Bubo

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Buboes on the leg, caused by bubonic plague. Plague -buboes.jpg
Buboes on the leg, caused by bubonic plague.

A bubo (Greek βουβών, boubôn, "groin") is defined as adenitis or inflammation of the lymph nodes and is an example of reactive lymphadenopathy. [1]

Adenitis is a general term for an inflammation of a gland. Often it is used to refer to lymphadenitis which is the inflammation of a lymph node.

Lymph node organ of the lymphatic system

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body. They are linked by the lymphatic vessels as a part of the circulatory system. Lymph nodes are major sites of B and T lymphocytes, and other white blood cells. Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. Lymph nodes do not have a detoxification function, which is primarily dealt with by the liver and kidneys.

Lymphadenopathy disorder of lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency. Lymphadenopathy of an inflammatory type is lymphadenitis, producing swollen or enlarged lymph nodes. In clinical practice, the distinction between lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis is rarely made and the words are usually treated as synonymous. Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels is known as lymphangitis. Infectious lymphadenitis affecting lymph nodes in the neck is often called scrofula.

Contents

Classification

Buboes are a symptom of bubonic plague, and occur as painful swellings in the thighs, neck, groin or armpits. [2] They are caused by Yersinia pestis bacteria spreading from flea bites through the bloodstream to the lymph nodes, where the bacteria replicate, causing the nodes to swell. [3] Plague buboes may turn black and necrotic, rotting away the surrounding tissue, or they may rupture, discharging large amounts of pus. [3] Infection can spread from buboes around the body, resulting in other forms of the disease such as pneumonic plague. [4]

Bubonic plague Human and animal disease

Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis. One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu-like symptoms develop. These symptoms include fever, headaches, and vomiting. Swollen and painful lymph nodes occur in the area closest to where the bacteria entered the skin. Occasionally, the swollen lymph nodes may break open.

<i>Yersinia pestis</i> species of bacteria, cause of plague

Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, nonmotile, rod-shaped coccobacillus bacteria, with no spores. It is a facultative anaerobic organism that can infect humans via the Oriental rat flea. It causes the disease plague, which takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic and bubonic plagues. All three forms were responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history, including: the sixth century's Plague of Justinian; the Black Death, which accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population between 1347 and 1353; and the Third Pandemic, sometimes referred to as the Modern Plague, which began in the late nineteenth century in China and spread by rats on steamboats claiming close to 10,000,000 lives. These plagues likely originated in China and were transmitted west via trade routes. Recent research indicates that the pathogen may have been the cause of what is described as the Neolithic Decline, when European populations declined significantly. This would push the date to much earlier and might be indicative of an origin in Europe rather than Eurasia.

Flea order of insects

Flea, the common name for the order Siphonaptera, includes 2,500 species of small flightless insects that survive as external parasites of mammals and birds. Fleas live by consuming blood or hematophagy, from their hosts. Adult fleas grow to about 3 mm or .12 in long, are usually brown, and have bodies that are "flattened" sideways, or narrow, enabling them to move through their host's fur or feathers. They lack wings, but have strong claws preventing them from being dislodged; mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood, and hind legs extremely well adapted for jumping. They are able to leap a distance of some 50 times their body length, a feat second only to jumps made by another group of insects, the superfamily of froghoppers. Fleas' larvae are worm-like with no limbs; they have chewing mouthparts and feed on organic debris left on their host's skin.

Management

Plague patients whose buboes swell to such a size that they burst tend to survive the disease. [3] Before the discovery of antibiotics, doctors often drained buboes to save patients. [3] [5]

Antibiotic drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections

An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria and is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections. Antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.

Incision and drainage and clinical lancing are minor surgical procedures to release pus or pressure built up under the skin, such as from an abscess, boil, or infected paranasal sinus. It is performed by treating the area with an antiseptic, such as iodine-based solution, and then making a small incision to puncture the skin using a sterile instrument such as a sharp needle, a pointed scalpel or a lancet. This allows the pus fluid to escape by draining out through the incision.

Buboes are also symptoms of other diseases, such as chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum. [6] [7] In these conditions, a 2-week course of antibiotics is the recommended treatment, and incision and drainage or excision of the swollen lymph nodes is best avoided. [8] [9] However, aspiration may sometimes be performed to prevent buboes from rupturing. [9] Although incision and drainage yields better results in such cases, since usually no further intervention is necessary whereas repeat aspirations may be required, incision and drainage wounds may heal more slowly, increasing the risk of secondary infection. [9]

Chancroid primary bacterial infectious disease that is a sexually transmitted infection located_in skin of the genitals, has_material_basis_in Haemophilus ducreyi, which is transmitted_by sexual contact. The infection has_symptom painful and soft ulcers.

