Bruges Garter Book

Last updated
William Bruges dressed as Garter King of Arms, kneels before St George, from his Garter Book William Bruges Garter King of Arms.jpg
William Bruges dressed as Garter King of Arms, kneels before St George, from his Garter Book

The Bruges Garter Book is a 15th-century illuminated manuscript containing portraits of the founder knights of the Order of the Garter. It was made to the order of William Bruges (c. 1375-1450), Garter King of Arms, and constitutes the first armorial covering members of the Order. It has been held since 1883 by the British Library (formerly the British Museum Library) in London under catalogue reference Stowe MS 594, indicating its former existence within the Library of the Dukes of Buckingham at Stowe House.

Contents

Origin

It was made between about 1430 to 1440, probably in London. [1]

Description

The cover probably dates to the years following 1600, of brown leather tooled in gold-leaf with a floriated pattern, measuring 385 * 285 mm. The text is in Latin, written in a gothic and gothic cursive hand. It contains 27 full page miniatures in pen and watercolour, of which 26 depict standing knights displaying on a panel sitting on the ground to their right hand sides the heraldic escutcheons appertaining to their successors in the same Garter stall in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. The remaining page depicts William Bruges himself in the dress of Garter King of Arms kneeling before St George, the patron of the Order. [1]

The pages have been removed from their original positions and now exist mounted on modern paper leaves.

Provenance

Emblem of the Order of the Garter, a cross of St George within a Garter inscribed: Honi soit qui mal y pense. It is shown embroidered onto the left shoulder of the Garter Robes of each of the knights depicted in the Bruges Garter Book, over a tunic or tabard bearing his own armorials Arms of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.svg
Emblem of the Order of the Garter, a cross of St George within a Garter inscribed: Honi soit qui mal y pense. It is shown embroidered onto the left shoulder of the Garter Robes of each of the knights depicted in the Bruges Garter Book, over a tunic or tabard bearing his own armorials

The manuscript is now held by the British Library in London. From William Bruges the manuscript passed successively to the ownerships of:

Illustrations

The illustrations depict the 25 Founder Knights and King Edward III the sovereign of the Order of the Garter as follows, shown in ascending order of Garter-Stall number in St. George's Chapel:

PortraitNameArms
Edward III of England (Order of the Garter).jpg
Zero.svg

King Edward III (1327–1377) (Anachronistic: fleurs de lys in Royal Arms of England not reduced to three until reign of King Henry IV (1399–1413) [2]
Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg
Edward the Black Prince 1430.jpg
Un1.svg

Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales (1330–1376)
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Ancient).svg
Portrait of Henry, Duke of Lancaster - William Bruges's Garter Book (c.1440-1450), f.8 - BL Stowe MS 594 (cropped).jpg
Deux.svg

Henry of Grosmont, 4th Earl of Lancaster (c. 1310–1361)
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Warwick 1430.jpg
Trois.svg

Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (d.1369)
Beauchamp.svg
CheckyAzure&OrAChevronErmine.PNG
De Grailly 1430.jpg
Quatre.svg

Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch (d.1377)
Blason Jean de Grailly.svg
Stafford 1430.jpg
Cinq.svg

Ralph de Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford (1301–1372)
Stafford arms.svg
Salisbury 1430.jpg
Six.svg

William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1328–1397)
Montacute Arms.svg
Conte de la Marsche.jpg
Sept.svg

Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March (1328–1360)
Arms of the House of Mortimer.svg
De Lisle.jpg
Huit.svg

John de Lisle, 2nd Baron Lisle (1318–1356)
Blason Lisle de Rougemont.svg
Burghersh 1430.jpg
Neuf.svg

Bartholomew de Burghersh (died 1369)
Old French Escutcheon.svg
Beauchamp 1430.jpg
Dix.svg

John de Beauchamp (died 1360)
Thomas de Beauchamp Arms.svg
Mohun 1430.jpg
Onze.svg

John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun (c. 1320–1376)
Old French Escutcheon.svg
Courtenay 1430.jpg
Douze.svg

Hugh de Courtenay (died 1349)

