Bronze Age Britain

Last updated

Bronze Age Britain
Bronze sheild, 1200-700 BC British Museum cropped.jpg
Geographical range British Isles
Period Bronze Age
Datesc. 2200 — c. 800 BC
Preceded by Bell Beaker culture, Neolithic British Isles
Followed by Atlantic Bronze Age, Iron Age Britain

Bronze Age Britain is an era of British history that spanned from c.2500–2000 BCE until c.800 BCE. [1] Lasting for approximately 1,700 years, it was preceded by the era of Neolithic Britain and was in turn followed by the period of Iron Age Britain. Being categorised as the Bronze Age, it was marked by the use of copper and then bronze by the prehistoric Britons, who used such metals to fashion tools. Great Britain in the Bronze Age also saw the widespread adoption of agriculture.

Contents

During the British Bronze Age, large megalithic monuments similar to those from the Late Neolithic continued to be constructed or modified, including such sites as Avebury, Stonehenge, Silbury Hill and Must Farm. That has been described as a time "when elaborate ceremonial practices emerged among some communities of subsistence agriculturalists of western Europe". [2]

History

Bronze swords found in Scotland Museum of ScotlandDSCF6306.jpg
Bronze swords found in Scotland

Early Bronze Age (EBA), c. 2500–1500 BC

There is no clear consensus on the date for the beginning of the Bronze Age in Great Britain and Ireland. Some sources give a date as late as 2000 BC, [3] and others set 2200 BC as the demarcation between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. [4] The period from 2500 BC to 2000 BC has been called the "Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age" in recognition of the difficulty of exactly defining the boundary. [5] Some archaeologists recognise a British Chalcolithic when copper was used between the 25th and the 22nd centuries BC, but others do not because production and use were on a small scale. [6] [7]

Middle Bronze Age (MBA), 1500–1000 BC

Late Bronze Age (LBA), 1000–700 BC

In Ireland, the final Dowris phase of the Late Bronze Age appears to decline in about 600 BC, but iron metallurgy does not appear until about 550 BC.

Development

The Beaker cultures

Extent of the Beaker culture Beaker culture.png
Extent of the Beaker culture
Stonehenge ruins Stonehenge, Salisbury.JPG
Stonehenge ruins
Silbury Hill, c. 2400 BC Silbury 1.jpg
Silbury Hill, c. 2400 BC

Around 2500 BC, a new pottery style arrived in Great Britain: the Beaker culture. Beaker pottery appears in the Mount Pleasant Phase (2700–2000 BC), along with flat axes and the burial practice of inhumation. People of this period were responsible for building Seahenge, along with the later phases of Stonehenge. Silbury Hill was also built in the early Beaker period. [8] [9]

Movement of continental Europeans brought new people to the islands from the continent. [10] Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicates that at least some of the new arrivals came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people and cultural change was significant. Integration is thought to have been peaceful[ citation needed ], as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers.

Furthermore, a fundamentally different approach to burying of the dead members began to take place. In contrast to the Neolithic practice of communal burials, the Bronze Age society undergoes an apparent shift towards focusing on to the individual, rather on the ancestors as a collective. [11] For example, in the Neolithic era, a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead. The 'Early Bronze Age' saw people buried in individual barrows, also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli, or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. They were often buried with a beaker alongside the body. However, even though customs changed, barrows and burial mounds continued to be used during the Bronze Age, with smaller tombs often dug into the primary mounds.

