Brooch

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Wing Brooch, 2nd century AD, Metropolitan Museum of Art Wing Brooch MET DT108.jpg
Wing Brooch, 2nd century AD, Metropolitan Museum of Art

A brooch ( /ˈbr/ , also US: /ˈbr/ [1] ) is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to fasten them together. It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold or some other material. Brooches are frequently decorated with enamel or with gemstones and may be solely for ornament or serve a practical function as a clothes fastener. The earliest known brooches are from the Bronze Age. As fashions in brooches changed rather quickly, they are important chronological indicators. Many of the ancient European brooches found in archaeology are usually referred to by the Latin term fibula.

Contents

Ancient brooches

Brooches were known as fibula (plural fibulae) prior to the Middle Ages. These decorative items, used as clothes fasteners, were first crafted in the Bronze Age. In Europe, during the Iron Age, metalworking technology had advanced dramatically. The newer techniques of casting, metal bar-twisting and wire making were the basis for many new objects, including the fibula. [2] In Europe, Celtic craftsmen were creating fibulae decorated in red enamel and coral inlay, as early as 400 BC. [3]

The earliest manufacture of brooches in Great Britain was during the period from 600 to 150 BC. The most common brooch forms during this period were the bow, the plate and in smaller quantities, the penannular brooch. Iron Age brooches found in Britain are typically cast in one piece, with the majority made in copper alloy or iron. Prior to the late Iron Age, gold and silver were rarely used to make jewellery. [4]

Medieval brooches

Migration period

The distinctive metalwork that was created by the Germanic peoples from the fourth through the eighth centuries belong to the art movement known as Migration period art. During the 5th and 6th centuries, five Germanic tribes migrated to and occupied four different areas of Europe and England after the collapse of the Roman Empire. The tribes were the Visigoths who settled in Spain, the Ostrogoths in Eastern Germany and Austria, the Franks in West Germany, the Lombards in Northern Italy and the Anglo-Saxons in England. Because the tribes were closely linked by their origins, and their jewellery techniques were strikingly similar, the work of these people was first referred to as Barbarian art. This art style is now called Migration period art. [5]

Brooches dating from this period were developed from a combination of Late Roman and new Germanic art forms, designs and technology. [5] Metalworkers throughout western Europe created some of the most colorful, lively and technically superior jewellery ever seen. [6] The brooches of this era display techniques from Roman art: repoussé, filigree, granulation, enamelling, openwork and inlay, but it is inlay that the Migration period artists are famous for. Their passion for colour makes their jewellery stand out. Colour is the primary feature of Migration period jewellery. The precious stone most often used in brooches was the almandine, a burgundy variety of garnet, found in Europe and India. [7] According to J. Anderson Black, "designers would cover the entire surface of an object with the tiny geometric shapes of precious stones or enamel which were then polished flat until they were flush with the cloisonné settings, giving the appearance of a tiny stained glass window." [8]

Brooch designs were many and varied: geometric decoration, intricate patterns, abstract designs from nature, bird motifs and running scrolls. [8] Zoomorphic ornamentation was a common element during this period, in Anglo-Saxon England as well as in Europe. Intertwined beasts were a signature feature of these lively, intricately decorated brooches. [9] Bow shaped, S-shaped, radiate-headed and decorated disc brooches were the most common brooch styles during the Migration period, which spanned the 5th through the 7th centuries. [10]

Anglo-Saxon

The majority of brooches found in early Anglo-Saxon England were Continental styles that had migrated from Europe and Scandinavia. The long brooch style was most commonly found in 5th- and 6th-century England. Circular brooches first appeared in England in the middle of the 5th century. [11] During the 6th century, craftsmen from Kent began manufacturing brooches using their own distinctive styles and techniques. [12] The circular form was the preferred brooch type by the end of the 6th century. [13] During the 7th century, all brooches in England were in decline. [14] They reappeared in the 8th century and continued to be fashionable through the end of the Anglo-Saxon era. [15]

Brooch styles were predominantly circular by the middle to late Anglo-Saxon era. During this time period, the preferred styles were the annular and jewelled (Kentish) disc brooch styles. The circular forms can be divided generally into enamelled and non-enamelled styles. [15] A few non-circular style were fashionable during the 8th to 11th centuries. The ansate, the safety-pin, the strip and a few other styles can be included in this group. Ansate brooches were traditional brooches from Europe migrated to England and became fashionable in the late Anglo-Saxon period. Safety- pin brooches, more abundant in the early Anglo-Saxon period became more uncommon by the 7th century and by the 8th century, evolve into the strip brooch. Miscellaneous brooches during this time period include the bird, the ottonian, the rectangle and the cross motif. [16] [17]