Blason Courtenay.svg
Thomas Holland 1430.jpg

Thomas Holland (died 1360)

Old French Escutcheon.svg
Grey 1430.jpg

John de Grey (c. 1300–1359)

Old French Escutcheon.svg
Fitzsimon 1430.jpg

Richard Fitz-Simon (b.1295)

Armoiries de la famille de Boubers.svg
Stapleton 1430.jpg

Miles Stapleton (died 1364)

Miles Stapleton of Bedale Arms.svg
Walle 1430.jpg

Thomas Wale (died 1352)

Insignia Germany Order Teutonic.svg
HughWrottesleyBrugesGarter.jpg

Hugh Wrottesley (died 1381)

Hugh Wrottesley Arms.png
Lorying 1430.jpg

Nele Loring (died 1386)

Arms of Sir Neil Loring, KG.svg
Chandos 1430.jpg

John Chandos (died 1369) [3]

Blason Jean Chandos.svg
JamesDeAudley BrugesGarterBook.jpg

James Audley (died 1369)

Blason ville fr Mesquer (Loire-Atlantique).svg
Holland 1430.jpg Otho Holand (died 1359) Old French Escutcheon.svg
Eam 1430.jpg Henry Eam (died before 1360) Old French Escutcheon.svg
Dabrichecourt 1430.jpg Sanchet D'Abrichecourt (died 1345) [4] Sanchet D'Abrichecourt Arms.svg
Paveley 1430.jpg Walter Paveley (died 1375) Old French Escutcheon.svg

Further reading

Sources

Related Research Articles

Duke of Buckingham held with Duke of Chandos, referring to Buckingham, is a title that has been created several times in the peerages of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom. There have also been Earls of Buckingham and Marquesses of Buckingham.

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, styled Earl Temple from 1784 to 1813 and known as The Marquess of Buckingham from 1813 to 1822, was a British landowner and politician.

Viscount Cobham

Viscount Cobham is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain that was created in 1718. Owing to its special remainder, the title has passed through several families. Since 1889, it has been held by members of the Lyttelton family.

Lord Kinloss

Lord Kinloss is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1602 for Edward Bruce, later Master of the Rolls, with remainder to his heirs and assigns whatsoever. In 1604 he was also made Lord Bruce of Kinloss, with remainder to his heirs male, and in 1608 Lord Bruce of Kinloss, with remainder to any of his heirs. He was succeeded by his son, the second Lord, who was killed in a duel in 1613.

Earl Temple of Stowe

Earl Temple of Stowe, in the County of Buckingham, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1822 for Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Marquess of Buckingham, who was created Marquess of Chandos and Duke of Buckingham and Chandos at the same time. In contrast to the Marquessate and Dukedom, which were created with remainder to the heirs male of his body only, the Earldom was created with remainder to (1) the heirs male of his body, failing which to (2) the heirs male of his deceased great-grandmother the 1st Countess Temple, failing which to (3) his granddaughter Lady Anna Grenville and the heirs male of her body, and then to possible younger daughters of Lord Temple and the heirs male of their bodies.

The Baronetcy of Temple, of Stowe, in the Baronetage of England, was created on 24 September 1611 for Thomas Temple, eldest son of John Temple of Stowe, Buckinghamshire. His great-grandson Sir Richard, 4th Baronet, was created Baron Cobham on 19 October 1714, and Viscount Cobham and Baron Cobham on 23 May 1718, the latter with a special remainder, failing his male issue to his sisters and their heirs male. Upon his death on 13 September 1749, the barony of 1714 became extinct, the viscountcy and barony of 1718 passed to his elder sister, and the baronetcy passed to his second cousin once removed William Temple, of Nash House, who became 5th Baronet. On the death of Sir William's nephew Sir Richard Temple, 7th Baronet, on 15 November 1786, the baronetcy became dormant.

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos British soldier, politician, and administrator

Richard Plantagenet Campbell Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, styled Earl Temple until 1839 and Marquess of Chandos from 1839 to 1861, was a British soldier, politician and administrator of the 19th century. He was a close friend and subordinate of Benjamin Disraeli and served as the Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1867 to 1868 and Governor of Madras from 1875 to 1880.

