the Trobriand Islanders used to grow yams, taro, bananas and palms which Malinowski's more famous ethnography Argonauts of the Western Pacific briefly mentioned in passing. It describes the gardens in which the Trobrianders grew food as more than merely utilitarian spaces, even as works of art. In 1988 Alfred Gell called the book "still the best account of any primitive technological-cum-magical system, and unlikely ever to be superseded in this respect". The book has been described as Malinowski's magnum opus.

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<i>Oedipus in the Trobriands</i> 1982 book by Melford Spiro

Oedipus in the Trobriands is a 1982 book about the Oedipus complex by the anthropologist Melford Spiro, in which the author criticizes the research of the anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski on the Trobriand Islanders. The work received positive reviews, and Spiro's criticism of Malinowski was compared to Derek Freeman's criticism of Margaret Mead in Margaret Mead and Samoa (1983).

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A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term is a collection of the private diaries of the prominent anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski during his fieldwork in New Guinea and the Trobriand Islands between 1914-1915 and 1917-1918. Published posthumously by his widow Valetta Swann in 1967, the diaries, which repeatedly touches upon intensely personal matters such as sexual desires, as well as that of his private prejudices against his interlocutors, has remained extremely controversial. The introduction of the book was written by his pupil Raymond Firth.

References

Sources

  1. Murdock, George Peter (9 July 1943). "Bronislaw Malinowski". American Anthropologist. 45 (3): 441–451. doi:10.1525/aa.1943.45.3.02a00090.
  2. Firth, Raymond. 1957. Man and Culture: An Evaluation of the Work of Bronislaw Malinowski. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  3. Senft, Günter. 1997. Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski. in Verschueren, Ostman, Blommaert & Bulcaen (eds.) Handbook of Pragmatics Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins
  4. Young, Michael. 2004 Malinowski : Odyssey of an Anthropologist, 1884–1920. Yale University Press.
  5. Gaillard, Gérald (2004). The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists. Peter James Bowman (trans.) (English translation of Dictionnaire des ethnologues et des anthropologues [1997] ed.). London and New York: Routledge. ISBN   0-415-22825-5. OCLC   52288643.
  6. "Collection search: You searched for". British Museum.
  7. Gaillard 2004 p. 139
  8. Senft 1997 p. 217
  9. Malinowski B (1920). "Kula: the Circulating Exchange of Valuables in the Archipelagoes of Eastern New Guinea". Man. 20: 97–105. doi:10.2307/2840430. JSTOR   2840430.
  10. "B.K. Malinowski (1884–1942)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  11. Wayne, H. (1995). The Story of a Marriage: The Letters of Bronisław Malinowski and Elsie Masson. London: Routledge. p. 241.
  12. 1 2 Press, Stanford University. "A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term | Bronislaw Malinowski With a New Introduction by Raymond Firth". www.sup.org.
  13. "Bronislaw Malinowski: Off the Veranda." 52 minutes. Films Media Group, 1985.
  14. But see Kluckhohn (1943. "Bronislaw Malinowski 1884–1942", The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 56, No. 221 (Jul. – Sep. 1943), pp. 208–219) for another viewpoint, emphasizing the existence of an ethnographic tradition in the US prior to Malinowski's research.
  15. Gaillard 2004 p. 141
  16. Giulio Angioni, L'antropologia funzionalista di B. K. Malinowski, in Tre saggi sull'antropologia dell'età coloniale, Palermo, Flaccovio,1973, pp. 200–221
  17. Sagan, Carl (1979). Broca's Brain: The Romance of Science. Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 79–80. ISBN   0-340-24424-0.
  18. Mosko, Mark (June 2014). "Malinowski's magical puzzles". HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory. 4 (1): 1–47. doi:10.14318/hau4.1.001. hdl: 1885/58368 .
  19. Geertz, Clifford (14 September 1967). "Under the Mosquito Net". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  20. Geertz, Clifford (1988). Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 75.
  21. Young, Michael W. "Writing his Life through the Other: The Anthropology of Malinowski". The Public Domain Review.

Sources