There has been debate amongst archaeologists as to whether the "Beaker people" were a race of people that migrated to Britain en masse from the continent or whether a Beaker cultural "package" of goods and behaviour, which eventually spread across most of Western Europe, diffused to Britain's existing inhabitants through trade across tribal boundaries. However one recent study (2017) suggests a major genetic shift in late Neolithic/early Bronze Age Britain and up to 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool may have been replaced with the coming of a people genetically similar to the Beaker people of the Lower Rhine region (modern Netherlands/central-western Germany), which had a high proportion of steppe ancestry. [12] According to the evolutionary geneticist Ian Barnes, "Following the Beaker spread, there was a population in Britain that for the first time had ancestry and skin and eye pigmentation similar to Britons today". [13]

Bronze

Bronze spearhead, 1200-800 BC Spearhead MET DT4350.jpg
Bronze spearhead, 1200–800 BC
Bush Barrow gold lozenge, c. 1900 BC. Bush barrow gold lozenge.jpg
Bush Barrow gold lozenge, c. 1900 BC.
The Mold Cape, c. 1900-1600 BC, is unique among survivals British Museum gold thing 501594 fh000035.jpg
The Mold Cape, c. 1900–1600 BC, is unique among survivals
Lockington gold armrings, c. 2100-1900 BC Bronze Age gold banglesDSCF6609.jpg
Lockington gold armrings, c. 2100–1900 BC

Several regions of origin have been postulated for the Beaker culture, notably the Iberian Peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe. [19] Part of the Beaker culture brought the skill of refining metal to Great Britain. At first, they made items from copper, but from around 2150 BC [ citation needed ], smiths had discovered how to make bronze, which is much harder than copper, by mixing copper with a small amount of tin. With that discovery, the Bronze Age began in Great Britain. Over the next thousand years, bronze gradually replaced stone as the main material for tool and weapon making.

The bronze axehead, made by casting, was at first similar to its stone predecessors but then developed a socket for the wooden handle to fit into and a small loop or ring to make lashing the two together easier. Groups of unused axes are often found together, suggesting ritual deposits to some, but many archaeologists believe that elite groups collected bronze items and perhaps restricted their use among the wider population. Bronze swords of a graceful "leaf" shape, swelling gently from the handle before coming to a tip, have been found in considerable numbers, along with spear heads and arrow points.

Great Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon in what is now South West England and thus tin mining began. By around 1600 BC, the South-West experiencing a trade boom, as British tin was exported across Europe.

Bronze Age Britons were also skilled at making jewellery from gold, as well as occasional objects like the Rillaton Cup and Mold Cape. Many examples have been found in graves of the wealthy Wessex culture of Southern Britain, but they are not as frequent as Irish finds.

The greatest quantities of bronze objects found in what is now England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire, where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham (more than 6500 pieces). [20]

The earliest known metalworking building was found at Sigwells, Somerset, England. Several casting mould fragments were fitted to a Wilburton type sword held in Somerset County Museum. [21] They were found in association with cereal grain that has been dated to the 12th century BC by carbon dating.

Wessex culture

The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Great Britain during that time. The weather, previously warm and dry, became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, which forced the population away from easily-defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands which appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances.

Deverel-Rimbury culture

The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge during the second half of the 'Middle Bronze Age' (c. 1400–1100 BC) to exploit the wetter conditions. Cornwall was a major source of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in Northern Wales. Social groups appear to have been tribal, but growing complexity and hierarchies became apparent.

Disruption of cultural patterns

The massive ceremonial bronze Oxborough Dirk, 1500-1300 BC. British Museum - Room 50 (21045332576).jpg
The massive ceremonial bronze Oxborough Dirk, 1500–1300 BC.

There is evidence of a relatively large-scale disruption of cultural patterns (see Late Bronze Age collapse), which some scholars think may indicate an invasion (or at least a migration) into Southern Great Britain around the 12th century BC. The disruption was felt far beyond Britain, even beyond Europe, as most of the great Near Eastern empires collapsed (or experienced severe difficulties), and the Sea Peoples harried the entire Mediterranean basin around that time. Cremation was adopted as a burial practice, with cemeteries of urns containing cremated individuals appearing in the archaeological record. According to John T. Koch and others, the Celtic languages developed during the Late Bronze Age period in an intensely-trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, which included Britain, Ireland, France, Spain and Portugal, [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] but that stands in contrast to the more generally-accepted view that Celtic origins lie with the Hallstatt culture.