Celtic

Celtic brooches represent a distinct tradition of elaborately decorated penannular and pseudo-penannular brooch types developed in Early Medieval Ireland and Scotland. Techniques, styles and materials used by the Celts were different from Anglo-Saxon craftsmen. Certain attributes of Celtic jewellery, such as inlaid millefiori glass and curvilinear styles have more in common with ancient brooches than contemporary Anglo-Saxon jewellery. [18] The jewellery of Celtic artisans is renowned for its inventiveness, complexity of design and craftsmanship. The Tara Brooch is a well-known example of a Celtic brooch. [19]

Scandinavian

Germanic Animal Style decoration was the foundation of Scandinavian art that was produced during the Middle Ages. The lively decorative style originated in Denmark in the late fifth century as an insular response to Late Roman style metalwork. During the early medieval period, Scandinavian craftsmen created intricately carved brooches with their signature animal style ornamentation. The brooches were generally made of copper alloy or silver. [20]

Beginning in the eighth century and lasting until the eleventh century, Scandinavian seafarers were exploring, raiding and colonizing Europe, Great Britain and new lands to the west. This era of Scandinavian expansion is known as the Viking Age, and the art created during this time period is known as Viking art. Metalwork, including brooches, produced during this period were decorated in one or more of the Viking art styles. These five sequential styles are: Oseberg, Borre, Jellinge, Mammen, Ringerike and Urnes. [21]

A variety of Scandinavian brooch forms were common during this period: circular, bird-shaped, oval, equal-armed, trefoil, lozenge-shaped, and domed disc. The most common Scandinavian art styles of the period are the Jellinge and Borre art styles. Some of the characteristics of these related art styles are: interlaced gripping beasts, single animal motifs, ribbon-shaped animals, knot and ring-chain patterns, tendrils, and leaf, beast and bird motifs. [22]

Late medieval

Brooches found during the late medieval era, (1300 to 1500 AD), were worn by both men and women. Brooch shapes were generally: star-shaped, pentagonal, lobed, wheel, heart-shaped, and ring. Rings were smaller than other brooches, and often used to fasten clothing at the neck. [23] Brooch decoration usually consisted of a simple inscription or gems applied to a gold or silver base. Inscriptions of love, friendship and faith were a typical feature of ring brooches of this period. The heart-shaped brooch was a very popular gift between lovers or friends. [24]

Amulet brooches were very common prior to medieval times. In late antiquity, they were embellished with symbols of pagan deities or gems that held special powers to protect the wearer from harm. These pagan inspired brooches continued to be worn after the spread of Christianity. Pagan and Christian symbols were often combined to decorate brooches during the Middle Ages. [25] Beginning in the fourteenth century, three-dimensional brooches appeared for the first time. The Dunstable Swan Brooch is a well-known example of a three-dimensional brooch. [26]

Early modern brooches

The early modern period of jewellery extended from 1500 to 1800. Global exploration and colonization brought new prosperity to Europe and Great Britain along with new sources of diamonds, gems, pearls, and precious metals. The rapid changes in clothing fashion during this era generated similar changes in jewellery styles. The demand for new jewellery resulted in the deconstruction and melting down of many old jewellery pieces to create new jewellery. Because of this, there are very few surviving jewellery pieces from this era. The primary jewellery styles during this time period are: Renaissance, Georgian and Neoclassical. [27]

Renaissance

The Renaissance period in jewellery (1300–1600) was a time of wealth and opulence. Elaborate brooches covered in gemstones or pearls were in fashion, especially with the upper classes. Gemstones commonly used for brooches were emeralds, diamonds, rubies, amethyst and topaz. Brooches with religious motifs and enamelled miniature portraits were popular during this time period. Gems were often selected for their protective properties as well as their vibrant colours. [28] During the fifteenth century, new cutting techniques inspired new gemstone shapes. [29]

Georgian

The Georgian jewellery era (1710–1830) was named after the four King George's of England. In the early 1700s, ornate brooches with complex designs were fashionable. By the mid to late 1700s, simpler forms and designs were more common, with simpler themes of nature, bows, miniature portraits and animals. [27] Georgian jewelry was typically handmade in gold or silver. Diamonds and pearls continued to be fashionable during this period. [30]

