Buca

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Buca
District
Faik Sarikaya YEDIGOLLER FOTO 20.jpg
Buca Yedi Göller (Seven Lakes) Park
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Buca
Location of Buca within Turkey.
Coordinates: 38°21′N27°10′E / 38.350°N 27.167°E / 38.350; 27.167
Country Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Region Aegean
Province İzmir
Area
[1]
  District133.90 km2 (51.70 sq mi)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
443,091
  District
446,491
  District density3,300/km2 (8,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
35x xx
Area code(s) 0232
Licence plate 35
Website http://www.buca.bel.tr/

Buca (pron. [Budja]) is a district of İzmir Province, Turkey. It is one of the main urban districts of İzmir Metropolitan Municipality.

İzmir Province Province of Turkey in Aegean

İzmir Province is a province and metropolitan municipality of Turkey in western Anatolia, situated along the Aegean coast. Its capital is the city of İzmir, which is in itself composed of the province's central 11 districts out of 30 in total. To the west, it is surrounded by the Aegean Sea, and it encloses the Gulf of Izmir. Its area is 11,973 square kilometres, with a population of 4,279,677 in 2017. The population was 3,370,866 in 2000. Neighboring provinces are Balıkesir to the north, Manisa to the east, and Aydın to the south. The traffic code of the province is 35.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Contents

History

Buca was one of the preferred settlement areas of İzmir's community of Levantines. The great mansions they built in the 19th century stand to this day, most of them restored.

The district center is situated slightly inland like the district of Bornova with which it shares important points in common, and on the higher ground that commands the southern shores of the tip of the Gulf of İzmir. Buca existed from the Byzantine times and was inhabited by Greeks, mainly farmers. [3] However, Buca started to develop as of the end of the 17th century when the French consulate in İzmir moved there following the 1676 plague and the 1688 Smyrna earthquake that seriously shook İzmir's core as an international trade center. Its rich Levantine residents who acquired the surrounding vineyards typically had Latin backgrounds, as opposed to those who originally came from Britain and who preferred Bornova. But in the case both of Bornova and of Buca, the concentration in terms of ethnic backgrounds was far from having an exclusive nature. Yet, in 1770, following the failure of the Orlov Revolt, a revolt of the Greeks in today's Greece against the Ottoman occupation encouraged by the Russian Nobles Orlov in 1770 (during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)), many Greeks from the revolted regions fled from Peloponnese, Chios, Andros, and Kythira and settled in Buca, contributing to the growth of the place.

Bornova Place in İzmir, Turkey

Bornova is a metropolitan district of İzmir in İzmir Province in Turkey. It is the third largest district in İzmir's Greater Metropolitan Area of and is almost fully urbanized at the rate of 98,6 per cent, with corresponding high levels of development in terms of industry and services. Bornova's center is situated at a distance of 8 km (5 mi) to the northeast from the traditional center of İzmir and 5 km (3 mi) from the coastline at the tip of the Gulf of İzmir to the west. Bornova district area is surrounded by the district areas of Manisa center and Menemen to the north, Kemalpaşa to the east, Buca to the south, and Konak and Karşıyaka to the west, where the larger part of İzmir's urban area extends. Bornova is home to Ege University's main campus and for many at in Turkey Bornova's name is synonymous with the university's hospital, one of the largest and the foremost medical centers in western Turkey for decades.

Gulf of İzmir bay

The Gulf of İzmir, formerly known as the Gulf of Smyrna, is a gulf on the Aegean Sea, with its inlet between the peninsula of Karaburun and the mainland area of Foça. It is 40 miles (64 km) in length by 20 miles (32 km) in breadth, with an excellent anchorage.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.0 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Later, in 1861, when the railway reached Buca from Smyrna, many rich Europeans from Smyrna built their summer houses in Buca. Yet, due to its substantial growth, Buca soon became a suburb of Smyrna and people started to stay there permanently. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were three Greek Orthodox churches, two Greek community schools (one for males, one for females) as well as some private Greek schools also, while there were two private English schools, one catholic nonnes' school and one Capuchin monks school. The Greeks, together with other Christian inhabitants, constituted the majority of the local population, while Muslim (Turkish) population was very small. However, Greek inhabitants were expulsed in 1922 and fled to Greece, where they named their new settlement "Neos Voutzas" (meaning "New Buca"), close to Athens. As a result, there are today only a Catholic and a Baptist church in service in Buca. Many of the 19th-century houses have been restored and are still being used either by public institutions or by private persons, although many still need care. The core area of Buca could preserve its traditional architectural tissue based on two-storey residences, while apartment blocks mushroomed in its extensions, as it is the case in all localities in Turkey which had to absorb immigration. There are a number of municipal parks, notably a vast ongoing project that comprises seven artificial lakes.

Levantine mansions of İzmir refer to about thirty stately residences in İzmir, Turkey, dating principally from the 19th century and of which a significant number remain intact by being restored and continuing to be used and visited.

Education

Dokuz Eylül University, one of the two larger universities in İzmir, has its newly built main campus located in Buca, in the locality called Tınaztepe. While the university has dependencies scattered all over İzmir, it is largely associated with Buca, in the same way as the other large university, Ege University, is associated with Bornova.