Chancroid is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is known to spread from one individual to another solely through sexual contact. While uncommon in the western world, it is the most common cause of genital ulceration worldwide.

Lymphogranuloma venereum sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, L2a or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis.

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, L2a or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis.

Suction (medicine) the removal of respiratory secretions, saliva, blood or aspirated material with a flexible suction catheter from the respiratory tract

In medicine, devices are sometimes necessary to create suction. Suction may be used to clear the airway of blood, saliva, vomit, or other secretions so that a patient may breathe. Suctioning can prevent pulmonary aspiration, which can lead to lung infections. In pulmonary hygiene, suction is used to remove fluids from the airways, to facilitate breathing and prevent growth of microorganisms.

Related Research Articles

Abscess localized collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body

An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body. Signs and symptoms of abscesses include redness, pain, warmth, and swelling. The swelling may feel fluid-filled when pressed. The area of redness often extends beyond the swelling. Carbuncles and boils are types of abscess that often involve hair follicles, with carbuncles being larger.

Plague (disease) contagious and frequently fatal human disease

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Symptoms include fever, weakness and headache. Usually this begins one to seven days after exposure. In the bubonic form there is also swelling of lymph nodes, while in the septicemic form tissues may turn black and die, and in the pneumonic form shortness of breath, cough and chest pain may occur.

Chlamydia infection sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.

Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Most people who are infected have no symptoms. When symptoms do develop this can take a few weeks following infection to occur. Symptoms in women may include vaginal discharge or burning with urination. Symptoms in men may include discharge from the penis, burning with urination, or pain and swelling of one or both testicles. The infection can spread to the upper genital tract in women causing pelvic inflammatory disease which may result in future infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Repeated infections of the eyes that go without treatment can result in trachoma, a common cause of blindness in the developing world.

Pelvic inflammatory disease infection of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries or the inner surface of pelvis

Pelvic inflammatory disease, also known as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system, namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis. Often, there may be no symptoms. Signs and symptoms, when present, may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, bleeding after sex, or irregular menstruation. Untreated PID can result in long-term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cancer.

Syphilis sexually transmitted infection

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages it presents. The primary stage classically presents with a single chancre but there may be multiple sores. In secondary syphilis, a diffuse rash occurs, which frequently involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. There may also be sores in the mouth or vagina. In latent syphilis, which can last for years, there are few or no symptoms. In tertiary syphilis, there are gummas, neurological problems, or heart symptoms. Syphilis has been known as "the great imitator" as it may cause symptoms similar to many other diseases.

Trichomoniasis Gagoparasitic protozoa infectious disease that is caused by singled-celled protozoan parasites Trichomonas vaginalis or Trichomonas tenax, which infect the urogenital tract and mouth respectively

Trichomoniasis (trich) is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. About 70% of women and men do not have symptoms when infected. When symptoms do occur they typically begin 5 to 28 days after exposure. Symptoms can include itching in the genital area, a bad smelling thin vaginal discharge, burning with urination, and pain with sex. Having trichomoniasis increases the risk of getting HIV/AIDS. It may also cause complications during pregnancy.

Granuloma inguinale bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly known as Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) characterized by genital ulcers

Granuloma inguinale is a bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella granulomatis characterized by genital ulcers. It is endemic in many less-developed regions. It is also known as donovanosis, granuloma genitoinguinale, granuloma inguinale tropicum, granuloma venereum, granuloma venereum genitoinguinale, lupoid form of groin ulceration, serpiginous ulceration of the groin, ulcerating granuloma of the pudendum, and ulcerating sclerosing granuloma.

Septicemic plague Human disease

Septicemic plague is one of the three main forms of plague. It is caused by Yersinia pestis, a gram-negative species of bacterium. Septicemic plague is a life-threatening infection of the blood, most commonly spread by bites from infected fleas.