Late Bronze Age migration

In 2021, a major archaeogenetics study uncovered a migration into southern Britain during the 500-year period from 1300 to 800 BC. [29] The newcomers were genetically most similar to ancient individuals from Gaul and had higher levels of Early European Farmers ancestry. [29] From 1000 to 875 BC, their genetic marker swiftly spread through southern Britain, [30] which made up around half the ancestry of subsequent Iron Age people in that area, but not in northern Britain. [29] The "evidence suggests that, rather than a violent invasion or a single migratory event, the genetic structure of the population changed through sustained contacts between Britain and mainland Europe over several centuries, such as the movement of traders, intermarriage, and small scale movements of family groups". [30] The authors describe this as a "plausible vector for the spread of early Celtic languages into Britain". [29] There was much less migration into Britain during the Iron Age and so it is likely that Celtic had reached Britain before then. [29] The study also found that lactose tolerance rose swiftly in early Iron Age Britain, a thousand years before it became widespread in mainland Europe, which suggests that milk became a very important foodstuff in Britain at this time. [29]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bronze Age</span> Historical period (c. 3300–1200 BC)

The Bronze Age is a historic period, lasting approximately from 3300 BC to 1200 BC, characterized by the use of bronze, the presence of writing in some areas, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age system proposed in 1836 by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen for classifying and studying ancient societies and history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stonehenge</span> Neolithic henge monument in England

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, two miles (3 km) west of Amesbury. It consists of an outer ring of vertical sarsen standing stones, each around 13 feet (4.0 m) high, seven feet (2.1 m) wide, and weighing around 25 tons, topped by connecting horizontal lintel stones. Inside is a ring of smaller bluestones. Inside these are free-standing trilithons, two bulkier vertical sarsens joined by one lintel. The whole monument, now ruinous, is aligned towards the sunrise on the summer solstice. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the densest complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred tumuli.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silbury Hill</span> Neolithic mound in Wiltshire, England

Silbury Hill is a prehistoric artificial chalk mound near Avebury in the English county of Wiltshire. It is part of the Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites UNESCO World Heritage Site. At 39.3 metres (129 ft) high, it is the tallest prehistoric man-made mound in Europe and one of the largest in the world; similar in volume to contemporary Egyptian pyramids.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bell Beaker culture</span> Archaeological culture, 2800–1800 BC

The Bell Beaker culture, also known as the Bell Beaker complex or Bell Beaker phenomenon, is an archaeological culture named after the inverted-bell beaker drinking vessel used at the very beginning of the European Bronze Age. Arising from around 2800 BC, it lasted in Britain until as late as 1800 BC but in continental Europe only until 2300 BC, when it was succeeded by the Unetice culture. The culture was widely dispersed throughout Western Europe, being present in many regions of Iberia and stretching eastward to the Danubian plains, and northward to the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and was also present in the islands of Sardinia and Sicily and some small coastal areas in north-western Africa. The Bell Beaker phenomenon shows substantial regional variation, and a study from 2018 found that it was associated with genetically diverse populations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Avebury</span> Neolithic henge monument in Wiltshire, England

Avebury is a Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles, around the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, in southwest England. One of the best known prehistoric sites in Britain, it contains the largest megalithic stone circle in the world. It is both a tourist attraction and a place of religious importance to contemporary pagans.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prehistoric Britain</span> Prehistoric human occupation of Britain

Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Great Britain for almost a million years. The earliest evidence of human occupation around 900,000 years ago is at Happisburgh on the Norfolk coast, with stone tools and footprints probably made by Homo antecessor. The oldest human fossils, around 500,000 years old, are of Homo heidelbergensis at Boxgrove in Sussex. Until this time Britain had been permanently connected to the Continent by a chalk ridge between South East England and northern France called the Weald-Artois Anticline, but during the Anglian Glaciation around 425,000 years ago a megaflood broke through the ridge, and Britain became an island when sea levels rose during the following Hoxnian interglacial.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wessex culture</span>