Neoclassical

The Neoclassical era (1760–1830) in jewellery design was inspired by classical themes of ancient Greece and Rome. The main difference between Renaissance jewellery and neoclassical jewellery was that Renaissance jewellery was created primarily for the upper class and neoclassical jewellery was made for the general public. [31] An important innovation in jewellery making during this era was the technique of producing cameos with hard pastes called black basalt and jasper. English pottery manufacturer, Josiah Wedgwood, is responsible for this important contribution to jewellery making. Cameos and brooches with classical scenes were fashionable during this period. Pearls and gemstones continued to be used in brooches, but were less popular than before. The beginning of the French Revolution halted the manufacture and demand for opulent jewellery. [32]

Late modern brooches

The late modern age of jewellery covers the period from 1830 to 1945. The major jewellery styles of this period are: Victorian (1835–1900), Art Nouveau (1895–1914), Edwardian (1901–1910) and Art deco (1920–1939).

Victorian

This period was named for Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom who reigned from 1837 to 1901. Cameos, locket brooches, flowers, nature, animal and hearts were popular jewellery styles in the early Victorian era. When Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert died in 1861, jewellery fashion changed to reflect the Queen in mourning. Styles turned heavier and more somber, using materials like black enamel, jet, and black onyx. Mourning brooches were commonly worn until the end of the Victorian period. [33]

It was fashionable during this time period to incorporate hair and portraiture into a brooch. The practice began as an expression of mourning, then expanded to keepsakes of loved ones who were living. Human hair was encased within the brooch or braided and woven into a band to which clasps were affixed. [34]

Art Nouveau

The Art Nouveau period of jewellery spanned a short period from 1895 to 1905. The style began in France as a reaction to the heavy, somber jewellery of the Victorian era. Innovative, flowing designs were now in fashion along with nature, flowers, insects and sensuous women with flowing hair. The jewellery style was fashionable for fifteen years, and ended with the beginning of World War I. [35]

Edwardian

The Edwardian era of jewellery (1901–1910) began after the death of Queen Victoria. This period marked the first time platinum was used in jewellery. Because of platinum's strength, new jewellery pieces were created with delicate filigree to look like lace and silk. The main gemstones used in brooches were diamonds, typically with platinum or white gold, and coloured gemstones or pearls. [33] Platinum and diamond brooches were a common brooch style. Small brooches continued to be fashionable. Popular brooch forms were bows, ribbons, swags, and garlands, all in the delicate new style. [36]

Art Deco

The Art Deco period lasted from 1920 to 1939. Cubism and Fauvism, early 20th century art movements, were inspirations for this new art style, along with Eastern, African and Latin American art. Art Deco was named after the Exposition International des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, a decorative and industrial arts exhibition held in Paris in 1925. [37] Common brooch decoration of this period are: geometric shapes, abstract designs, designs from Cubism, Fauvism, and art motifs from Egypt and India. Black onyx, coral, quartz, lapis and carnelian were used with classic stones such as diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires. [38]

See also

Notes

  1. lexico.com
  2. Tait 1986, p. 48.
  3. Tait 1986, pp. 15-16.
  4. Adams, Sophia Anne (2013). The First Brooches in Britain:from Manufacture to Deposition in the Early and Middle Iron Age (PhD). University of Leicester.
  5. 1 2 Black 1988, p. 107.
  6. Tait 1986, p. 101.
  7. Gregorietti 1969, p. 146.
  8. 1 2 Black 1988, p. 109.
  9. Tait 1986, p. 107.
  10. Gregorietti 1969, p. 139.
  11. Stoodley 1999, pp. 17—19.
  12. Walton-Rogers 2007, p. 121.
  13. Owen-Crocker 2004, p. 42.
  14. Owen-Crocker 2004, p. 138.
  15. 1 2 Walton-Rogers 2007, p. 113.
  16. Weetch, Rosie (2014). Brooches in Late Anglo-Saxon England with a North West European Context (PhD). University of Reading.
  17. "Portable Antiquities brooches". Portable Antiquities Scheme. 2018-09-07. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  18. Tait 1986, pp. 112-114.
  19. Black 1988, pp. 101-103.
  20. Graham-Campbell 2013, p. 25.
  21. Graham-Campbell 2013, p. 21.
  22. Graham-Campbell 2013, p. 66,88,117.
  23. Gregorietti 1969, p. 162.
  24. Tait 1986, pp. 138, 140.
  25. Tait 1986, pp. 205.
  26. Tait 1986, pp. 138.
  27. 1 2 Gregorietti 1969, p. 240.
  28. "A History of Jewellery". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  29. Bernstein, Beth. "Jewellery through the Ages". The Jewellery Editor. Retrieved 21 June 2019. The abundance of jewellery is well documented in paintings during the time period.
  30. "Neoclasical jewelry". Antique Jewelry University. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  31. Gregorietti 1969, p. 245.
  32. 1 2 Johnson, Andrew. "A History of Classic Jewelry Periods". Longs Jewelers. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  33. Tanenbaum, Carole; Silvan, Rita (2006). Fabulous Fakes: A Passion for Vintage Costume Jewelry. Toronto: Madison Press. pp. 12, 18–19.
  34. Graff, Michelle. "The history behind Art Nouveau Jewelry". National Jeweler. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  35. "Edwardian Jewelry: 1901-1915". Antique University. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  36. "Art Deco era Jewellery". Antique University. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  37. "Jewelry Timeline". History of Jewelry. Retrieved 16 June 2019.