Rat-bite fever is an acute, febrile human illness caused by bacteria transmitted by rodents, in most cases, which is passed from rodent to human by the rodent's urine or mucous secretions. Not to be confused with Rat fever which is usually alternative name for Leptospirosis. Alternative names for rat-bite fever include streptobacillary fever, streptobacillosis, spirillary fever, bogger, and epidemic arthritic erythema. It is a rare disease spread by infected rodents and can be caused by two specific types of bacteria. Most cases occur in Japan, but specific strains of the disease are present in the United States, Europe, Australia, and Africa. Some cases are diagnosed after patients were exposed to the urine or bodily secretions of an infected animal. These secretions can come from the mouth, nose, or eyes of the rodent. The majority of cases are due to the animal's bite. It can also be transmitted through food or water contaminated with rat feces or urine. Other animals can be infected with this disease, including weasels, gerbils, and squirrels. Household pets such as dogs or cats exposed to these animals can also carry the disease and infect humans. If a person is bitten by a rodent, it is important to quickly wash and cleanse the wound area thoroughly with antiseptic solution to reduce the risk of infection.

Lung abscess lung disease characterized by microbial infection which causes a type of liquefactive necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid

Lung abscess is a type of liquefactive necrosis of the lung tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection.

Strangles disease of horses

Strangles is a contagious upper respiratory tract infection of horses and other equines caused by a Gram-positive bacterium, Streptococcus equi. As a result, the lymph nodes swell, compressing the pharynx, larynx, and trachea, and can cause airway obstruction leading to death, hence the name strangles. Strangles is enzootic in domesticated horses worldwide. The contagious nature of the infection has at times led to limitations on sporting events.

A genital ulcer is located on the genital area, usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes, syphilis or chancroid. Some other signs of having genital ulcers include enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area, or vesicular lesions, which are small, elevated sores or blisters. The syndrome may be further classified into penile ulceration and vulval ulceration for males and females respectively.

Gonorrhea sexually transmitted infection

Gonorrhea, colloquially known as the clap, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Many of those infected have no symptoms. Men may have burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Complications in women include pelvic inflammatory disease and in men include inflammation of the epididymis. If untreated, gonorrhea can spread to joints or heart valves.

Sexually transmitted infection Infection transmitted through human sexual behavior

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Many times STIs initially do not cause symptoms. This results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. STIs can be transmitted to an infant before or during childbirth and may result in poor outcomes for the baby. Some STIs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant.

Theories of the Black Death are a variety of explanations that have been advanced to explain the nature and transmission of the Black Death (1347–51). A number of epidemiologists and since the 1980s have challenged the traditional view that the Black Death was caused by plague based on the type and spread of the disease. The confirmation in 2010 and 2011 that Yersinia pestis DNA was associated with a large number of plague sites has renewed focus on plague as the leading hypothesis, but has not yet led to a final resolution of all these questions.

Cat-scratch disease Human disease

Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease that results from a scratch or bite of a cat. Symptoms typically include a non-painful bump or blister at the site of injury and painful and swollen lymph nodes. People may feel tired, have a headache, or a fever. Symptoms typically begin within 3-14 days following infection.

References

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  2. Paul, Slack (2012). Plague: a very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN   9780199589548. OCLC   749871251.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Orent, Wendy (2004). Plague : the mysterious past and terrifying future of the world's most dangerous disease. New York: Free Press. ISBN   978-0743236850. OCLC   54034997.
  4. Isberg, Ralph R.; Davis, Kimberly M. (2014-09-18). "Plague's Partners in Crime". Immunity. 41 (3): 347–349. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.09.003. ISSN   1074-7613. PMID   25238090.
  5. Nesfield, V.B. (1911). "THE TREATMENT OF BUBONIC PLAGUE BY THE IMMEDIATE INCISION OF THE GLANDS". The Lancet. 178 (4601): 1262–1264. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)42126-X.
  6. Lewis, D. A. (2003-02-01). "Chancroid: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management". Sexually Transmitted Infections. 79 (1): 68–71. doi:10.1136/sti.79.1.68. ISSN   1368-4973. PMC   1744597 . PMID   12576620.
  7. Morse, Stephen A.; Holmes, King K.; Moreland, Adele A.; Ballard, Ronald C. (2011). Atlas of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Saunders/Elsevier. ISBN   9780702047640. OCLC   761212082.
  8. "Guidelines for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections. February 2004: 2. TREATMENT OF STI-ASSOCIATED SYNDROMES: 2.2. Genital ulcer: Inguinal bubo". apps.who.int. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  9. 1 2 3 Lewis, David A (2014). "Epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi – a disappearing pathogen?". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 12 (6): 687–696. doi:10.1586/14787210.2014.892414. ISSN   1478-7210. PMID   24597521.