The Wessex culture is the predominant prehistoric culture of central and southern Britain during the early Bronze Age, originally defined by the British archaeologist Stuart Piggott in 1938.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Unetice culture</span> Bronze Age archaeological culture in Central Europe

The Únětice culture or Aunjetitz culture is an archaeological culture at the start of the Central European Bronze Age, dated roughly to about 2300–1600 BC. The eponymous site for this culture, the village of Únětice, is located in the central Czech Republic, northwest of Prague. There are about 1,400 documented Únětice culture sites in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, 550 sites in Poland, and, in Germany, about 500 sites and loose finds locations. The Únětice culture is also known from north-eastern Austria, and from western Ukraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caergwrle</span> Human settlement in Wales

Caergwrle is a village in the county of Flintshire, in north east Wales. Approximately 5–6 miles (8.0–9.7 km) from Wrexham and situated on the A541 road, it is contiguous with the villages of Abermorddu and Hope, though in parts Caergwrle and Hope are separated by a river border. The village lies on the River Alyn and sits at the base of Hope Mountain. At the 2001 Census, the population was 1,650. The population was subsequently absorbed in the community of Hope and only the electoral ward remained. The population of this ward as taken at the 2011 census was 1,619. The ward includes the area of Abermorddu. Further south is the village of Cefn-y-Bedd.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prehistoric Europe</span> Period of history

Prehistoric Europe is Europe with human presence but before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic. As history progresses, considerable regional irregularities of cultural development emerge and increase. The region of the eastern Mediterranean is, due to its geographic proximity, greatly influenced and inspired by the classical Middle Eastern civilizations, and adopts and develops the earliest systems of communal organization and writing. The Histories of Herodotus is the oldest known European text that seeks to systematically record traditions, public affairs and notable events.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prehistory of France</span> Paleolithic to Iron Age prehistory of France

Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Roman conquest, when the territory enters the domain of written history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prehistoric Ireland</span> Ireland until c. 400 AD

The prehistory of Ireland has been pieced together from archaeological evidence, which has grown at an increasing rate over the last decades. It begins with the first evidence of permanent human residence in Ireland around 10,500 BC and finishes with the start of the historical record around 400 AD. Both the beginning and end dates of the period are later than for much of Europe and all of the Near East. The prehistoric period covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age societies of Ireland. For much of Europe, the historical record begins when the Romans invaded; as Ireland was not invaded by the Romans its historical record starts later, with the coming of Christianity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bronze Age Europe</span> Archeological age, 3200–600 BC

The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements. The regional Bronze Age succeeds the Neolithic and Copper Age and is followed by the Iron Age. It starts with the Aegean Bronze Age in 3200 BC (succeeded by the Beaker culture), and spans the entire 2nd millennium BC in Northern Europe, lasting until c. 600 BC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jersey dolmens</span> Neolithic sites in Jersey

The dolmens of Jersey are neolithic sites, including dolmens, in Jersey. They range over a wide period, from around 4800 BC to 2250 BC, these dates covering the periods roughly designated as Neolithic, or “new stone age”, to Chalcolithic, or “copper age”.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gold lunula</span> Crescent-moon shaped late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age necklace or collar

The Gold lunula is a distinctive type of late Neolithic, Chalcolithic or early Bronze Age necklace or collar shaped like a crescent moon; most are from Prehistoric Ireland. They are normally flat and thin, with roundish spatulate terminals that are often twisted to 45 to 90 degrees from the plane of the body. Gold lunulae fall into three distinct groups, termed Classical, Unaccomplished and Provincial by archaeologists. Most have been found in Ireland, but there are moderate numbers in other parts of Europe as well, from Great Britain to areas of the continent fairly near the Atlantic coasts. Although no lunula has been directly dated, from associations with other artefacts it is thought they were being made sometime in the period between 2400–2000 BC; a wooden box associated with one Irish find has recently given a radiocarbon dating range of 2460–2040 BC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Insular Celts</span> Speakers of the Insular Celtic languages in the British Isles and Brittany

The Insular Celts were speakers of the Insular Celtic languages in the British Isles and Brittany. The term is mostly used for the Celtic peoples of the isles up until the early Middle Ages, covering the British–Irish Iron Age, Roman Britain and Sub-Roman Britain. They included the Celtic Britons, the Picts, and the Gaels.