Related Research Articles

Jewellery Form of personal adornment

Jewellery or jewelry consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes. From a western perspective, the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal such as gold used in different carats from 21, 18, 12, 9 or even lower, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used.

Necklace Article of jewellery worn around the neck

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Cloisonné Enamelling technique used on metal

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Celtic art Art associated with Celtic peoples

Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.

Anglo-Saxon art

Anglo-Saxon art covers art produced within the Anglo-Saxon period of English history, beginning with the Migration period style that the Anglo-Saxons brought with them from the continent in the 5th century, and ending in 1066 with the Norman Conquest of a large Anglo-Saxon nation-state whose sophisticated art was influential in much of northern Europe. The two periods of outstanding achievement were the 7th and 8th centuries, with the metalwork and jewellery from Sutton Hoo and a series of magnificent illuminated manuscripts, and the final period after about 950, when there was a revival of English culture after the end of the Viking invasions. By the time of the Conquest the move to the Romanesque style is nearly complete. The important artistic centres, in so far as these can be established, were concentrated in the extremities of England, in Northumbria, especially in the early period, and Wessex and Kent near the south coast.

Migration Period art

Migration Period art denotes the artwork of the Germanic peoples during the Migration period. It includes the Migration art of the Germanic tribes on the continent, as well the start of the Insular art or Hiberno-Saxon art of the Anglo-Saxon and Celtic fusion in Britain and Ireland. It covers many different styles of art including the polychrome style and the animal style. After Christianization, Migration Period art developed into various schools of Early Medieval art in Western Europe which are normally classified by region, such as Anglo-Saxon art and Carolingian art, before the continent-wide styles of Romanesque art and finally Gothic art developed.

Viking art Term for art of Scandinavia and Viking settlements of 8th-11th centuries CE

Viking art, also known commonly as Norse art, is a term widely accepted for the art of Scandinavian Norsemen and Viking settlements further afield—particularly in the British Isles and Iceland—during the Viking Age of the 8th-11th centuries CE. Viking art has many design elements in common with Celtic, Germanic, the later Romanesque and Eastern European art, sharing many influences with each of these traditions.

Champlevé

Champlevé is an enamelling technique in the decorative arts, or an object made by that process, in which troughs or cells are carved, etched, die struck, or cast into the surface of a metal object, and filled with vitreous enamel. The piece is then fired until the enamel fuses, and when cooled the surface of the object is polished. The uncarved portions of the original surface remain visible as a frame for the enamel designs; typically they are gilded in medieval work. The name comes from the French for "raised field", "field" meaning background, though the technique in practice lowers the area to be enamelled rather than raising the rest of the surface.

Jewellery design Art of designing and creating jewellery

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Anglo-Saxon dress Clothing of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon dress refers to the clothing and accessories worn by the Anglo-Saxons from the middle of the 5th century to the eleventh century. Archaeological finds in Anglo-Saxon cemeteries have provided the best source of information on Anglo-Saxon costume. It is possible to reconstruct Anglo-Saxon dress using archaeological evidence combined with Anglo-Saxon and European art, writing and literature of the time period. Archaeological finds have both supported and contradicted the characteristic Anglo-Saxon costume as illustrated and described by these contemporary sources.