Dokuz Eylül University university

Dokuz Eylül University (DEÜ) is a university in Turkey. It is located in İzmir, Turkey. It was founded in 1982 and is organized in 15 faculties. DEU is the first university which applied the problem-based learning method in Turkey, beginning in the School of Medicine in 1997.

Ege University university

Ege University is a public university in İzmir, Turkey. It was founded in 1955 with the faculties of Medicine and Agriculture. It is the first university to start courses in İzmir and the fourth oldest university in Turkey. Ege University commonly ranks close to the top among research universities in Turkey.

Hippodrome

The hippodrome of İzmir is located in Buca, in the quarter named Şirinyer along the road to İzmir metropolitan center, and the hippodrome is known under the name of this quarter (as Şirinyer Hipodromu). Şirinyer area used to be called Kızılçullu, in reference to a legend according to which Tamerlane would have established his headquarters here during his 1402 siege of İzmir ("Kızılçullu" meaning "red horseclothes"), and Buca's Levantine population, who owned orchards and vineyards here, had named the area under the no less assumptive name of Paradiso.

Hippodrome ancient Grecian stadium for horse racing and chariot racing

The hippodrome was an ancient Grecian stadium for horse racing and chariot racing. The name is derived from the Greek words hippos and dromos. The term is used in the modern French language and some others, with the meaning of "horse racecourse". Hence, some present-day horse racing tracks also include the word hippodrome in their names, such as the Hippodrome de Vincennes and the Central Moscow Hippodrome.

Notable people

Çevik Bir, the retired Turkish general who was the force commander of during the United Nations' Operation Restore Hope in Somalia and an influential figure in Turkey's politics and diplomacy in the 1990s, is from Buca and a public square is named after him.

See also

Related Research Articles

Latin Church in the Middle East Latin Catholic church

The Latin Church in the Middle East represents members of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church in the Middle East, notably in Turkey and the Levant. Latin Catholics are subject to the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem and employ the Latin liturgical rites, in contrast to Eastern Catholics who fall under their respective church's patriarchs and employ distinct Eastern liturgical rites, while being in full communion with the worldwide Catholic Church. Latin Catholics in the Middle East are often of European descent.

Karşıyaka District in Aegean, Turkey

Karşıyaka is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey. The district extends for twelve kilometres along the northern and eastern coastline of the tip of the Gulf of İzmir. Its centre is at a distance of 6 km (4 mi) to the north from the traditional centre of İzmir, which is Konak Square in Konak at the opposite coast. Karşıyaka's district area neighbours the district areas of Menemen to the north, Bornova to the east and Çiğli to the west. Besides being an active venue of commerce, culture and educational actitivies and tourism, Karşıyaka also has an urban culture centred on the sports club Karşıyaka SK, which commands a large and passionate fan base.

Yamanlar mountain in İzmir, Turkey

Mount Yamanlar is a mountain in İzmir, Turkey, located within the boundaries of the Greater Metropolitan Area of the city.

Konak, İzmir Metropolitan in Aegean, Turkey

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Below is a sequence of some of the events that affected the history of the city of İzmir.

Kültürpark public park in İzmir, Turkey

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Alsancak railway station railway station in İzmir

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Elektrik Su Havagazı Otobüs Troleybüs or ESHOT is a bus service operating in the İzmir. ESHOT, along with İZULAŞ are the two main bus transit service in İzmir. Buses serve all districts, however, denser network presence attained in the central area. ESHOT is owned by the İzmir Municipality (İBB).

Ionian University of Smyrna

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Turkish capture of Smyrna

The Turkish capture of Smyrna was the final phase of the Great Offensive and last conflict of the Turkish War of Independence. After the Turkish Army inflicted heavy losses on the Greek Army at Dumlupınar, on 30 August 1922, Greek forces were in continual retreat towards Smyrna as the Turkish Army's westward advance continued. On the eve of the Turkish arrival, Greek forces left the city, and on 8 September, at ten o'clock in the morning, the Greek administration ceased to exist in Smyrna. On 9 September 1922, the Turkish Army entered İzmir from the east (Kemalpaşa).

Edwards Villa is a building located in Bornova, İzmir. It currently serves as a university cafeteria and community centre.

Levantines in Turkey or Turkish Levantines, refers to the descendants of Europeans who settled in the coastal cities of the Ottoman Empire in order to be engaged in trade especially after the Tanzimat Era. Their estimated population is around 1,000. They mainly reside in Istanbul, İzmir and Mersin. Anatolian Muslims called Levantines Frenk and Sweet Water Freng in addition to Levanten.

Üçyol—Çamlıkule Line İzmir Metro line

The Üçyol—Çamlıkule Line is a planned ATO rapid transit line in İzmir, Turkey. The line has a total length of 11.3 km (7.0 mi) and would begin at Üçyol and run southeast into Buca. When completed, the line will become the second driverless metro line in Turkey, after the M5 line in Istanbul. Construction is expected to begin in 2018 and the line is expected to enter service in 2022.

References

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. Fontrier, A., "Le monastere de Lembos", Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, XVI, 1892.