<i>Symbols of Power</i> Book about British archaeology

Symbols of Power: At the Time of Stonehenge is a book dealing with the archaeology of hierarchical symbols in the British Isles during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Ages. Co-written by the archaeologists D.V. Clarke, T.G. Cowie and Andrew Foxon, it also contained additional contributions from other authors including John C. Barrett and Joan Taylor. Published by the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland in 1985, it was designed to accompany an exhibition on the same subject that was held that year in Edinburgh, Scotland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Folkton Drums</span> Archaeological find in England

The Folkton Drums are a very rare set of three decorated chalk objects in the shape of drums or solid cylinders dating from the Neolithic period. Found in a child's grave near the village of Folkton in northern England, they are now on loan to Stonehenge Visitor Centre from the British Museum. A similar object, the Burton Agnes drum was found 15 miles away near Burton Agnes in 2015, and another example, the Lavant drum, was excavated in 1993 in Lavant, West Sussex.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caergwrle Bowl</span>

The Caergwrle Bowl is a unique object dating to the Middle Bronze Age, c. 1300 BC, originally manufactured from shale, tin and gold, and found in Caergwrle, Wales. It is thought to represent a boat, with its applied gold decoration signifying oars and waves, and either sun discs or circular shields.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cornish Bronze Age</span> Period of Cornish history from c. 2400 until c. 800 BCE

The Cornish Bronze Age is an era of the history of Cornwall that spanned the period from c. 2400 BCE to c. 800 BCE. It was preceded by the Cornish Neolithic, and followed by the Cornish Iron Age. It is characterized by the introduction and widespread use of copper and copper-alloy (bronze) weapons and tools.