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos British Tory politician and bankrupt

Richard Plantagenet Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos,, styled Viscount Cobham from birth until 1813, Earl Temple between 1813 and 1822 and Marquess of Chandos between 1822 and 1839, was a British Tory politician. He served as Lord Privy Seal between 1841 and 1842.

Stowe House Country house in Buckinghamshire, England

Stowe House is a grade I listed country house in Stowe, Buckinghamshire, England. It is the home of Stowe School, an independent school and is owned by the Stowe House Preservation Trust who have to date spent more than £25m on the restoration of the house. Stowe House is regularly open to the public. The gardens, a significant example of the English garden style, along with part of the Park, passed into the ownership of The National Trust in 1989 and are open to the public. The site saw 232,056 visitors during 2019. The parkland surrounding the gardens is open 365 days a year. National Trust members have free access to the gardens but there is a charge for all visitors to the house which goes towards the costs of restoring the building. The gardens and most of the parkland are listed grade I separately from the House.

Stowe Missal

The Stowe Missal, which is, strictly speaking, a sacramentary rather than a missal, is an Irish illuminated manuscript written mainly in Latin with some Old Irish in the late eighth or early ninth century, probably after 792. In the mid-11th century it was annotated and some pages rewritten at Lorrha Monastery in County Tipperary, Ireland. Also known as the Lorrha Missal, it is known as the "Stowe" Missal as it once belonged to the Stowe manuscripts collection formed by George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham at Stowe House. When the collection was bought by the nation in 1883, it and the other Irish manuscripts were handed over to the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin, where it remains, catalogued as MS D II 3. The cumdach or reliquary case which up to this point had survived together with the book was later transferred, with the rest of the Academy's collection of antiquities, to the National Museum of Ireland. The old story was that the manuscript and shrine left Ireland after about 1375, as they were collected on the Continent in the 18th century, but this appears to be incorrect, and they were found inside a stone wall at Lackeen Castle near Lorrha in the 18th century.

Stowe Psalter

The Stowe Psalter is a psalter from the "2nd or 3rd quarter of the 11th century", at the end of Anglo-Saxon art. The text includes the Gallican version of the Psalms, followed by the Canticles with an interlinear Old English gloss.

Leabhar Ua Maine is an Irish genealogical compilation, created c. 1392–94.

The Stowe manuscripts are a collection of about two thousand Irish, Anglo-Saxon and later medieval manuscripts, nearly all now in the British Library. The manuscripts date from 1154 to the end of the 14th century.

Mary Elizabeth Morgan-Grenville, 11th Lady Kinloss was a British peeress.

1st Earl Temple may refer to:

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville may refer to:

<i>Petit Livre dAmour</i>

The Petit Livre d'Amour is a collection of love poems, written in c. 1500 by Pierre Sala (1457–1529), an antiquary and valet de chambre of Louis XII

Bertram Ashburnham, 4th Earl of Ashburnham

Bertram Ashburnham, 4th Earl of Ashburnham was a British peer. He was the fourth son of George Ashburnham, 3rd Earl of Ashburnham. As the eldest son still living when his father died in 1830, he succeeded as Earl of Ashburnham, Viscount St. Asaph and Baron of Ashburnham.

Duchess of Buckingham is a title given to the wife of the Duke of Buckingham, an extinct title created several times, formerly in the Peerage of England and latterly in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was first created in 1444.

Anne Elizabeth Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, Duchess of Buckingham

Anne Elizabeth Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, Duchess of Buckingham was an English plantation and slave owner.

References

  1. 1 2 Wight, C. "Details of an item from the British Library Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts". www.bl.uk. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  2. Brooke-Little, J.P., 1978 Revision of Boutell's Heraldry 1950, pp 205-222
  3. Arms of John Chandos are generally given as Argent, a pile gules, not as shown in the Bruges Garter Book as Or, a pile gules
  4. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage , 1st ed., 1887 pg 276 [ volume & issue needed ]