St Ninians Isle Treasure Hoard of silver metalwork discovered in Scotland in 1959

The St Ninian's Isle Treasure, found on St Ninian's Isle, Scotland in 1958 is the best example of surviving silver metalwork from the Early Medieval period in Scotland. The 28-piece hoard includes various silver metalwork items, including twelve pennanular brooches. The treasure is now in the National Museum of Scotland.

Celtic brooch Ring-and-pin clothing fastener

The Celtic brooch, more properly called the penannular brooch, and its closely related type, the pseudo-penannular brooch, are types of brooch clothes fasteners, often rather large; penannular means formed as an incomplete ring. They are especially associated with the beginning of the Early Medieval period in the British Isles, although they are found in other times and places—for example, forming part of traditional female dress in areas in modern North Africa.

Holbeinesque jewellery

Holbeinesque jewellery includes pendants, brooches and earrings in the neo-Renaissance or Renaissance Revival style, and once again became fashionable in the 1860s. The designs differ from the older stylised and pious neo-Gothic jewellery, in that they are extravagantly opulent – this richness of form and colour which had appealed to the Tudor court was rediscovered by Victorian jewellers and their patrons, reviving a fashion that flourished into the early 1900s.

Medieval jewelry

The Middle Ages was a period that spanned approximately 1000 years and is normally restricted to Europe and the Byzantine Empire. The material remains we have from that time, including jewelry, can vary greatly depending on the place and time of their creation, especially as Christianity discouraged the burial of jewellery as grave goods, except for royalty and important clerics, who were often buried in their best clothes and wearing jewels. The main material used for jewellery design in antiquity and leading into the Middle Ages was gold. Many different techniques were used to create working surfaces and add decoration to those surfaces to produce the jewellery, including soldering, plating and gilding, repoussé, chasing, inlay, enamelling, filigree and granulation, stamping, striking and casting. Major stylistic phases include barbarian, Byzantine, Carolingian and Ottonian, Viking, and the Late Middle Ages, when Western European styles became relatively similar.

Art in Medieval Scotland

Art in Medieval Scotland includes all forms of artistic production within the modern borders of Scotland, between the fifth century and the adoption of the Renaissance in the early sixteenth century. In the early Middle Ages, there were distinct material cultures evident in the different federations and kingdoms within what is now Scotland. Pictish art was the only uniquely Scottish Medieval style; it can be seen in the extensive survival of carved stones, particularly in the north and east of the country, which hold a variety of recurring images and patterns. It can also be seen in elaborate metal work that largely survives in buried hoards. Irish-Scots art from the kingdom of Dál Riata suggests that it was one of the places, as a crossroads between cultures, where the Insular style developed.

Trewhiddle style

Trewhiddle style is a distinctive style in Anglo-Saxon art that takes its name from the Trewhiddle Hoard, discovered in Trewhiddle, Cornwall in 1770. The most outstanding metalwork produced in ninth century England was decorated in the animated, complex style. Trewhiddle ornamentation includes the use of silver, niello inlay, and zoomorphic, plant and geometric designs, often interlaced and intricately carved into small panels. Famous examples are: the Pentney Hoard, The Abingdon Sword, the Fuller Brooch, and the Strickland Brooch.

Disc fibula

A disc fibula or disc brooch is a type of fibula, that is, a brooch, clip or pin used to fasten clothing that has a disc-shaped, often richly decorated plate or disc covering the fastener. The terms are mostly used in relation to the Middle Ages of Europe, especially the earlier part of the period. They were the most common style of Anglo-Saxon brooches.

Scottish jewellery

Scottish jewellery is jewellery created in Scotland or in a style associated with Scotland, which today often takes the form of the Celtic style. It is often characterised by being inspired by nature, Scandinavian mythology, and Celtic knot patterns. Jewellery has a history in Scotland dating back to at least the Iron Age.

Anglo-Saxon brooches Anglo-Saxon decorative brooches

Anglo-Saxon brooches are a large group of decorative brooches found in England from the fifth to the eleventh centuries. In the early Anglo-Saxon era, there were two main categories of brooch: the long (bow) brooch and the circular (disc) brooch. The long brooch category includes cruciform, square-headed, radiate-headed, and small-long brooch brooches. The long brooches went out of fashion by the end of the sixth century.

Pentney Hoard

The Pentney Hoard is an Anglo-Saxon jewellery hoard, discovered by a gravedigger in a Pentney, Norfolk churchyard in 1978. The treasure consists of six silver openwork disc brooches, five made entirely of silver and one composed of silver and copper alloy. The brooches are decorated in the 9th century Trewhiddle style. The hoard is now in the British Museum.

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