References

  1. Adkins, Adkins and Leitch 2008. p. 64.
  2. Barrett 1994. p. 05.
  3. Bradley, Prehistory of Britain and Ireland, p. 183.
  4. Pollard, "Construction of Prehistoric Britain", in Pollard (ed.), Prehistoric Britain, p. 9.
  5. Prior, Britain BC, p. 226.
  6. Miles, The Tale of the Axe, pp. 363, 423, n. 15
  7. Allen, M.; et al. (2012). Is there a British chalcolithic? : people, place and polity in the later 3rd millennium. Oxbow Books.
  8. Armit, Ian; Reich, David (2021). "The return of the Beaker folk? Rethinking migration and population change in British prehistory". Antiquity. 95 (384): 1464–1477. doi: 10.15184/aqy.2021.129 . S2CID   239626106.
  9. Bayliss, Alex; McAvoy, Fachtna; Whittle, Alisdair (2007). "The world recreated: redating Silbury Hill in its monumental landscape". Antiquity. 81 (311): 26–53. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00094825. S2CID   161443252.
  10. Barras, Colin (27 March 2019). "Story of most murderous people of all time revealed in ancient DNA". New Scientist .
  11. McKinley, Jacqueline I. (1997). "Bronze Age 'Barrows' and Funerary Rites and Rituals of Cremation". Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 63: 129–145. doi:10.1017/S0079497X00002401. ISSN   2050-2729. S2CID   194962030.
  12. Olalde, Iñigo; et al. (2017). "The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe". bioRxiv   10.1101/135962 .
  13. Köljing, Cecilia (21 February 2018). "Ancient DNA reveals impact of the "Beaker Phenomenon" on prehistoric Europeans". University of Gothenburg. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019.
  14. "Spearhead (Met Museum)". www.metmuseum.org.
  15. Stonehenge's Richest Man: The Bush Barrow Chieftain (British Museum 2022). The point at the top and the bottom [of the Bush Barrow gold lozenge] has a very precise angle of 81 degrees. That's the same angle between where the sun rises at midwinter and midsummer solstices, so it has an astronomical importance. And the very finely detailed embossed decoration, particularly around the outer border, is laid out to a tolerance of less than half a millimetre. What that tells us is they understood astronomy, geometry and mathematics, 4,000 years ago.
  16. "Photo of the Bush Barrow Lozenge".
  17. "Mold Gold Cape (British Museum)". www.britishmuseum.org.
  18. "Lockrington Armlet (British Museum)". www.britishmuseum.org.
  19. Lemercier, Olivier (21 May 2012). "Interpreting the Beaker phenomenon in Mediterranean France: an Iron Age analogy". Antiquity. 86 (331): 131–143. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00062505. OCLC   789660090. S2CID   19294850 via Open WorldCat.
  20. Hall and Coles, p. 8188.
  21. Tabor, Richard (2008). Cadbury Castle: The hillfort and landscapes. Stroud: The History Press. pp. 61–69. ISBN   978-0-7524-4715-5.
  22. "Dirk (British Museum)". www.britishmuseum.org.
  23. Affairs, Communications and Public. "News - Aberystwyth University". www.aber.ac.uk.
  24. "O'Donnell Lecture 2008 Appendix" (PDF).
  25. Koch, John (2009). "Tartessian: Celtic from the Southwest at the Dawn of History" (PDF). Acta Palaeohispanica X Palaeohispanica. 9: 339–351. ISSN   1578-5386 . Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  26. Koch, John. "New research suggests Welsh Celtic roots lie in Spain and Portugal" . Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  27. Renfrew, Colin (2010). Cunliffe, Barry; Koch, John T. (eds.). Celtic from the West: Alternative Perspectives from Archaeology, Genetics, Language and Literature. Oxbow Books and Celtic Studies Publications. p. 384. ISBN   978-1-84217-410-4. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
  28. Rethinking the Bronze Age and the Arrival of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe. University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies and Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford. 2017.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Patterson, Nick; et al. (22 December 2021). "Large-scale migration into Britain during the Middle to Late Bronze Age" (PDF). Nature . 601 (7894): 588–594. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04287-4. PMC   8889665 . PMID   34937049. S2CID   245509501.
  30. 1 2 "Ancient DNA study reveals large scale migrations into Bronze Age Britain". University of York. 22 December 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  31. "Lunula". British Museum.
  32. "Gold lunula". National Museums Scotland.
  33. "Caergwrle Bowl". National Museum Wales.
  34. Meller, Harald (2022). The World of the Nebra Sky Disc: The Caergwrle Ship. Halle State Museum of Prehistory.

Bibliography

  • Adkins, Roy; Adkins, Lesley; Leitch, Victoria (2008). The Handbook of British Archaeology (Second ed.). London: Constable.
  • Barrett, John C. (1994). Fragments from Antiquity: An Archaeology of Social Life in Britain, 2900-1200 BC. Oxford and Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.
  • Bradley, Richard (2007). The Prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-61270-8.
  • Miles, David (2016). The Tale of the Axe: How the Neolithic Revolution Transformed Britain. London, UK: Thames & Hudson. ISBN   978-0-500-05186-3.
  • Pearson, Michael Parker (2005). Bronze Age Britain (Revised ed.). London: B.T. Batsford. ISBN   0-7134-8849-2.
  • Pollard, Joshua (ed.) (2008). Prehistoric Britain. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN   978-1-4051-2546-8.
  • Pryor, Francis (2003). Britain BC. London: Harper. ISBN   978-0-00-712693-4.
  • Tylecote, R. F. (1987). The early history of metallurgy in Europe.